Skip to main content

Full text of "The fifty years' work of the Royal geographical society"

See other formats

/{Tkvt/b C6??Jw&&)€^£^Z{ma 



^XjSXJ^xI^AJUoJL JgLaQ/t A fcJtty 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
• in 2007 with funding from 
Microsoft Corporation 





















Plan of the Work 1 

How geographical work was 

formerly done 2 

Eichard Eden 3 

Richard Hakluyt 4 

Samuel Purchas 5 

Henry Hexham 6 



Geographical work of the Royal 

Society 7 

Captain Cook, Phipps, Bruce .. 8 

Major Rennell 8 

Alexander Dalrymple 9 

Collections of voyages and travels 9 



Sir Joseph Banks 11 

Formation and objects of the Asso- 
ciation 11 

Ledyard, Lucas, Houghton .. .. 12 

Mungo Park, Horneman .. .. 13 

Renewal of Arctic discovery . . 13 

Sir John Barrow's labours .. .. 14 



Sir Arthur De Capell Broke .. 15 

Objects of the Club 15 

Notices of Members of the first 

Committee 16 

The first List of Members .. .. 17 

The dinners 17 

Results of the Raleigh Club .. 18 




Meeting of the Raleigh Club .. 19 

Scheme for a Geographical Society 19 

Provisional Committee 20 

Notice of Sir John Barrow . . " . . 20 

„ Robert Brown . . . . 20 

„ Roderick I. Murchison 21 

„ Sir John C. Hobhouse .. 22 

„ Mountstuart Elphinstone 22 

„ BartleFrere .. *.. .. 23 

The Founders of the Society .. 23 

The Society constituted. Its rules 24 

List of the first Council . . . . 24 

Mr. Barrow's opening Address . . 25 

The Members 25 

List of Members on August 4th, 

1830 26 



Opening work 32 

Merging of the African and Pales- 
tine Associations 32 

The Bombay Geographical So- 
ciety 32 (and note) 

The first President and his Coun- 
cil 33 

Sir Francis Beaufort 33 

Captain Horsburgh 34 

Rennell's nephew 34 

Sir John Barrow 35 

The first Secretaries — 

Captain Maconochie . . . . 35 

Mr. Renouard 35 

Captain Washington . . . . 36 

H 11 3 J 


Analytical Table of Contents. 


Mr. W. R. Hamilton 37 

The first President's Address . . 37 

Mr. Greenough 38 

Colonel Jackson 39 

First Presidentship of Sir R. Mur- 

chison 39 

Lord Colchester 40 

Mr. W. J. Hamilton 41 

Secretaries, Mr. Long, Major S. 

Clerke 41, 42 


TO 1881. 

Admiral W. H. Smyth, c.b 43 

Dr. Norton Shaw 44 

Sir Roderick Murchison . . . . 45 

Sir Roderick's Council, 1851 . . 46 

The Hakluyt Society 46 

Geographical Section of the British 

Association 46 

Sir Roderick's Anniversary Ad- 
dresses 47 

Presidential Hospitality . . . . 47 

The Earl of Ellesmere 47 

Captain Blackwood, Sir W. Tre- 

velyan 48 

The Government Grant for the 

Map Room 48 

Admiral Beechey 49 

Mr. Francis Galton 50 

The Geographical Club .. .. 50 

Charter of Incorporation . . . . 51 

Sir Roderick's final Presidency . . 51 

„ Council in 1862 . . 51 

Honorary Secretaries 52 

Sir Roderick's character and death 

52, 53 

John Crawfurd 53 

Sir Roderick's Anniversary Ad- 
dresses 54 

Sir Henry Rawlinson 54 

Sir Bartle Frere 55 

Sir Rutherford Alcock 55 

Lord Dufferin, Lord Northbrook 56 

Lord Aberdare 56 




Measures for promoting discovery 57 

Royal Award 57 

Richard Lander, John Biscoe .. 58 
Sir John Ross, Sir A. Burnes, 

Captain FitzRoy, Col. Chesney 58 

Captain Alexander's Expedition 58 

Schomburgk'rf Guiana Expedition 59 

Ainsworth's Expedition . . . . 59 

Australian Expeditions . . . . 60 

Back's voyage in the Terror . . 60 

The Society's Medals 61 

Rawlinson, Wood, Symonds, Lay- 

ard, Von Hiigel 61 

H. Strachey, Wallin, Riippell, 

Beke, Galton, Anderssen, Eyre 62 

Strzelecki, Sturt, Leichhardt . . 63 

Rajah Brooke 63 

Dease and Simpson 64 

Dr. John Rae 64 

Ross's Antarctic Voyage . . . . 65 

Franklin's Arctic Expedition . . 66 

Lieutenant H. Raper 67 

Robinson, Carl Ritter 67 

Effect of the Royal Awards . . . . 67 



Sir Andrew Waugh and Major 

Montgomerie 69 

Indian Native Explorers . . . . 70 

Hayward and Shaw 70 

Captain Trotter 70 

Explorers in China 71 

Lieut. F. Gamier 71 

Boutakoff and Prejevalsky . . . . 71 

Vambery, Palgrave 72 

Livingstone 72 

Barth 73 

Burton 74 

Speke 75 

Baker 75 

Du Chaillu, Gerhard Rohlfs . . 76 

Livingstone's last expedition . . 76 

Analytical Table of Contents. 


Livingstone's death 77 

Search expeditions for Livingstone 77 

Cameron 78 

Schweinfurth 78 

Stanley 79 

Walker, Erskine, Mauch, Baines 79 

Munzinger, Winwood Reade . . 80 

African Exploration Fund . . . . 80 

Keith Johnston 81 

Joseph Thomson 82 

Serpa Pinto 82 

Explorers in Australia 83 

O'Hara Burke, Macdouall Stuart 83 

Gregory, Warburton, Forrest, Giles 84 

Explorers in America 84 

Chandless and Musters . . . . 85 

South American travellers . . ' . . 85 

Searches for Sir John Franklin . . 86 

Captain Austin's Expedition . . 86 

Naval Arctic sledge travelling . . 87 

Sir Robert M'Clure 87 

Sir Richard Collinson 87 

Sherard Osborn's Arctic works . . 88 

Lady Franklin 88 

Sir Leopold M'Clintock .. .. 89 

Allen Young 89 

Kane 90 

Hayes, Nordenskiold, Payer . . 90 
Sherard Osborn's revival of Arctic 

research 90 

Death of Sherard Osborn .. .. 92 
Arctic Expedition of 1875 and its 

results .. 92 

Sir George Nares, Captain Mark- 
ham 92 

Sir George Back 93 

Nordenskiold 93 

Dutch expeditions, Markham, 

Leigh Smith 93 

Sir Roderick Murchison and the 

Medal 94 

Cartographers : 

Arrowsmith 94 

Petermann and Keith Johnston 95 

Lady Medallists 95 

Colonel Yule 95 

Mr. E. H. Bunbury 96 

The Roll of Medallists 96 




The Society's ' Journal ' .. .. 97 
The ' Proceedings ' (Old Series) . . 98 
The ' Geographical Magazine ' . . 98 
The ' Proceedings' (New Series) . . 99 
Presidential Addresses, Hydro- 

grapher's Reports 99 

Separate Volumes 99 

The Library 100 

Progress of the Library, Donations 101 

Librarians 102 

Library Committee 102 

Admiral Sherard Osborn's gift . . 102 
Aid from Government Offices . . 103 
Assistance from individuals . . . . 104 
Usefulness of the Library . . . . 104 

The Map Room 105 

The Government Grant . . . . 106 

Instruments 106 

'Hints to Travellers' 106 

Scientific lectures 107 

Instruction to travellers . . . . 108 
Observatory on the roof . . . . 108 

School Prizes 109 

Recapitulation 110 



Finance — Members — Meetings — House 

A hopeful commencement .. .. Ill 

3, Waterloo Place 112 

Difficulties 112 

Returning prosperity Ill 

Attention to finances Ill 

Council divided into Committees 112 

15, Whitehall Place 112 

Burlington House 112 

Election of Fellows 112 

Increasing prosperity 113 

1, SavileRow 113 

Hall of the University of London 113 

Finances 114 

Work of the Council 114 

VI 11 

Analytical Table of Contents. 







The Arctic Regions 115 

Work remaining to be done in the 

far North 116 

Work in the Antarctic Regions .. 116 


Work to be done in Africa .. .. 117 

„ „ Asia .. .. 118 

„ „ South America 120 

New Guinea 121 

Hydrography 122 

Physical Geography of the Sea .. 123 

Conclusion 124 

Appendix 127 










The Royal Geographical Society completed the fiftieth year of 
its existence on the 16th of July, 1880, and its fiftieth anniver- 
sary meeting took place on the 31st of May, 1880. In order to 
celebrate this auspicious event, and also to supply a useful 
means of reference to Fellows, I have been commissioned 
by the Council to write the present brief history of the Society. 
My plan is to give, in four introductory chapters, a con- 
densed view of the ways and means by which the work 
undertaken by the Society was performed previous to the date 
of its formation, and of the circumstances which immediately 
led to its being brought into existence. The fifth chapter 
contains a history of the original formation of the Geographical 
Society. The sixth and seventh chapters are devoted to 
memorial accounts of the Presidents, Secretaries, and other 
leading members of the governing body. The eighth and 
ninth review the career of the Geographical Society with 
reference to the expeditions which it has helped, or actively 
promoted, including grants-in-aid, and awards in recognition 
of the services of eminent geographers and travellers. The 
history of the various publications of the Society, of the rise 
and progress of the library and map-room, and of the educational 
measures adopted by the Council, forms the subject of the 
tenth chapter ; and the eleventh reviews the progress of the 
Society as regards members, finances, places of meeting, and 


2 The Fathers of English Geography. 

house accommodation. A comparative view of geographical 
knowledge when the Society was founded in 1830, and in 1880, 
with a notice of the work that still remains to be done, illustrates 
its career of laborious usefulness, and forms a fitting conclusion 
of the work. 

The original objects of the Society were to collect, digest, 
and publish interesting and useful geographical facts and dis- 
coveries ; to accumulate a collection of books on geography, 
voyages, and travels, and of maps and charts ; to keep specimens 
of such instruments as are most serviceable to a traveller ; to 
afford assistance, instruction, and advice to explorers ; and to 
correspond with other bodies or individuals engaged in geo- 
graphical pursuits. 

It is obvious that as soon as the people of England began to 
foster and encourage maritime enterprise and the discovery of 
unknown countries, the need for some provision or other through 
which these objects might in part at least be attained would 
be felt and, to some extent, supplied. The record, and preser- 
vation of the history of adventure and discovery, the utilisation 
of results, and the instruction of explorers by land and sea, 
became necessities so soon as England commenced her glorious 
career as a nation of discoverers and explorers. When Sebastian 
Cabot began to make the history of English maritime and 
inland discovery, it would have been strange indeed if some 
man or body of men had not arisen, at the same time, to write 
its first pages. The very fact that we can now enjoy the 
perusal of those early efforts of our countrymen is a proof that 
there was not wanting the will to perform, even then, the duties 
sinee undertaken by our Society. The fathers of English geo- 
graphy, the forerunners of the Geographical Society, who, 
during nearly three centuries, performed our work with zeal 
and ability, though often with insufficient resources and scant 
encouragement, ought not to be forgotten by their successors. 
In truth, the history of the Society properly commences with 
the efforts of those industrious geographers who did our work 
amidst many difficulties, from the time when Englishmen first 
began to emulate the adventurous deeds of the Portuguese and 
Spaniards who preceded them in the field of discovery. 

Richard Eden is the Father of English Geography. He it was 
who first conceived the idea of performing, single-handed and 
with inadequate means, the duties which our Society proposed 
to itself more than two centuries afterwards. He it was who 
first collected together the records of geographical work, and 
provided the means of instruction to explorers and travellers. 
Coming up to London from Cambridge, where he had been a 
pupil of Sir Thomas Smith at Queen's College, young Eden 

Richard Eden. 3 

was a spectator of the gorgeous public entry of Philip and 
Mary. He describes himself as nearly lifted out of self- 
command by the excitement of the scene. He beheld the union 
of the Sovereign of the Indies with his own Queen, and he 
resolved, on the spot, to set about some work which might fitly 
commemorate the event. 

Eden wrote his 'Decades of the New World* in 1555 — a 
little black-letter volume, which he found great difficulty in 
getting printed, but which is a laborious and very precious 
collection of the geographical work of his day. He was the 
first Englishman who supplied to his countrymen the means of 
studying, in a collected form, the marvellous history of discovery 
which was then exciting the wonder and admiration of the age. 
Eden desired that England should emulate the deeds of those 
who were first in the field. He gave his countrymen transla- 
tions from Peter Martyr, Oviedo, Gomara, Ramusio, Pigafetta ; 
and added the earliest narratives of English voyages to Guinea 
and to the north. His laudable object was that " some memory 
thereof might remain to posterity, if contempt of knowledge 
should hereafter bury in oblivion so worthy attempts." Eden 
was the intimate friend of Sebastian Cabot, and attended him 
in his last moments ; and he also knew the Arctic navigators 
Chancellor and Borough. It was at the request of Stephen 
Borough that Eden designed his translation of the 'Art of 
Navigation ' by Martin Cortes, " for the increase of skilful 
pilots whereof then there were very few." So that he strove 
to do the work now undertaken by the Geographical Society, 
both by preserving the records of accomplished work and by 
providing the means of performing efficient service, and of 
receiving instruction. A new edition of his ' History of Tra- 
vayle' was published with additions by Willes in 1577, and his 
translation of Cortes went through ten editions between 1561 
and 1615. 

The mantle of Eden fell upon a better known but not more 
zealous and conscientious worker in the cause of geography. 
Richard Hakluyt came of an old Herefordshire family, was 
educated at Westminster School, and elected a student of 
Christ Church in 1570. He very early took a deep interest in 
voyages and travels, and in all things connected with the naval 
glory of his countrymen, and he was indefatigable in collecting 
information. " His genius," says old Fuller, " inclined him to 
the study of histoiy, and especially to the marine part thereof, 
which made him keep constant intelligence with the most 
noted seamen of Wapping, until the day of his death." 

Hakluyt, like Eden, has given us an interesting account of 
the origin and growth of his love for geography. "I do 

b 2 

4 Richard Hakluyt. 

remember," he says, "that being a youth, and one of Her 
Majesty's scholars at Westminster, that fruitful nursery, it was 
my hap to visit the chamber of my cousin, a gentleman of the 
Middle Temple, at a time when 1 found lying upon his board 
certain books of cosmography, with an universal map. He 
seeing me somewhat curious in the view thereof began to 
instruct my ignorance. From the map he brought me to the 
Bible, and turning to the 107th Psalm, directed me to the 23rd 
and 24th verses where 1 read that they which go down to the 
sea in ships, they see the works of the Lord and His wonders in 
the deep. Which words of the Prophet, together with my 
cousin's discourse, took me in so deep an impression that I 
would, by God's assistance, prosecute that knowledge and kind 
of literature, the doors whereof (after a sort) were so happily 
opened before me." 

From that time Hakluyt devoted his life to the cause of 
geography. At an early age he was appointed to read lectures 
at Oxford on that branch of knowledge, and " he was the first 
that produced and showed both the older and imperfectly com- 
posed, and the new lately reformed mappes, globes, spheres, 
and other instruments of this arte, for demonstration, in the 
common schooles, to the singular pleasure and general content- 
ment of his auditory." In 1584 he went to Paris as chaplain 
to the Embassy, returning to England in 1588, and becoming 
Archdeacon of Westminster in 1602. While in Paris he trans- 
lated the ' History of Florida ' from the French, and was inde- 
fatigable in collecting geographical information. His great 
work, 'The Principal Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries 
of Englishmen made by sea or over land to the most remote 
and farthest distant quarters of the earth,' was published in 
1589 ; and the large edition in three volumes in 1598-1600. 
Under his auspices also appeared the translations of Peter 
Martyr by Lok, of Leo Africanus by Pory, of Pigafetta's 
Congo by Hartwell, and of Mendoza's China by Parke. Hak- 
luyt corresponded with Ortelius and Mercator, and worked 
as hard at the educational interests of geography as at 
the preservation and utilisation of its records. Personally 
acquainted with the leading travellers and explorers, he was 
also foremost in the encouragement of science and in pro- 
moting the construction of good maps and charts. He took 
a leading part in establishing the courses of lectures on navi- 

fation which were delivered at Sir Thomas Smith's house in 
hilpot Lane, by Edward Wright and Dr. Hood. It was 
for Hakluyt that Wright prepared the famous map of the 
world on the new projection in 1600, and it was Hakluyt who 
helped Molyneux in the construction of his famous globes. He 

Hakluyt and Purchas. 5 

it was, too, who as Historiographer of the East India Company, 
prepared instructions and drew up lists of commodities to be 
obtained from and in demand at the various ports of the East. 

Hakluyt bad one great advantage over Eden. In the days 
of Elizabeth the interest of the nation was fully aroused on all 
questions relating to geographical research. Those were the 
times when the merchants of England were as liberal as they 
were wealthy; when no man asked the fatuous question cui 
bono ? but when all, high and low, generously applauded the 
efforts of explorers, and when it was the highest ambition of 
the flower of England's sons to add to her fame by achieving 
discoveries in distant lands. Nor were the students of scientific 
geography less zealous or less successful than the adventurers 
by sea and land. Hakluyt, as President of an Elizabethan 
Geographical Society, would have gathered around him, for a 
Council, men of action such as Hawkins, Raleigh, Drake, 
Frobisher, Lancaster, Jenkinson, Gilbert and Davis; and 
mathematicians and cosmographers such as Hood and Wright, 
Digges and Molyneux, Dee and Hues, Harriott and Briggs. 
These were the fathers of our science. 

Hakluyt died on the 23rd of November, 1 616, at the age of 
sixty-three, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He left 
behind him a great number of manuscripts, which came into 
the hands of the Kev. Samuel Purchas, rector of St. Michael's 
on Ludgate Hill, in about the year 1620. These precious 
documents, with many others, much abridged and indifferently 
edited, were published in 1625 in the great work in five 
volume*, which its compiler entitled ' Hakluytus Posthumus 
or Purchas his Pilgrimes.' Want of funds is some excuse for 
the abridgments and deplorable omissions, for Purchas appears 
to have been in very embarrassed circumstances when he died 
in 1626, only ten years after Hakluyt's decease. 

The forty years which intervened between the death of 
Purchas and the foundation of the Royal Society were troublous 
times, and geography could not flourish as in the days of the 
great Queen. Yet Englishmen were not altogether idle. The 
lectures at Gresham College were continued, one of its Pro- 
fessors invented the Gunter's Scale and introduced the measuring 
chain, and the great work of Hondius received an English 
dress. For this useful service we are indebted to a very gallant 
soldier. Though trained in camps from his boyhood, Henry 
Hexham ever cultivated a love for literary pursuits. When 
quite a young boy, he was the Governor's page during the 
siege of Ostend, and while Sir Francis Vere. roused suddenly 
from his bed, engaged a desperate storming party at push of 
pike, young Hexham calmly went on fastening his master's 

6 Henry Hexham. 

points in the very thick of the fight. He also recorded the 
events of that memorable siege. He was at many a hard-fought 
battle and siege in after years, and he wrote the histories of the 
operations before Maestricht and Bois le Due. It is to this 
military writer that we owe the grandest geographical work of 
the first Stuart period. The ' Atlas or Geographicke descrip- 
tion of the regions countries and kingdoraes of the world, 
represented by new and exact maps,' by Henry Hondius and 
John Johnson, was translated into English by Henry Hexham 
in 1636', " enlarged and augmented out of many worthy authors 
of my own nation." This superb atlas, in two folio volumes, 
brings the record of geographical work up to the time of the 
outbreak of the great civil war in England. 

Geography under the Royal Society. 



The idea of forming a scientific Society in this country was 
entertained and partly developed during the Protectorate, and 
in lb'65 the Royal Society was created for the improvement of 
natural knowledge. In the wide scope of its original objects 
the science of geography was included, but the share of attention 
that it received was never in proportion to its importance. 
From 1665 to 1848 the Eoyal Society printed 5336 papers 
in its ' Philosophical Transactions,' out of which only 77 were 
devoted to geography and topography, or very little over 1 per 
cent. The proportion in which the various sciences have 
received attention from the Royal Society is as follows : — 


Medicine and Chemistry .. .. 1949 

Astronomy 621 

Mechanics 461 

Zoology 420 

Electricity and Magnetism .. 416 

Geology and Mineralogy.. .. 384 


Mathematics , 285 

Botany 280 

Optics 206 

Miscellaneous 120 

Archaeology 117 

Geography and Topography .. 77 

These seventy-seven papers include a table of places whose 
positions have been fixed by astronomical observations, some 
memoirs on the construction of maps, methods of estimating 
distances, an account of a lake in Carniola (1669), of the 
Hudson's Bay Settlements (1770), of the Falls of Niagara (1722), 
of the Patagonians (1770), the Falkland Islands (1776), the 
North American Indians (1773 and 1786), and of Bogle's Mission 
to Tibet (1777). Eden and Hakluyt each did more for 
geography in thirty years than the Royal Society did in a 

Still the science of geography owes much to the Royal Society. 
If little attention was given to the work of explorers, very much 
was done to improve the scientific methods by which explorers 
efficiently perform their work. The institution of the Green- 
wich Observatory in 1676 originated in the extension of navi- 
gation and the consequent importance of discovering a means 
of accurately determining longitude, and the Fellows of the 
Royal Society were appointed Visitors. The President of the 
Royal Society was an ex officio Member of the Board of Longi- 
tude which was established in 1713, and the Commissioners 

8 Cook and Rennell. 

conceived and matured the plan of the Nautical Almanac under 
the auspices of Dr. Maskelyne, the Astronomer Royal, the 
publication of which was commenced in 1767 ; while, under their 
superintendence, the survey of the coasts of Great Britain and 
Ireland was commenced in 1741. Rewards for northern dis- 
covery began to be offered by the Government in 1745, at the 
instance of the Royal Society, Christopher Middleton having, 
four years previously, made important discoveries in Hudson's 
Bay, including the Wager River and Repulse Bay. 

But the most important geographical work which was done 
under the auspices of the Royal Society resulted from the 
necessity for observing the transit of Venus at far distant points 
on the earth's surface. The Government granted 4000Z. to the 
Society for expenses. In 1769 Captain Cook sailed on his first 
voyage, accompanied by Sir Joseph Banks, and in 1771 on his 
second voyage. The transit of Venus also led to the despatch 
of Mr. Wales to Hudson's Bay in 1769, who wintered at 
Churchill River, and contributed a paper on the Hudson's Bay 
Company's Territory to the ' Philosophical Transactions.' Mean- 
while the persevering representations of Mr. Daines Barrington 
induced the Royal Society to submit a memorial to the Govern- 
ment, urging the desirability of sending an expedition to 
discover how far navigation was practicable towards the North 
Pole. The expedition of Captain Phipps in 1773 was the result, 
and thus commenced the glorious history of modern Arctic 
enterprise, undertaken from the desire of increasing — not wealth, 
but knowledge. Three years afterwards Captain Cook sailed 
on his third and last voyage, during which further discoveries 
were made in the Arctic regions, on the Pacific side. The 
great African traveller, James Bruce, returned from Abyssinia 
in 1774 and published his narrative in 1790. 

The establishment of our Indian Empire also led to the 
necessity for surveys, and consequently to great advances in 
geographical knowledge. The careers of Rennell and Dal- 
rymple were commenced in India, but their love for geography 
and their zealous devotion to its interests led them to continue 
their labours after their return home. In very different ways 
they were both geographers of the Elizabethan type. 

James Rennell, as a thoughtful and scientific scholar, stands 
amongst the foremost in the front rank of English geographers. 
Born in 1742, he commenced life in the navy, and afterwards 
took service in the army of Lord Clive and rose to the rank of 
Major. As Surveyor General of Bengal he mapped the Ganges 
and Brahmaputra rivers, and surveyed the districts of Bengal 
and Bahar between 1763 and 1782. His famous map of India 
was published in 1788, and the memoir followed in 1792. His 

Dalrymple. Collections of Voyages. 9 

great works on the geographical system of Herodotus and on 
the retreat of the Ten Thousand appeared in 18U0 and 1816 ; 
and he devoted many years to the collection of log books, with 
a view to investigating the currents of the Atlantic. After he 
had reached his 87th year, Major Eennell still possessed all his 
intellectual faculties in full vigour, and devoted many hours of 
each day to his favourite pursuit. He was distinguished for 
true, patient, and persevering research ; his critical judgment 
was seldom at fault, and his work is always reliable. He died 
on the 29th of March, 1830, a few months before the formation 
of the Geographical Society. Eennell, like Hakluyt, was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Alexander Dalrymple was remarkable rather for his indefa- 
tigable industry in collecting geographical materials than for 
original criticism or research. Born in 1737, he went out to 
Madras in 1752, and acquired much nautical experience during 
a voyage to the Eastern Archipelago in 1759. When he 
returned home in 1777 he received the appointment of Hydro- 
grapher to the East India Company, and his labours are repre- 
sented by 58 charts, 740 plans, and 50 nautical memoirs. He 
also published translations of voyages in the South Pacific, and 
many geographical tracts. Dalrymple was the first Hydro- 
grapher to the Admiralty, a post which he held from its crea- 
tion in 1795 until a few months before his death in June 1808. 

It has been seen that the Royal Society, by encouraging all 
investigations and discoveries which had for their object the 
advancement of scientific geography, and the improvement of 
methods of observation, and also by addressing the Govern- 
ment with a view to the despatch of important expeditious, did 
a great deal to advance the special objects of geographers. It 
was in the work of utilising and publishing the narratives of 
voyages and travels that the Royal Society failed. In this 
respect the labours of Eden and Hakluyt were continued by 
various compilers and publishers through the last century ; for 
the demand for such information never slackened, as is clearly 
proved by the way in which these collections of voyages and 
travels continued to be published. ' Harris's Voyages,' in 
two large folio volumes, appeared in 1705, and a new edition 
came out in 1764. In the interval ' Astley's Voyages,' in four 
quarto volumes, were published in 1745-47; and 'Churchill's 
Collection of Voyages and Travels,' containing several hitherto 
unpublished narratives, was issued between 1707 and 1747, aud 
consisted of eight large volumes. ' Pinkerton's Geography ' 
was published in 1802, and his ' Collection of Voyages and 
Travels,' in seventeen quarto volumes, followed in 1808-14 ; 
while ' Kerr's Collection,' in eighteen octavo volumes, came out 

10 Collections of Voyages and Travels. 

at Edinburgh from 1811 to 1824. There were also three valu- 
able collections having special reference to voyages in the 
Pacific and Indian Oceans. Dalrymple, in two volumes, gave 
the 'Spanish and Dutch Voyages in the South Pacific' (1770- 
71) ; Admiral Burney, who had served under Cook, supplied a 
more complete history of all the Pacific voyages in his valuable 
five volumes published from 1803 to 1817 ; and Dr. Hawkes- 
worth gave an account of the voyages of Byron, Wallis, Carteret, 
and Cook in his well-known three volumes published in 1773. 

During all this period, while the Royal Society and the 
publishers and map makers were, between them, doing the 
needful work at home, and explorers were actively at work 
abroad, there was very urgent need for some central organisa- 
tion, to guide, control, and advance the business of geography, 
and to watch more closely over its interests. The Royal Society 
was much occupied with the advancement of other branches of 
science, and geography received less of its attention than any 
other. Yet Sir Joseph Banks, so many years the President of 
the Royal Society, was not only an ardent geographer, but 
also a great traveller ; and it will now be seen that he took 
a leading part in the establishment and conduct of a separate 
association, with the special object of promoting geographical 

Sir Joseph Banks. 11 



Sir Joseph Banks, during his long and useful life, was ever a 
warm and active friend to geography. Born in 1743, of a good 
Lincolnshire family, he inherited Revesby Abbey when he 
came of age. While still at Eton and Christ Church his love for 
natural history, and especially for botany, attracted attention ; 
and in 1766 he made a voyage to Newfoundland with his friend, 
Lieut. Phipps, the future Arctic explorer, to collect plants. 
Soon after his return he was appointed naturalist to Captain 
Cook's expedition, and was absent in the famous circumnavi- 
gation of the globe from 1768 to 1771. In 1772 he made a 
voyage to Iceland, and was elected President of the Royal 
Society in 1778, from which time he devoted himself to the 
duties of his office with the utmost zeal. He was habitually 
consulted by the Government, and was created a Baronet in 
1781, a Knight of the Bath in 1795, and a Privy Councillor 
in 1797. Sir Joseph Banks was the first Englishman upon 
whom an order of knighthood was conferred for scientific 

It was in 1788 that a company of ardent geographers, 
amongst whom was the President of the Royal Society, formed 
an association for promoting discovery in the interior of Africa. 
They saw that much of Asia, a still larger proportion of 
America, and almost the whole of Africa was unvisited and un- 
known. The very remarkable overland journey of Forster from 
India had recently added considerably to the stock of know- 
ledge respecting Asia, and valuable additions were also expected 
from America, while the map of the interior of Africa was still 
a wide extended blank. A few names of unexplored rivers and 
of uncertain nations were alone traced upon it, with hesitating 
hand, on the authority of Edrisi and Leo Africanus. Desirous 
of rescuing their age from a charge of ignorance, and strongly 
impressed with a conviction of the utility of thus enlarging the 
bounds of human knowledge, a small body of geographers 
formed the plan of an Association for promoting the discovery of 
the interior parts of Africa. Among the first members were 
the Earl of Galloway, Lord Rawdon, General Conway, Sir 
Joseph Banks, Sir Adam Fergusson, Major Rennell, and 
Mr. Beaufoy. The African Association was formed on June 

12 The African Association. 

9th, 1788. and a Committee was invested with its management, 
and with the choice of persons to whom geographical missions 
should be assigned. This was the germ of the more fully de- 
veloped Geographical Society of after years. 

The first person who was selected for employment by the 
Association was Mr. Ledyard, an American by birth, who had 
been a corporal of marines in Cook's third voyage, and had 
become known to Sir Joseph Banks. Fired with a zeal for dis- 
covery, he afterwards resolved to attempt to make a journey 
across Europe and Siberia to Kamschatka, and thence overland 
to the east coast of America. But he was nearly destitute. He 
landed at Ostend with no more than ten guineas in his pocket, 
and made his way to Stockholm. Thence he walked northward 
across the Arctic Circle and round the Gulf of Bothnia to St. 
Petersburg. He obtained permission to accompany a detach- 
ment of stores to Yakutsk, and thence to Okzakoff. But, for 
some unexplained reason, he was suddenly arrested, hurried into 
a sledge with two soldiers, conveyed across Siberia again in the 
depth of winter, and left on the frontier of Poland with a warn- 
ing that he would be shot if again found on Eussian territory. 
He was quite destitute and, having begged his way to Konigs- 
berg, where he ventured to draw a cheque for a small amount 
on his kind-hearted friend Sir Joseph Banks, he thus suc- 
ceeded in reaching England again. In this resolute and fearless 
traveller, Sir Joseph hoped to find the very man to execute the 
instructions of the Association. On the offer being made to 
him, Ledyard stated that he had always intended to traverse 
the continent of Africa as soon as he had explored the interior 
of North America. He, therefore, set out in June 1788, with 
orders to make his way from Sennaar to the Kiver Niger. But 
the career of this remarkable man was brought to a premature 
close. He died of fever at Cairo, soon after his arrival. 

The second emissary of the African Association was Mr. 
Lucas, who had been captured by a Salee rover, had been 
three years in captivity, and subsequently was Vice-Consul at 
Morocco. He undertook a journey to Fezzan, but only got as 
far as Mesurata, returning to Tripoli in April 1789. Mr. Lucas, 
however, collected a great deal of information at Mesurata re- 
specting Fezzan and the countries to the south, which he 
forwarded to the Association. In March 1790 Major Kennell 
compiled a map of Africa from existing materials, including the 
reports of Lucas. 

The next explorer was Major Houghton, who was to attempt 
to reach the Niger by way of the Gambia. He left England 
in October 1790, and news was received of him up to July 
1791, but he is believed to have perished miserably on the road 

The African Association. 13 

to Timbuktu. As soon as the news of Major Houghton's death 
was confirmed, the Association at once engaged another ex- 
plorer to follow the same route. This was Mungo Park, a 
young Scot of no mean talent, who had been regularly educated 
for the medical profession, and had just returned from a voyage 
to India. He was also able to observe with Hadley's quadrant, 
to work by dead reckoning, and was a competent naturalist. 
He set out in May 1795, and soon afterwards reached the 
Gambia. On the 2nd of December he started from Pisania for 
the interior, made a most remarkable journey and returned 
safely in 1797, after an absence of two years, having discovered 
the Niger, and collected information as to its course. The 
geographical illustrations of the journey of Mungo Park were 
written for the Association by Major Rennell. It is well 
known that Park was employed by the Government in another 
expedition in 18l)5, in which he perished. Many years after- 
wards his book of logarithms, long preserved by the natives, 
was brought down to the coast. It was presented by Sir John 
Glover to the Royal Geographical Society, and is now preserved 
in the Map Room as a precious relic of one of the glorious 
band of heroes who have perished in the cause of geography. 

From the formation of the Association in 1788 until 1797 
Sir Joseph Banks was its Secretary. In the latter year his 
numerous other avocations obliged him to resign that office. 
He became Treasurer, while Mr. Bryan Edwards undertook the 
duties of Secretary. Mr. Edwards died in 1801, and was 
succeeded by Sir William Young. The Committee for 1797 
consisted of the Earl of Moira, Sir Joseph Banks, the Bishop of 
Llandaff, Mr. Stuart, and the Secretary. 

In 1798 Mr. Home man, a well-trained German, was sent to 
Cairo, with orders to penetrate across the desert to Fezzan. 
He made a journey to Sinah, visiting the temple of Jupiter 
Ammon, and went thence to Mourzouk, reaching Tripoli in 
August 1799. Thence he sent home accounts of the desert 
and the kingdom of Fezzan, respecting which Major Rennell 
again communicated valuable geographical illustrations. The 
next emissary was Mr. Nicholls, who furnished an account of 
Old Calabar, where he died in 1807. 

Sir Joseph Banks did not confine his exertions in the cause 
of geography to the African Continent. He it was who obtained 
the order for forming a settlement at Botany Bay in Australia. 
It was also through his intervention that Manning obtained 
the aid and support of the East India Company, without 
which he could never have reached the capital of Tibet. 
Above all it was Sir Joseph Banks who, in conjunction with 
Mr. Barrow, the Secretary of the Admiralty, induced the 
Royal Society to resume the consideration of the question of 

14 Sir John Barrow. 

Arctic research. The objects were geographical discovery : to 
circumnavigate Greenland, to ascertain the existence of Baffin's 
Bay, to solve the question of the continuity of sea round the 
northern coast of America ; and to obtain other scientific 
results. They were noble and useful objects, fully justifying 
the despatch of expeditions to secure them. So thought the 
Eoyal Society, and so thought the Government. Sir Joseph 
Banks addressed a letter on the subject to Lord Melville, in 
November 1817, and the reply was favourable. This step in the 
cause of geography was one of the last important acts of the 
venerable President. He died on June 19th, 1820, after having 
presided over the Koyal Society during a period of forty-two 
eventful years. 

In the interval of ten years between the death of Sir Joseph 
Banks and the foundation of the Royal Geographical Society, the 
tendency of events was to make such an institution a necessity. 
The commencement of trigonometrical surveys in Great Britain 
and in British India, and the activity of surveyors both in the 
Royal Navy and the Bombay Marine, gave an extraordinary 
impetus to the work of instrument and map makers. Ramsden, 
Dollond, and Troughton exerted their ingenuity and talents to 
meet the requirements of Colby and Lambton ; while those 
able cartographers Arrowsmith and Walker, reproduced the 
ever-multiplying work of surveyors and explorers. Sir John 
Barrow, the Secretary of the Admiralty, took the position 
vacated by Sir Joseph Banks, as the foremost promoter of 
geographical reseai*ch. Under his auspices the voyages of 
Parry, Lyon, Clavering, and Beechey, and the land journeys 
of Franklin were undertaken, which threw such a flood of light 
over Arctic geography, and excited such general interest in 
maritime adventure and discovery. He also procured the 
despatch of the Congo Expedition under Captain Tuckey, in 
1816, and edited the narrative of its ill-fated leader. With 
equal interest he watched the journeys of Lyon and of Ritchie 
to Mourzouk, of Denham and Clapperton from Tripoli to Lake 
Chad ; and of the brave Clapperton in his second expedition, 
when he died at Sokatu in April 1827, but not until he had 
completed his route across Africa. Some heroic adventurers, 
like Tuckey and Clapperton, laid down their lives in the great 
cause. Many more returned home and gave their narratives to 
the world ; and so it came to pass that, year by year, an 
increasing number of eminent explorers and geographers, as 
well as of educated men taking an interest in geographical 
subjects, was assembled in London at one time. This naturally 
gave rise to a desire for intercommunion and association, and to 
the formation in the first place of a Club, which was the 
harbinger of a great and flourishing Society. 

Scheme of Sir Arthur de Capell Broke. 15 



Captain Arthur de Capell Broke was the founder of the 
Raleigh Travellers' Club, the immediate forerunner of the 
Geographical Society. The eldest son of Sir Richard de Capell 
-Broke of Great Oakley in Northamptonshire, whom he suc- 
ceeded in 1829, Sir Arthur Broke, who was born in 1791, had 
served in the army, and had all the spirit of an adventurous 
traveller. He was the author of ' Travels through Sweden and 
Norway ' (1823), a work which gives a striking picture of the 
physical features of those northern lands. He also wrote ' A 
Winter in Lapland' (1827), and 'Sketches in Spain and 
Morocco' (1831). 

Sir Arthur Broke conceived the idea of forming a most agree- 
able dining society composed solely of travellers. The world 
was to be mapped out into so many divisions corresponding 
with the number of Members, each division being represented 
by at least one Member as far as it might be practicable, so 
that the society collectively should have visited nearly every 
part of the known globe. He first communicated his idea to 
four friends, Colonel Leake, Mr. Legh, Captain Mangles, and 
Lieut. Holman, who warmly approved of it. They prepared a 
general list of the most distinguished travellers, and, a selec- 
tion having been carefully made in accordance with the above 
principle, a circular was sent out in the summer of 1826, dated 
from the Alfred Club in Albemarle Street, and signed Arthur 
de Capell Broke. The number was at first limited to forty, 
and the meetings were to take place once a fortnight, com- 
mencing in November. The principal object of these meetings 
was announced to be the attainment, at a moderate expense, of 
an agreeable, friendly, and rational society, formed by persons 
who had visited every part of the globe. 

The first dinner was held at Grillon's Hotel in Albemarle 
Street, and the second at Brunet's Hotel in Leicester Square. 
At the latter meeting it was resolved that the Club should be 
considered as constituted, and the name of the Raleigh Club, in 
honour of the illustrious Sir Walter Raleigh, was proposed by 
Captain Broke and adopted. 

Of the original Committee which formed the Raleigh Club, 

16 Founders of the Raleigh Club. 

Sir Arthur Broke was for many years the President. He died 
at his seat of Oakley in Northamptonshire, in December 1858. 
His friend Colonel William Martin Leake was an older man. 
He was born in London in 1777, the grandson of John Martin 
Leake, Garter King at Arms. Entering the Artillery in 1794, 
he was appointed on a mission to instruct the Turks. After a 
residence at Constantinople until 1800, he travelled through 
Asia Minor, Palestine, and Egypt in an official capacity, 
making a general survey of the country, the results of which 
were embodied in a valuable report. He was afterwards com- 
missioned to visit and report upon the European provinces of 
Turkey, and Greece. Ketiring from the army in 1823, he pub- 
lished several valuable works, including ' Researches in Greece,' 
' Outline of the Greek Revolution,' ' Topography of Athens,' and 
'Travels in the Morea and Northern Greece.' He died on 
January 6th, 1860, aged 83. 

Captain Mangles entered the navy in 1800, serving in the 
Narcissus under Captain Ross Donnelly in the West Indies, 
and seeing much active service until tne peace in 1815. He 
then travelled in the East with his friend Captain the Hon. 
C. L. Irby, the results of their tour being privately printed under 
the title of ' Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and Asia Minor.' 
This most popular work was first published in 1844. Devoting 
himself to the study of geography and hydrography, he pub- 
lished books on these subjects in 1849 and 1851. Captain 
Mangles died on November 18th, 1867. 

Lieutenant J. B. Holman, r.n., was the well-known " Blind 
Traveller." He was obliged to leave the service owing to an 
illness resulting in loss of sight, when he was only 25, and he 
received an appointment as a Naval Knight at Windsor, with 
permission to travel. From 1819 to 1821 he wandered over 
various parts of the Continent, and the narrative of his travels 
passed through four editions. His next journey, from 1822 to 
1824, was through Russia and Siberia without any servant, but 
trusting to his own sagacity, and to the sympathy which never 
failed him wherever he went, for safe conduct through all 
emergencies and perils. His book of Russian travels went 
through three editions. In 1834 appeared his ' Voyage round 
the World,' which Sir Roderick Murchison pronounced to be an 
extraordinary literary monument of energy and perseverance. 
His last journeys were through Turkey in Europe. Lieut. 
Holman died in 1858. 

Sir Arthur Broke and his Committee worked so well during 
the winter of 1826, that by February 1827 the numbers of the 
Club were nearly completed. The following is a list of the 
original Members: — 

Dinners of the Raleigh Club. 



Sir Arthur de Capell Broke. 


Mr.' Colebrooke. 


Colonel Leake. 


Captain Basil Hall, b.n. 


Mr. Legh, m.p. 


Mr. Andrew Knight. 


Captain Mangles, b.n. 


Mr. Marsden. 


Lieut. Holman, b.n. 


Mr. Murdoch. 


Mr. C. R. Cockerell. 


Sir Murray Maxwell, B.N. 


Mr. J. Rennie. 


General Stratton. 


Mr. G. Rennie. 


Captain C. Cochrane, b.n. 


Mr. Mackenzie. 


Mr. John Cam Hobhouse, m.p. 


Captain Corry, b.n. 


Captain Sabine, b.a. 


Captain Owen, b.n. 


Mr. Hanbury. 


Captain Chapman, r.a. 


Earl of Belmore. 


Captain Colquhoun, b.a 


Viscount Strangford. 


Mr. Beechey. 


Viscount Corry, m.p. 


Major Abhey. 


Captain Weddell, b.n. 


Mr. Wise. 


Hon. Henry Corry. 


Mr. Baillie Fraser. 


Mr. Baily. 


Mr. Bankes. 


Mr. Barrow. 


Major the Hon. G. 



Captain Marryat, b.n., c.b. 

(now Earl of Albemarle). 

To the first list were soon afterwards added the names of 
Sir John Franklin, Sir Edward Parry, Captain Beaufort, R.N., 
Captain Vidal, b.n., the Honourable Mountstuart Elphin- 
stone, Mr. W. R. Hamilton, Captain Beechey, r.n., Sir George 
Staunton. Roderick Impey Murchison, proposed by Sir John 
Franklin and seconded by Major the Honourable George Keppel 
(Earl of Albemarle since 1852), was elected a Member of the 
Raleigh Club on February 1st, 1830. 

The first regular meeting of the Club took place at the 
Thatched House at 6 o'clock on the 7th of February, 1827, 
when Mr. Marsden took the chair. The great Orientalist, who 
died in 1836, was then aged seventy-three, and no doubt the 
oldest Member present. Sir Arthur Broke presented a haunch 
of reindeer venison from Spitzbergen, a jar of Swedish brandy, 
rye-cake (Flad Brod) baked near the North Cape, a Norway 
cheese (Gammel Ost), and preserved cloud-berries from Lap- 
land, for the dinner. It was agreed that each Member should 
be invited "to present any scarce foreign game, fish, fruits, 
wines, &c, as a means of adding greatly to the interest of the 
dinners, not merely from the objects of luxury thus afforded, 
but also for the observations they will be the means of giving 
rise to." The evening passed with the greatest enjoyment, and 
it was agreed that a General Meeting of the Club should take 
place on the following Tuesday, February 13th, at the Thatched 
House, for the purpose of deciding upon the rules intended to 
be proposed. At this General Meeting Mr. Barrow was in the 
chair ; and a set of rules was drawn up and confirmed. 

From that time the dinners of the Raleigh Travellers always 
took place at the Thatched House. At the next one, on 


3 8 Success of the Raleigh Club. 

February 19th, Captain Mangles presented some bread, made 
from wheat brought by him from Heshbon on the Dead Sea. 
Sir Arthur Broke contributed a brace of capercailzie (coque de 
bois) from Sweden. On March 5th, 1827, a ham from Mexico 
was presented for the dinner by Mr. Morier, and the health of 
that gentleman was accordingly drunk. At this time a rule 
was made that, as the object of the Club was that travellers 
may assemble in social converse, who have visited distant 
countries, particularly those that have been little explored, it 
should be required of Members who proposed and seconded a 
candidate to state his qualification in writing, such statement 
to be read from the chair when the candidate is proposed, and 
again when his ballot is about to take place. 

In the year 1828 the names, amongst others, of the 
Honourable Kichard Bootle Wilbraham, Mr. Bartholomew 
Frere, Captain George Back, r.n., Mr. Nicholas Garry of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, and Captain the Honourable C. L. 
Irby, E.N., were added to the list of Members. In 1829 
Lieutenant H. Lister Maw, r.n. — the first Englishman who 
ever went down the Amazon from Peru to the Atlantic — Sir 
William Ouseley, Colonel Belford Wilson — aide-de-camp to 
General Bolivar — Francis Baring, Esq., who had just returned 
from South America, Robert Brown the distinguished botanist, 
and Captain Blackwood, R.N., became Members of the Raleigh 

Thus the most eminent Travellers in London were brought 
together, an interchange of ideas frequently took place, and 
the feeling that the creation of a more completely organised 
institution for the advancement of geography was necessary, 
gradually took a definite shape. The Raleigh Club had 
freshened up old memories, had kept alive an interest in 
geographical pursuits, and had prepared the way for more 
systematic work. It had "lubricated the wheels of science," 
an expression the origin of which was attributed, by Lord 
Ellesmere, to Lord Stowell. For this service the geographers 
of England are indebted to the happy inspiration of Sir Arthur 
de Capell Broke. 

After the formation of the Geographical Society, the Raleigh 
Club continued to flourish, becoming more and more closely 
connected with the Society, until 1854, when the affiliation 
became complete and, with new rules, the name of Raleigh was 
dropped, and it became the Geographical Club. The subsequent 
history of these dining Clubs thus became a part of the history 
of the Society. 

Objects of a Geographical Society. 19 



On Monday, the 24th of May, 1830, there was a numerously- 
attended General Meeting of the Raleigh Travellers' Club, with 
Mr. Barrow in the Chair. It was then, submitted : — 

" That a Society was needed whose sole object should be the promotion and 
diffusion of that most important and entertaining branch of knowledge — 
geography ; and that a useful Society might therefore be formed, under the 
name of the Geographical Society of London : that the interest excited by 
this department of science is universally felt, that its advantages are of the 
first importance to mankind in general, and paramount to the welfare of a 
maritime nation like Great Britain, with its numerous and extensive foreign 
possessions ; that its decided utility in conferring just and distinct notions of 
the physical and political relations of our globe must be obvious to every one, 
and is the more enhanced by this species of knowledge being obtainable 
without much difficulty, while at the same time it affords a copious source of 
rational amusement ; and finally that, although there is a vast store of geo- 
graphical information existing in Great Britain, yet it is so scattered and dis- 
persed, either in large books that are not generally accessible, or in the bureaus 
of public departments, or in the possession .of private individuals, as to be 
nearly unavailable to the public." 

These propositions were unanimously accepted as sound and 
true. It was then suggested that the objects of such a Society 
would be — 

" 1. To collect, register and digest, and to print for the use of Members and 
the public at large, in a cheap form and at certain intervals, such new, inte- 
resting, and useful facts and discoveries as the Society may have in its pos- 
session, and may from time to time acquire. 

" 2. To accumulate gradually a library of the best books on geography — a 
complete collection of maps and charts from the earliest period of rude geo- 
graphical delineations to the most improved of the present time ; as well as 
all such documents and materials as may convey the best information to 
persons intending to visit foreign countries, it being of the greatest utility to 
a traveller to be aware, previously to his setting out, of what has been already 
done, and what is still wanting, in the countries he may intend to visit. 

" 3. To procure specimens of such instruments as experience has shown to 
be most useful and best adapted to the compendious stock of a traveller, by 
consulting which he may make himself familiar with their use. 

" 4. To prepare brief instructions for such as are setting out on their travels, 
pointing out the parts most desirable to be visited, the best and most prac- 
ticable means of proceeding thither, the researches most essential to make, 
phenomena to be observed, the subjects of natural history most desirable to 
be procured, and to obtain all such information as may tend to the extension 
of our geographical knowledge. And it is hoped that the Society may ulti- 
mately be enabled from its funds to render pecuniary assistance to such 

c 2 

20 Mr. Barrow. — Mr. Robert Brown. 

travellers as may require it, in order to facilitate the attainment of some par- 
ticular object of research. 

" 5. To correspond with similar Societies that may be established in dif- 
ferent parts of the world ; with foreign individuals engaged in geographical 
pursuits, and with the most intelligent British residents in the various remote 
settlements of the Empire. 

"6. To open a communication with all those philosophical and literary 
Societies with which geography is connected ; for as all are fellow-labourers in 
the different departments of the same vineyard, their united efforts cannot fail 
mutually to assist each other." 

The meeting then proceeded to nominate a Provisional 
Committee, consisting of six Members of the Raleigh Club, 
namely Mr. Barrow, Mr. Robert Brown, Mr. Roderick I. 
Murchison, Mr. John Cam Hobhouse, Mr. Mountstuart El- 
phinstone, and Mr. Bartle Frere ; to consider and propose 
resolutions to be submitted to another General Meeting. 
These six Founders of the Society were representative men, 
and a history of the Society's origin would be incomplete 
without a retrospective notice of their previous careers. 

John Barrow, who was born near Ulverstone in North 
Lancashire in June 1764, evinced an ardent love of adventure 
and travel from his early youth. He quitted his employment 
as a clerk in an iron foundry to go for a voyage to Greenland 
in a whaler. Soon afterwards he received an appointment on 
the staff of Lord Macartney's Embassy, and went to China ; the 
results of his service on that occasion being a Life of Lord 
Macartney, and a book of Travels in China and Cochin China. 
In 1797 he accompanied Lord Macartney to the Cape of Good 
Hope on his important mission to settle the government there, 
and Mr. Barrow remained as Auditor-General of Accounts. He 
returned to England in 1803, and published his ' Travels in 
Southern Africa.' The following year Lord Melville appointed 
him Secretary to the Admiralty. In this influential position he 
worked steadily and untiringly for the advancement of science, 
and especially for the spread of geographical knowledge. After 
the death of Sir Joseph Banks, it is to Mr. Barrow that all 
Government aid to geography is due, including the despatch of 
the Arctic Expeditions and of several exploring expeditions to 
Africa. In 1830 Mr. Barrow was certainly the warmest and 
most powerful friend to geographical science in this country. 

Mr. Robert Brown was born at Montrose in 1773, the son of 
the Episcopalian minister of that place. For a short time he 
was an Assistant Surgeon in an infantry regiment, but, through 
the kindness of Sir Joseph Banks, his prospects in life were 
changed, and in 1801 he was appointed naturalist to the 
scientific expedition which sailed in that year for Australia. 
Returning in 1805, his collections and discoveries threw an 

Early Life of Roderick Murchison. 21 

entirely new light on the geographical distribution of vegetable 
life. Afterwards, as Secretary and President, he was for many 
years the mainstay of the Linnean Society. Baron Humboldt 
bore witness to " the vast impulse which Robert Brown gave to 
the three great objects which must for ever remain attached to 
his name — the minute development of the relations of organisa- 
tion in natural families, the geography of plants, and the 
estimate of their numerical proportions." He was known among 
scientific men as " Princeps Botanicorum," but he was ever a 
sincere friend to geography. Robert Brown contributed the 
botanical appendix to several important works, such as Parry's 
'Voyages,' Salt's 'Abyssinia,' and Clapperton's 'Journey.' He died 
in 1858, at which time he was President of the Linnean Society. 
Roderick Impey Murchison was the son of Dr. Kenneth 
Murchison of Tarradale in Ross-shire, by a daughter of Mac- 
kenzie of Fairburn, and was born at Tarradale on the 19th of 
February, 1792. His mother's dearest friend was Miss Annie 
Robinson, daughter of the Provost of Dingwall in Ross-shire, the 
future wife of Mr. John Gladstone, and long before her marriage 
the mother of the Prime Minister often carried in her arms the 
child who was hereafter to be our revered President. Roderick 
Murchison lost his father when he was a child, and his guardians 
were Colonel Alexander and his godfather Sir Elijah Impey, 
old Indian friends of Dr. Murchison. His mother married 
again, and he was sent to school at Durham when he was seven ; 
but he always attributed the English accent, which he retained 
through life, to Sally the Dorsetshire lass, who taught him 
even before he was sent to school. From Durham he went to 
the military college at Great Marlow, and he was gazetted an 
ensign in the 36th regiment at the age of fifteen. His uncle 
General Mackenzie wrote of him as a charming boy, manly, 
sensible, generous, and warm-hearted. After a short service in 
Ireland, he sailed for Portugal in 1808, and was present at the 
battles of Rorica, Vimeira, and Coruna, returning home after 
Sir John Moore's disaster. In 1814 he exchanged into the 
cavalry, joining the Inniskilling Dragoons, but was disappointed 
in his object, which was to be sent to Belgium, where he would 
have taken part in the Waterloo campaign. His troop did not 
go, and the war came to an end. So young Murchison retired 
from the army, and in August 1815 he was married to Charlotte, 
the daughter of General Hugonin of Nursted House in Hamp- 
shire. After passing some time in Italy, the newly-married 
couple settled at Barnard Castle in Durham, and Roderick 
Murchison became one of the greatest fox-hunters in the north 
of England. His devotion to hunting led to their moving to 
Melton Mowbray, but in 1824 he sold his hunters and passed 

22 Sir John Hobhouse. — Mountstuart Elphinstone. 

the winter with his father-in-law at Nursted. It was at this 
time that he met Sir Humphrey Davy, when staying with his 
friend Mr. Morritt at Rokeby. The advice of this eminent 
savant, combined with the persuasions of his wife, finally changed 
Murchison's career, and he buckled to, with a will, at the study 
of geology. From that moment he devoted his life to science, 
first learning chemistry at the Royal Institution. In January 
1825 he joined the Geological Society, and in 1826 became 
a Fellow of the Royal Society, continuing steadily at work both 
in the field and in the study. In 1828 he explored the volcanic 
region of Auvergne with his wife and Charles Lyell, continuing 
his geological tour into the Tyrol and Carinthia. He had 
accepted the appointment of Secretary to the Geological 
Society, and was fast rising into fame as a geologist when he 
joined this Committee of the Raleigh Club. 

John Cam Hobhouse, born in 1786, was educated at West- 
minster School and at Cambridge, and in 1810 was the com- 
panion of Lord Byron in his travels through Albania and 
Greece. He published his well-known 'Journey through 
Albania ' in 1813, and few works of travel have obtained a more 
lasting reputation. Succeeding to his father's baronetage in 
1831, Sir John Hobhouse was the colleague of Sir Francis 
Burdett in the representation of Westminster from 1820 to 
1833. He afterwards held the important posts of Secretary for 
Ireland, and President of the Board of Control, and he was 
created Lord Broughton in 1851. He died in his 83rd year on 
June 3rd, 1869. As Sir John Hobhouse he was a constant 
diner at the Raleigh Club, and took a keen interest in geo- 
graphy. He was on the Council of the Geographical Society 
in 1831, and again in 1857-58. 

The Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone was born in 1779, and 
went to India at an early age, in the Company's Civil Service. 
After serving during many stirring events in the Dakhan, Lord 
Minto selected him to conduct the difficult mission to the 
Afghans, and at Peshawur he collected a mass of new geo- 
graphical information which was embodied in his ' Account of 
the Kingdom of Cabul' (1815). In 1810 he became Resident 
at Poona, and in 1819 was appointed Governor of Bombay. He 
discharged the duties of this important post with great ability 
during seven years, and the Elphinstone College is an enduring 
monument of his rule. After his return to England he devoted 
several years to the preparation of his admirable ' History of 
Mogul Rule in India.' He was on our Council in 1831, Yice- 
President in 1838-39, again on the Council in 1841; but his 
latter years were passed in literary retirement. He died on 
November 20th, 1859, in his 81st year, 

Bartle Frere. — Admiral Smyth. 23 

Bartholomew Frere, brother of the Right Hon. Hookham 
Frere the intimate friend of Canning, was born in 1776, and 
educated at Harrow and Cambridge. He then entered the 
diplomatic service, and was for some time Charge d' Affaires at 
Constantinople. He was a well read geographer and a scholar, 
and these accomplishments, as Sir Roderick Mnrchison bore 
testimony, were united with the finest qualities of the heart, a 
playful wit, and the most engaging manners. He served on the 
Council of the Geographical Society for nearly twenty years, 
dying in 1852. 

Of these six Members, Mr. Barrow was the senior, and their 
meetings took place in his room at the Admiralty. They com- 
bined great experience and knowledge of the world with pro- 
found learning, and in Robert Brown and Roderick Murchison 
they had colleagues whose practical experience in the working 
of the Linnean and Geological Societies was of great use. They 
met several times during the end of May and beginning of June 
1830, settled all the preliminary business, and drew up the 
rules for the new Society. 

Meanwhile another Member of the Raleigh Club, Captain 
W. H. Smyth, e.n., had, early in 1830, not only sketched out a 
well-conceived scheme for a Geographical Society, but had 
enrolled many names ; and his zealous exertions, now heartily 
given to the Committee, materially furthered the successful 
progress of their work. 

These then were the seven Founders of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, whose names should ever be had in remem- 
brance by English geographers : namely — 

Sir John Barrow. 
Sir Roderick Murchison. 
Mr. Robert Brown. 
Lord Broughton. 

The Hon. Mountstuart 

Mr. Bartholomew Frere. 
Admiral W. H. Smyth. 

Roderick Murchison went up the Rhine with his wife, and 
to Vienna in June 1830, and was absent until October ; and in 
the following winter he was elected President of the Geo- 
logical Society. This is the reason that his name does not 
appear in the subsequent proceedings, nor on the list of the 
first Council of the Geographical Society. 

As soon as the Committee was ready to submit its Report, 
another meeting was held at the rooms of the Horticultural 
Society in Regent Street on July 16th, 1830, when the 
following Resolutions were adopted, and the Geographical 
Society of London was constituted. 

" 1. That the Society be called the Geographical Society of London. 

" 2. That the number of Ordinary Members be not limited, but that the 


Rules. — The First Council. 

number of Honorary Foreign Members be limited as snail hereafter be 

" 3. That the Council of the Society consist of a President, four Vice-Presi- 
dents, a Treasurer, two Secretaries, and twenty-one other Members, to conduct 
the affairs of the Society. 

" 4. That the election of the said Council and Officers be annual. 

" 5. That the office of President be not held by the same individual for a 
longer period than two consecutive years, but that he is eligible for re-election 
after the lapse of one year. 

" 6. That one of the four Vice-Presidents go out annually ; he being eligible, 
however, for re-election after the lapse of one year, but the Treasurer and 
Secretaries may be annually re-elected. 

" 7. That seven of the twenty-one other Members constituting the Council 
go out annually, at the period of the General Election of the officers of the 

" 8. That the Admission Fee of Members be SI., and the Annual Subscrip- 
tion 21., or both may be compounded for by one payment of 201.* 

" 9. That such part of the Funds of the Society as may not be required for 
current expenses be placed in the public securities, and vested in the names of 
three Trustees, to be hereafter appointed by the President and Council. 

" 10. That these three Trustees be Supernumerary Members of the Council. 

" 11. That early in November next a General Meeting be held to decide on 
a Code of Eegulations and Bye-laws for the management of the Society, which 
the President and Council will in the meantime prepare to be submitted to the 
said meeting. 

" 12. And lastly that the following noblemen and gentlemen compose the 
Council and Officers of the Society for this year (1830) : — 

The Eight Hon. Viscount Goderich, f.b.s. 

John Barrow, Esq., f.b.s. G. Bellas Greenough, Esq., f.b.s. 

Lieut.-Col. Leake, f.b.s. Capt. Sir John Franklin, b.n., f.b.s. 

John Biddulph, Esq. 

Kev. G. Benouard (Foreign and Bon. Sec). 

Capt. Maconochie, b.n. 


Viscount Althorp, m.p., f.b.s. 
Francis Baily, Esq., f.b.s. 
Capt. Beaufort, b.n., f.b.s. 
John Britton, Esq., f.s.a. 
W. Brockedon, Esq. 
Robert Brown, Esq., f.b.s. 
Sir Arthur de C. Broke, f.b.s. 
Hon. Moimtstuart Elphinstone. 
Capt. Sir Aug. Fraser, k.o.b., f.b.s. 
Capt. Basil Hall, b.n., f.b.s. 
W. R. Hamilton, Esq., f.b.s. 

R. W. Hay, Esq., f.b.s. 

J. Cam Hobhouse, Esq., f.b.8. 

Capt. Horsburgh, f.b.s. 

Colonel Jones, b.e. 

Capt. Mangles, b.n., f.b.s. 

Thomas Murdoch, Esq., f.b.s. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Murray, g.c.b., 

Capt. Lord Prudhoe, b.n., f.b.s. 
Capt. Smyth, b.n., f.b.s. 
H. G. Ward, Esq." 

* The Admission Fee and Annual Subscription continue the same. But now 
(1881) the composition, on entrance, is 281., or at any subsequent period 25?., if 
the Entrance Fee be already paid. 

Speech of Mr. Barrow. 25 

As soon as these Resolutions had been adopted, Mr. Barrow 
the Chairman, delivered an address explanatory of the general 
views of the Society. He concluded from the fact that 460 
names had already been enrolled on the list of Members that 
a favourable opinion had been formed of the utility likely to 
result from the labours of the Society. He spoke in the name 
of the Foundation Committee, and said that the degree of 
utility which would be really effected must depend on the 
attention and assiduity which the President and Council might 
bestow on the Society's concerns, quite as much as on the 
stock of knowledge they might bring to the consideration of 
the several subjects that would come before them. He looked 
with confidence to aid and zealous co-operation from officers, 
both of the army and navy. He urged that on the exactitude 
of the minutest details of hydrography mainly depended the 
safety of navigation, and looked forward to the completion of 
surveys and to extended observations on prevailing winds and 
currents. Every accession to hydrographical knowledge must 
be of great importance to navigation and therefore a fit object 
for promulgation by the Society. But he added that the 
Committee hoped that many valuable contributions on geo- 
graphical subjects would be received from other individuals 
than those who are thus professionally qualified and invited to 
furnish them. Mr. Barrow went on to suggest the various 
branches of the subject which should occupy the attention of 
the traveller ; and concluded with the hope that the Society 
would shortly be in a position to form a valuable geographical 
library, and a useful collection of maps and charts. 

The list of 460 original Members contains 43 naval officers 
besides the King, 50 officers in the army, and 10 clergymen. 
It includes most of the leading statesmen of both parties, 
Wellington and Peel, Aberdeen and Ellenborough, Melville, 
Goderich, Herries, Bexley, John Russell, Althorp, Huskisson, 
and a dozen other Members of Parliament. Among botanists, 
Robert Brown, Bentham, Hooker and Lindley ; among geolo- 
gists, Buckland, Greenough, Sedgwick, De la Beche, Egerton, 
Lyell and Murchison enrolled themselves as original Members 
of the new Society; with Bailey, Whewell, Lubbock and 
Hallam, and the engineers Brunei and Rennie. With the great 
surveyors Colby and Everest, appear also the cartographers 
Arrowsmith and Walker, and the instrument-maker Doflond. 
With the Hydrographer Beaufort, the marine surveyors are repre- 
sented by Beechey, Owen, King, Becher, Belcher, Blackwood, 
Sheringham, Denham, Washington, and Horsburgh, aud soon 
afterwards FitzRoy, Graves, and Stokes. All the leading men 


The First List of Fellows. 

of every profession who either saw the importance of advancing 
the cause of geography, or were actively engaged in its pur- 
suit, had rallied at the call of the Foundation Committee of 
the Geographical Society ; and thus this new organisation, so 
urgently needed, and destined to work so much for good in 
the prosperous future that was in store for it, auspiciously 
commenced its career. 




The Eight Hon. the Earl of Aber- 
deen-, K.T., F.R.S., P.S.A. 
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart., 

M.P., F.O.8. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir Frederic Adam, g.c.b. 
John Adamson, Esq., f.s.a. 

William Ainsworth, Esq. 
James Alexander, Esq., m.p. 

Captain J. E. Alexander. 
J. M. Alsager, Esq. 
Viscount Althorp, m.p., f.r.8. 
10 Sir Edmund Antrobus, Bart. 

Captain Archer. 
Eev. Dr. Arnold, f.b.s., Master of 

Rugby School. 
Mr. Aaron Arrowsmith. 
Mr. J. Arrowsmith. 
William Astell, Esq., M.P., Chair- 
man E.I.C. 
John P. Atkins, Esq. 
Thomas Bose Auldjo, Esq. 

Adolph Bach, Esq. 
John Backhouse, Esq. 
20 Alexander Baillie, Esq. 
George Baillie, Esq. 
Arthur Baily, Esq. 
Francis Baily, Esq., f.r.s. 
Sir F. F. Baker, Bart., f.r.s. 
Captain Bannister. 
Alex. Baring, Esq., m.p., f.h.s. 
Francis Baring, Esq. 
B. W. Barker, Esq. 
Eev. John Barlowe. 

30 Thos. Barnes, Esq. 

John Barrow, Esq., f.k.8. 
Mr. B. B. Bate. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Batty, f.r.s. 
Captain H. W. Bayfield, r.n. 
Captain F. Beaufort, r.n., f.r.s. 
Henry de la Beche, Esq., f.r.s. 
Lieutenant A. B. Becher, r.n. 
The Right Hon. Sir J. Beckett, Bart., 

M.P., F.R.S. 

HisGrace the Duke of Bedford, f.s.a. 
40 Grosvenor Charles Bedford, Esq. 

Henry Bedford, Esq. 

Capt. Frederick Beechey, r.n., f.r.s. 

Capt. Edward Belcher, r.n., f.g.s. 

Frederic Debell Bennett, Esq. 

John Joseph Bennett, Esq. 

George Bentham, Esq., f.l.s. 

E. Bentley, Esq. 

Henry Berens, Esq., f.r.s. 

Joseph Berens, Esq. 
50 Captain J. Betham, e.i.m. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Bexley, f.r.s. 

John Biddulph, Esq., f.h.s. 

Jonathan Birch, Esq. 

Captain Price Blackwood, r.n. 

William Blake, Esq., f.r.s. 

Major Blanchard, r.e. 

John Bolton, Esq. 

John Bonham, Esq. 

Captain Bowles, r.n. 
60 Lord Brabazon. 

Captain H. Eowland Brandreth, r.e. 

E. W. Brayley, Esq., f.s.a. 

* The names printed in italics are those of Fellows still alive at the fifty-first anni- 
versary in 1881. 

The First List of Fellows. 


Earl of Brecknock. 

Rev. Dr. Brereton, F.8.A. 

Sir Thomas M. Brisbane, k.c.b.,f.r.s. 

John Britton, Esq., f.s.a. 

John Broadley, Esq., f.s.a. 

William Brockedon, Esq. 

William John Broderip, Esq., f.r.s. 
70 Sir Arthur de Capell Broke 
Bart., f.r.s. 

James Browne, Esq., m.p. 

Robert Brown, Esq. f.r.s. 

Thomas Brown, Esq. 

Wade Brown, Esq. 

M. I. Brunei, Esq., f.r.s. 

Major-Gen. Sir Alexander Bryce, c.b. 

J. S. Buckingham, Esq. 

Professor Bnckland, f.r.s. 

J. William Buckle, Esq. 
80 C. Bullen, Esq. 

Captain F. Bullock, r.n. 

Dr. J. Bunny. 

Rev. Chas. P. Burney, d.d., f.r.8. 

Decimus Burton, Esq., f.s.a. 

Marquis of Bute, f.r.s. 

Archdeacon Butler, f.r.s. 

Captain Theophilus Butler. 

B. Bond Cabbell, Esq. 

Earl of Caledon, k.f., f.g.s. 
90 John Caley, Esq., f.r.s. 

John Carey, Esq. 

Nicholas Carlisle, Esq., f.r.s. 

Ralph Can, Jun., Esq. 

W. Ogle Carr, Esq. 

John Bonham Carter, Esq., m.p. 

Samuel Cartwright, Esq., f.g.s. 

Viscount Castlereagh, m.p. 

Francis Chantrey, Esq., R.A., F.R.S. 

William Chaplin, Esq. 
100 Aaron Chapman, Esq. 

Dean of Chichester. 

J. George Children, Esq., f.r.s. 

Francis Cholmeley, Esq., m.p., f.h.s. 

John Christie, Esq. 

Earl of Clare. 

Dr. Chas. M. Clarke. 

Thomas Clarke, Esq. 

William B. Clarke, Esq. 

William Stanley Clarke, Esq. 
110 Sir George Clerk, Bart., f.r.s. 

Captain T. H. Shadwell Clerke. 

M. Waller Clifton, Esq., f.r.s. 

The Right Hon. Sir George Cock- 
burn, G.C.B., F.R.S. 

Pepys Cockerell, Esq. 

Rev. H. Coddington, f.r.s. 

H. Colburn, Esq. 

Lieut. -Colonel Colby, r.e., f.b.8. 

Viscount Cole, m.p., f.g.s. 

Captain J. N. Colquhoun, r.a. 
120 Sheltou Coulson, Esq. 

W. M. Coulthurst, Esq. 

Chas. T. Cox, Esq. 

Lt.-Col. the Hon. J. R. Cradock. 

W. P. Craufurd, Esq., f.g.s. 

William Crawfurd, Esq., f.h.s. 

J. Crawfurd, Esq., f.r.s. 

The Right Hon. J. W. Croker, f.r.s. 

Mr. J. Cross. 

The Hon. Robert Curzon, m.p. 
130 Lieutenant-Colonel H. Custance. 

Richard Hart Davis, Esq., m.p., f.r.s. 
Lieutenant R. K. Dawson, r.e. 
Lieutenant H. M. Denham, r.n. 
Francis H. Dickinson, Esq. 
Colonel Sir Alexander Dickson, 

K.C.B., R.A., F.S.A. 

John Disney, Esq. 

George Dollond, Esq., f.r.s. 

Lieut.-General Sir Rufane Donkin, 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Captain J. G. Doran. 
140Maj.-Gen. Sir H. Douglas, Bart., 


W. R.Keith Douglas, Esq., m.p.,f.r.s. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Carlo Doyle. 
Captain Charles Drinkwater, r.n. 
Colonel Drummond, r.a. 
Edward Drummond, Esq. 
Lieutenant Thomas Drummond, r.e. 
Lord Ducie, f.r.s. 
Sir George Duckett, Bart., f.r.s. 
The Hon. Captain R. Dundas, r.n. 
150 Major W. B. Dundas, r a. 
Lord Durham, f.g.s. 
Vice-Admiral Sir P. C. H. Durham, 


A. Earle, Esq. 

H. Earle, Esq. 

Captain the Hon. W. Edwards. 

Sir P. de Malpas Grey Egerton, 

Bart, f.g.s. 
Lord Eliot, m.p. 

The Right Honourable Lord Ellen- 
borough, F.H.8. 
Edward EUice, Esq., f.h.s. 
160 Captain the Hon. George Elliot, r.n. 
The Hon. G. Agar Ellis, m.p., f.r.s. 
The Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone. 
Charles Enderby, Esq. 


The First List of Fellows. 

George Enderby, Esq. 
Captain George Everest, Surveyor- 
Gen. E.I.C., F.B.S. 

John Fairlie, Esq. 
Doctor Falconer. 
W. Falconer, Esq. 
Lieut. -Colonel Fanshawe, e.e. 
170 Alexander Findlay, Esq. 

William Henry Fitton, Esq., m.d., 


Captain Adolphus Fitzclarence, b.n. 
Lieutenant-Colonel G. Fitzclarence. 
Edward Forster, Esq., f.b.s. 
Captain Sir J. Franklin, b.n., f.b.s. 
Captain Franklin, e.i.a. 
Colonel Sir Augustus Frazer, k.c.b., 

B.A., F.B.S. 

J. W. Freshfield, Esq., F.B.S. 
John Fuller, Esq., f.h.s. 

180 John Gait, Esq., f.s.a. 

James Gardner, Esq. 

Nicholas Garry, Esq., Dep. Gov. 
Hudson's Bay Company, f.h.s. 

Henry Gawler, Esq. 

Davies Gilbert, Esq., M.P., p.b.s. 

Earl of Glasgow, f.b.s. 

Eight Hon. Visct. Goderich, f.b.s. 

Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, Esq., f.b.s. 

James Gooden, Esq., f.s.a. 

Adam Gordon, Esq. 
190 Major H. W. Gordon, b.a. 

Sir I. Willoughby Gordon, Bart., 

G.O.B., F.B.S. 

J. B. Gowan, Esq., f.g.s. 
John Edward Gray, Esq., f.g.s. 
G. B. Greenough, Esq., f.b.s. 
Thomas Green, Esq., m.p. 
Col. Greenwell, a.d.c. to the King. 
Rev. Richard Oreswell. 
John Griffin, Esq. 
John Guillemard, Esq., f.b.s. 
200 Hudson Gurney, Esq., m.p., f.b.s., 

Captain Basil Hall, b.n., f.b.s. 
Lieutenant W. S. Hall. 
Henry Hallam, Esq., f.b.s. 
Terrick Hamilton, Esq. 
William Bichard Hamilton, Esq., 


George Hammond, Esq. 
Lieutenant Harding, b.n. 
The Bight Honourable Sir Henry 
Hardinge, k.c.b. 

Bight Honourable Earl of Hard- 

wicke, K.G., F.B.S. 
210 Major-General Hardwicke, e.i.c, 

Captain T. G. Harriott. 
George Harrison, Esq., f.b.s. 
T. Charles Harrison, Esq., f.g.s. 
William Harrison, Esq., f.b.8. 
George Hathorn, Esq. 
Bobert William Hay, Esq., f.b.s. 
George Heald, Esq. 
The Bight Hon. John Charles Her- 

ries, m.p. 
Lord Marcus Hill. 
220 H. W. Hobhouse, Esq. 

John Cam Hobhouse, Esq., M.P., 


Thomas Hoblyn, Esq., f.b.s. 
James Hoffman, Esq. 
John Hogg, Esq. 
Bobert Holford, Esq., f.b.s. 
Doctor Holland, f.b.s. 
Bichard Hollier, Esq. 
Brofessor Hooker, f.b.s. 
Captain Horsburgh, e.i.c, f.b.s. 
230 Vice-Admiral the Honourable Sir 
Henry Hotham, k.c.b. 
Vice-Admiral Sir Wm. Hotham, 


John Hudson, Esq. 
Bev. Dr. Hunt, f.s.a. 
The Eight Hon. William Huskis- 
son, m.p. 

Sir E. H. Inglis, Bart., m.p., f.b.s. 
Captain the Honourable Charles 

Leonard Irby, b.n. 
Lieutenant Thomas J. Irvine, b.n. 

Eichard Jenkins, Esq. 
William Jerdan, Esq., f.b.s. 
240 John Heueage Jesse, Esq. 
Charles Jones, Esq. 
Thomas Jones, Esq., f.h.s. 
Colonel Jones, b.e., a.d.c to the 

E. W. Jones, Esq. 
William Jones, Esq., f.h.s. 

Captain Kater, v.p.b.s. 
Joseph Kay, Esq. 
Lieutenant Edward Kendall, b.n. 
Eev. J. Kenrick. 
250 Major the Honourable George Kep- 
pel, f.s.a. 

The First List of Fellows. 


H. Bellenden Ker, Esq., f.b.s. 

H. T. Kilbee, Esq. 

Captain Philip Parker King, E.N., 


Chas. Knight, Esq. 

H. Gaily Knight, Esq., f.l.s. 

Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq., 


Edward Copleston, Lord Bishop of 
Llandaff, F.S.A. 

Lieutenant Larcom, b.e. 

William J. Law, Esq. 
260 Colonel W. M. Leake, f.b.s. 

John Lee, Esq., ll.d., f.s.a. 

Stephen Lee, Esq. 

Thomas Legh, Esq., f.b.s. 

John Lindley, Esq., f.b.s. 

J. A. Lloyd, Esq. 

William Horton Lloyd, Esq. 

Edward Hawke Locker, Esq., f.b.s. 

Professor Long. 

John Wilson Lowry, Esq. 
270 J. W. Lubbock, Esq., f.b.s. 

George Lyall, Esq. 

Charles Lyell, Esq., f.b.s. 

John M'Arthur, Esq. 

Major J. Macfarlane, E.I.C. 

Alexander Mackenzie, Esq. 

Harry Mackenzie, Esq. 

The Right Hon. Sir James Mackin- 
tosh, M.P., F.B.S. 

Edward Magrath, Esq. 

Captain Mangles, b.n., f.b.s. 
280 Edward Marjoribanks, Esq. 

William Marsden, Esq., f.b.s. 

Alexander Marsden, Esq. 

J. Marshall, Esq., m.p. 

Rev. J. W. Martin. 

Joseph Martineau, Esq., f.h.s. 

G. F. Mathison, Esq. 

Doctor Maton, f.b.s. 

Acheson Maxwell, Esq. 

George Mayer, Esq. 
290 The Right Hon. Lonl Viscount Mel- 
ville, K.T., F.B.S. 

Viscount Milton, f.b.s. 

Dr. Charles Mitchell. 

Captain M'Konochie, b.n. 

Sir Charles Monck, Bart. 

Moses Montefiore, Esq. 

Aristides Franklin Mornay, Esq., 


James Moyes, Esq. 
Captain R. Z. Mudge, b.e. 
Captain William Mudge, bjj. 

300 Roderick Impey Murchison, Esq., 


Thomas Murdoch, Esq., f.b.s. 
Lieutenant Hastings Murphy, b.e. 
Lt.-Gen. the Right Hon. Sir George 

Murray, g.c.b., f.b.s. 
John Murray, Esq. 
T. Laurie Murray, Esq. 
T. M. Musgrave, Esq. 
T. Myers, Esq., ll.d. 
Captain Lord Napier, b.n. 
Professor Napier. 
310 Sir George Nayler, k.g.h., f.b.8. 
William Nicholson, Esq. 
George Nicholson, Esq. 
Alexander Nimmo, Esq. 
Lord Nugent, m.p., f.s.a. 

Nathaniel Ogle, Esq. 

George Ormerod, Esq., F.S.A. 

Thomas J. Ormerod, Esq. 

The Right Hon. Sir Gore Ouseley, 

Bart.,, f.b.8. 
Doctor Outram, b.n. 
320 Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen, 

B.N., F.H.S. 

F. Page, Esq., f.g.s. 

G. Palmer, Esq. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Parker, b.a. 
Captain Sir William Edward Parry, 

B.N., F.B.S. 

Francis Charles Parry, Esq., m.d., 


Lieut.-Colonel Pasley, b.e., f.e.s. 

J. Pattison, Esq. 

The Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel, 

M.P., F.B.S. 

J. H. Pelly, Governor Hudson's Bay 
Company, f.h.s. 
330 C. R. Pemberton, Esq. 

Richard Penn, Esq., F.B.S. 

W. Hazledine Pepys, Esq., f.b.s. 

T. Erskine Perry, Esq., f.g.s. 

Louis Hayes Petit, Esq., f.b.s. 

Sir Thomas Phillips, Bart., f.b.s. 

Captain Charles Phillips, B.N., f.b.8. 

Frederick Pigou, Esq. 

John Plowes, Esq. 

Rev. C. Plumer, 
340 Admiral Sir Charles Morice Pole, 
Bart., g.c.b., f.b.s. 

The Hon. W. Ponsonby, m.p. 

Charles Pope, Esq. 

Lord Porchester. 

Lieutenant Portlock, b.e., f.g.s. 


The First List of Fellows. 

Charles Potts, Esq. 

Benjamin Price, Esq. 

Captain W. Jones Prowse, b.n. 

Captain Lord Prudhoe, b.n., f.b.8. 

John Radcliffe, Esq. 
350 Crosier Eaine, Esq. 

C. Reading, Esq. 

George Rennie, Esq., f.r.8. 

John Rennie, Esq., f.b.s. 

Rev. George C. Renouard. 

Lieutenant Renwick, b.e. 

Dr. Richardson, b.n., f.b.s. 

Captain Rohe, b.e. 

Lieutenant F. H. Robe. 

Lieutenant T. Congreve Robe, b.a. 
360 Lieutenant C. G. Robinson, b.n. 

Rear-Admiral G. Tremayne Rodd, 


P. M. Roget, Esq., m.d., Sec. r.s. 

George Rose, Esq. 

John Rouse, Esq. 

C. E. Rumbold, Esq. M.P., f.s.a. 

Lord John Russell, m.p. 

His Grace the Duke of Rutland. 

Joseph Sabine, Esq., f.b.s. 

The Right Hon. Lord St. Helens, 

G.C.H., F.8.A. 

370 Marquis of Salisbury. 

Major H. Scott, b.a. 

Claude E. Scott, Esq. 

Professor Sedgewick, f.b.s., p.g.s. 

The Earl of Selkirk. 

Lord Selsey, f.b.s. 

Nassau William Senior, Esq. 

Lieutenant W. L. Sheringham, b.n. 

Captain W. H. Shirreff, b.n. 

Henry T. Short, Esq. 
380 Lord Skelmersdale, f.h.s. 

Lieutenant M. A. Slater, b.n. 

Marquis of Sligo, f.h.s. 

John Smirnove, Esq., f.b.s. 

Lieut.-Colonel Sir Charles Smith, 

C.B., B.E. 

George Smith, Esq., F.L.S. 
James Smith, Esq. 
Joseph Smith, Esq., f.b.s. 
Peter Smith, Esq. 
William Smith, Esq., m.p., f.b.s. 
390 Captain W. H. Smyth, b.n., f.b.s. 
Thomas Snodgrass, Esq., f.b.s. 
Captain Sotheby, b.n. 
William Sotheby, Esq., f.b.s. 
Sir James South, f.b.s., p.a.s. 
Alexander Young Spearman, Esq. 

Ralph Spearman, Esq. 

The Right Hon. Earl Spencer, e.g., 

Captain the Hon. F. Spencer, c.B., r.n. 
A. Spottiswoode, Esq., m.p. 
400 R. Spottiswoode, Esq. 
Rev. Edward Stanley. 
Major-General the Hon. G. A. Chet- 

wynd Stapylton. 
Sir George Staunton, Bart, f.b.8. 
Daniel Stephenson, Esq. 

Earl Talbot, k.p., f.b.8. 
Lieutenant - General Sir Herbert 

Taylor, g.c.h. 
John Taylor, Esq. 
Richard Taylor, Esq., f.s.a. 
Colonel Thatcher, e.i.c. 
410 J. Deas Thomson, Esq., f.b.s. 
Lord Chief-Justice Tindal. 
Charles Tindal, Esq. 
Colonel James Tod. 
Colonel Trench, m.p. 
W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., f.g.s. 
Sir Coutts Trotter, Bart. 

A. B. Valle, Esq. 
Comte Valsamachi. 
Colonel Sir C. Broke Vere, k.c.b. 
420 Col. Sir H. C. Yerney, Bart, f.g.s. 
Lord Vernon, f.b.s. 
Captain Vetch, b.e., f.g.s. 
N. A. Vigors, Esq., f.b.s. 

Horace Waddington, Esq. 
James Walker, Esq. 
Mr. John Walker. 
Mr. John Walker, Jun. 
H. G. Ward, Esq. 
John Ward, Esq., m.p. 
430 John Ward, Esq., f.h.s. 
William Ward, Esq., m.p. 
Lieutenant Washington, b.n. 
Sir Frederick B. Watson, e.c.h., f.b.s. 
Ralph Watson, Esq., f.s.a. 
J. Weale, Esq. 
Thomas Webb, Esq. 
His Grace the Duke of Wellington, 


Major Wells, b.e. 
John Weyland, Esq., f.b.s. 
440 Rev. W. Whewell, f.b.s., Prof. Min. 

Trin. Col. Camb. 
Frederick White, Esq. 
The Honourable Richard Bootle 

Wilbraham, m.p. 

The First List of Fellows. 


William Williams, Esq., f.s.a. 
Rev. Dr. Williams, Master of Win- 
chester College. 
Charles M. Willich, Esq. 
John Wilson, Esq., f.h.s. 
John Wilson, Esq. 
L. P. Wilson, Esq. 
Thomas Wilson, Esq. 
450 Alderman Winchester, f.h.s. 
William Wingfield, Esq. 
Sir Alexander Wood. 

Captain W. Woodley, b.n. 

John Woolmore, Esq., d.m.t.h. 

John Wray, Esq. 

Sir Jeffry Wyatville, B.A., f.b.s. 

Mr. James Wyld. 

Major Wylde, r.a. 

The Right Honourable 
Yorke, f.b.s. 
460 James Young, Esq. 


Wh August, 1830. 





W. P. Ainsworth, Esq. 

The Earl of Albemarle (then Major Keppel). 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir James E. Alexander, c.b. 

John Pelly Atkins, Esq. 

George Bentham, Esq. 

The Earl of Enniskillen (then Viscount Cole). 

Francis H. Dickinson, Esq. 

Admiral C. R. Drinkwater Bethune, c.b. (then 

Captain Drinkwater, b.n.). 
Rev. H. Greswell. 
Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart. 
Sir T. Erskine Perry. 
General W. T. Renwick, b.e. 
Sir Harry Verney, Bart., m.p. 
James Wyld, Esq. 

32 The Bombay Society. 





The new Society commenced its operations under most favour- 
able auspices. King William IV. not only became its Patron, 
but was also pleased to grant an a.nnual donation of fifty 
guineas to constitute a premium for the encouragement and 
promotion of geographical science and discovery. His Majesty 
desired that the title should be the " Eoyal Geographical 

The African Association was merged in the Geographical 
Society, and Mr. Bartle Frere, as its representative, became a 
Member of the Council. The Palestine Association, which had 
been formed early in the century, also resolved that, as the 
Geographical Society embraced, in its views, purposes similar 
to those for which the Palestine Association had been instituted, 
their funds, papers, and books should be made over to the 
Society, to be employed as the Council may think fit for the 
promotion of geographical discovery. 

In 1832 a Geographical Society was formed at Bombay, 
having in view the elucidation of the geography of Western 
India and the surrounding countries, and mainly supported 
by the distinguished surveyors of the Indian Navy. The 
Bombay Society, in a letter from the Secretary dated the 6th 
of June, 1832, desired to form a junction with that of London, 
and to be considered a branch of it, not only that it might 
ensure its own stability, but that it might acquire additional 
usefulness and efficiency from the patronage and counsels of 
the European institution. The Bombay branch expressed a 
wish to receive instructions from the London Society in refer- 
rence to the general plan of operations which it should adopt. 
This application met with a cordial response, and the two 
Societies continued to co-operate and to work together har- 

* The Bombay Society did very good geographical service in its day, and pub- 
lished many valuable memoirs. Its Presidents were : — 

1831-38. Captain Sir Charles Malcolm, b.n. 
1838-49. Captain Daniel Ross, i.n., f.r.s. 
1849-51. Mr. John B. Willoughby, c.s. 
1851-52. Commodore Lushington, b.n. 

Lord Goderich and his Council. 33 

The first President of the .Royal Geographical Society was 
Viscount Goderich, then Secretary of State for the Colonies ; and 
the then Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lord Althorp, became 
one of the first Council ; while other Members of the Reform 
Ministry joined the Society. It was a friendly neutral ground 
for both sides of the House, the Duke of Wellington, Sir Robert 
Peel, and Lord Ellenborough enrolling their names as geo- 
graphers at the same time. Frederick John Robinson was the 
second son of Lord Grantham. He was Chancellor of the 
Exchequer in Lord Liverpool's Administration from 1823 to 
1827, was created Viscount Goderich in 1827, and, after the 
death of Mr. Canning, he was Prime Minister from August 
1827 to January 1828. In the Reform Ministry Lord Goderich 
was Secretary of State for the Colonies and, at the request of 
Sir John Barrow, he undertook the duties of first President of 
the Geographical Society from 1830 to 1833. 

A goodly company of zealous colleagues rallied round our 
first President There were three of the original founders of 
the Raleigh Club, Sir Arthur de Capell Broke, Colonel Leake, 
and Captain Mangles; and four members of the Foundation 
Committee, Sir John Barrow, Sir John Hobhouse, Mr. Robert 
Brown, and Mr. Mountstuart Elphinstone. Of statesmen there 
were Lord Althorp and Sir George Murray. Sailors mustered 
strong. The gallant Sir John Franklin was a Vice-President, 
and in the Council were Lord Prudhoe, Captain Beaufort, 
Captain Smyth, Captain Basil Hall — the charming writer — 
and Captain Mangles. 

Captain Francis Beaufort's name will ever be held in vene- 
ration by geographers. It appears in the list of our first 
Council, and in nearly every subsequent list until his death. 
During his long and honourable career he zealously and 
staunchly upheld the interests of geography, and maintained 
the most cordial relations between the Society and the Hydro- 
graphic Department of the Admiralty. On the death of poor 

1853-58. Commodore Sir H. Leake, K.C.B., B.N. 

1858-62. Commodore Wellesley, c.b., b.n. 

1862-65. Mr. W. E. Frere, as. 

1865-66. Captain T. Black (P. & 0. Co.) 

1866-67. Mr. Claude Erskine, as. 

1867-69. Lieut.-General Sir E. Napier, K.aB. 

1869-73. Mr. Justice Gibbs. 
The Secretaries were Dr. Heddle, 1831-42; Dr. Buist, 1842-58; and Dr. 
Kennelly, 1858-73. The Society published 19 volumes of Transactions with 
maps, and in 1866 Dr. Kennelly completed an index of the first 17 volumes. But 
the abolition of the Indian Navy was a fatal blow to the Bombay Geographical 
Society. In January 1873 it came to an end. It was amalgamated with the 
Bombay Branch of the Asiatic Society, forming a Geographical Section of it, with 
a special Sub-Committee and Secretary. 


34 Lord Goderich and his Council. 

Dalrymple in 1808, he was succeeded as Hydrographer by 
Captain Hurd, who obtained sanction for employing Captain 
Beaufort to examine the coast of Karamania in the Levant, 
while Lieut. W. H. Smyth was employed with the Sicilian 
flotilla. Captain Hurd died in 1823. Sir Edward Parry was 
Hydrographer from 1825 to 1823, and in the latter year Captain 
Beaufort succeeded to a post which he held with great benefit 
to the service and to geography for twenty-six years. 

James Horsburgh sat with Beaufort at our first Council 
Board. Commencing his career as a cabin boy, Horsburgh rose 
to the command of an Indiaman, and after many years of 
indefatigable labour in collecting materials, he completed his 
'East India Directory,' which passed through many editions 
and, as newly edited by our Associate Captain Taylor, is still 
the recognised guide for the navigation of the eastern seas. 
Horsburgh's superintendence of the publication of charts at 
the India House commenced in 1810, and continued until his 
death in 1836. He was an ardent supporter of the Society, 
and was a benefactor to our library in its first commencement. 

Eennell, one of the greatest geographers of this century, 
died only a few months before our Society was inaugurated. 
Yet he was represented on the Council by his son-in-law, 
Admiral Sir J. Tremaine Eodd, C.B., who, with Lady Eodd, 
had assisted Major Eennell in the preparation of his current 
charts. Sir John Eodd was a benefactor to our library when 
iHits infancy. He died in 1838. In 1844 Lady Eodd presented 
the Society with a medallion of her father Major Eennell. 

Among men of science and scholars, Lord Goderich was sup- 
ported by Mr. Baily, Mr. Greenough, Mr. E. W. Hamilton, 
and Mr. George Long, to whom Eoderick Murchison was added 
in 1833. Mr. Francis Baily was one of our first Trustees, and 
afterwards a Vice-President ; but he was better known as the 
mainspring of the Astronomical Society, and for his catalogues 
of stars and Life of Flamsteed. He died in 1845. Greenough 
and Hamilton became Presidents, and George Long was after- 
wards a Secretary of the Society. In topography the Council 
was represented by Mr. John Britton, and by Mr. Brockedon 
the artist and Alpine explorer. 

Such were the men who assisted the first President in the 
first dawn of our Society. Lord Goderich occupied the Chair 
from 1830 to 1833 ; when he was succeeded from 1833 to 1835 
by Sir George Murray, the Duke's Quartermaster-General 
during the Peninsula war, and Secretary of State for the 
Colonies from 1828 to 1830. Sir George died at the age of 
seventy-four in 1846. 

Sir John Barrow himself, who had been created a Baronet in 

Sir John Barroio and the first Secretaries. 35 

1835, was our third President, from 1835 to 1837. To this 
great man the Society mainly owes its existence, and its early 
prosperity. He looked upon it as likely to confer a lasting 
benefit on his country, and to be the efficient means of 
amassing and disseminating valuable information. He himself 
was for many years the leading spirit, in this country, in the 
despatch of expeditions of discovery, and geographers will ever 
hold his name in reverence. His very numerous geographical 
articles in the ' Quarterly Review,' during a long series of 
years, had materially increased the interest taken in geo- 
graphy ; and thus the ' Quarterly Review ' may be considered 
as an active agent in leading to the foundation of the Society. 
Those who have had the privilege of perusing the private cor- 
respondence of naval men of that time, especially the letters 
of the gallant Fitzjames, know that the career of the Secretary 
of the Admiralty was marked by endless acts of thoughtful 
kindness, as well as by the industry and ability with which 
he served his country. After having been Secretary of the 
Admiralty for forty years, Sir John Barrow retired in 1845, 
and died full of years and honours in 1849. A portrait of Sir 
John Barrow hangs in the Council Room of the Society. It 
is a copy of the picture by Jackson, the original of which is 
in the collection of Mr. John Murray. 

The first Secretary of the Society, who organised the opening 
work and edited the early volumes of our Journal, was a sailor, 
Captain Alexander Maconochie, r.n., k.h. This officer entered 
the navy in 1803, and after seeing active service on the coast 
of Spain and in the West Indies, became a Lieutenant in 
1809. He was a prisoner from that year until 1814, having 
been obliged to surrender to the Dutch fleet in the Texel, and 
after the war he served under Sir Alexander Cochrane until 
he was promoted. At the foundation of the Society, Captain 
Maconochie became Secretary, an office which he held until 

1836. He had been among the foremost promoters of the 
Society. As Secretary he prepared all the business, had the 
immediate management of the finance under the Treasurer, 
superintended the publications, ensured accuracy by a rigid 
scrutiny, and abstracted the most valuable matter from 
numerous documents too voluminous to be published entire. 
For these services, and for his sound judgment, even temper, 
and untiring zeal, he received the hearty thanks of the Council 
on his retirement in 1836. He had accepted an appointment 
in Tasmania, was for some time Secretary to the Government 
of that colony, and afterwards Superintendent of the penal 
settlement at Norfolk Island. Captain Maconochie died in 1861. 

His colleague, as Honorary and Foreign Secretary, was the 

d 2 

36 Captain Washington. — Mr. W. R. Hamilton. 

Rev. George Cecil Renouard, who held the appointment for 
sixteen years, from 1830 to 1846. In early life he had been 
Chaplain to the Embassy at Constantinople, and afterwards to 
the Factory at Smyrna, and on returning to Cambridge in 1814 
he was elected Professor of Arabic. His acquaintance with 
the geography and languages of the East made his services most 
valuable to this and other societies, and he gave his time and 
talents, in unstinting measure, to correct and improve our 
publications, and especially to promote a uniform system of 
orthography. Sir Roderick Murchison said that " Mr. Re- 
nouard's kindly manners and true modesty endeared him to 
every one on the Council with whom he acted, and when he 
spoke on any moot point, he was as logical in his deductions as 
he was accurate in his facts." As Rector of Swanscombe near 
Gravesend, he was an excellent parish priest, and he died there 
on February 15th, 1867, aged 87. 

As a successor to Captain Maconochie, our President Sir 
John Barrow secured for the Society the able and zealous ser- 
vices of another naval officer. John Washington was born in 
1800, and entering the navy in 1812, he saw much active 
service in the waters of the Chesapeake and on the American 
coasts. He was promoted when serving in the Forth on the 
Pacific Station, and got leave to come home from Valparaiso by 
crossing the Andes to Mendoza, and thence over the Pampas to 
Buenos Ayres. Afterwards, while serving in the Mediter- 
ranean, Washington explored the interior of Morocco, fixing 
several positions astronomically. He became a Commander in 
1833, and Secretary of the Geographical Society in 1836. In 
this position he infused vigour into our proceedings, and 
greatly improved our publications, labouring assiduously with 
the assistance of only a single clerk. It was Washington who 
introduced the practice of annually reviewing the progress of 
geography in the past year. He prepared two such addresses 
for 1837 and 1838, and it was this initiative which led to the 
delivery of annual addresses by the Presidents of the Society. 

Oar fourth President occupied the chair, during his first term 
of office, from 1837 to 1839. Mr. William Richard Hamilton 
was born in 1777, and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge, 
where he acquired thorough classical knowledge. In 1799 he 
entered the diplomatic service as Private Secretary to Lord 
Elgin when he went to Constantinople, and in 1801, on the 
evacuation by the French, he was sent to Egypt to negotiate 
the terms of peace. He then obtained the cession of several 
works of Egyptian art, including the famous trilingual stone of 
Rosetta. In 1802 Lord Elgin obtained the gift of the Par- 
thenon marbles from the Porte. Mr. Hamilton was conveying 

Mr. Hamilton's first Address. 37 

them to England when the ship was wrecked off Cerigo, and 
these treasures were submerged, but thanks to the zeal and 
perseverance of our late President they were rescued from the 
deep, and have loDg been among the chief ornaments of the 
British Museum. In 180.^ Mr. Hamilton became Under-Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs, a post which he occupied until 
1822, when he was appointed Minister at Naples. In 1825 he 
retired from public life, and gave himself up to the pursuits of 
literature and science. He was an early member of the Raleigh 
Club, was Vice-President of the Society in 1831, on the Council 
in 1836, and was elected President in 1838. In the first year 
of his Presidency he set the example of reading an Anniversary 
Address from the chair, which custom, never since departed 
from, has been one important means of ensuring the usefulness 
of our labours, and exciting a general interest in all geographical 
questions. Previously the Society had been furnished with 
annual addresses on the progress of geography by the Secre- 
taries, but Mr. Hamilton assumed this duty himself, and his 
able and admirably conceived discourse of May 1838 is the 
Inaugural Presidential Address. 

After developing the links which connect geography with the 
other sciences, and with history and statistics, Mr. Hamilton 
thus proceeds : — " But the real geographer becomes at once an 
ardent traveller, indifferent whether he plunges into the burning 
heats of tropical deserts, plains, or swamps, launches his boat on 
the unknown stream, or endures the hardships of an Arctic 
climate, amidst perpetual snows and ice, or scales the almost 
inaccessible heights of Chimborazo or the Himalaya. Buoyed 
up in his greatest difficulties by the consciousness that he 
is labouring for the good of his fellow-creatures, he feels delight 
in the reflection that he is upon ground untrodden by man, that 
every step he makes will serve to enlarge the sphere of human 
knowledge, and that he is laying up for himself a store of 
gratitude and fame." Lord Ripon, in a subsequent Address, 
said that these stirring words were followed up by such clear 
and precise analyses of all the prominent geographical researches 
of the year as to fix a high standard for the discourses of all 
future Presidents. When those researches had reference 10 
archaeology and numismatics, or to any point of ancient history, 
then it was that Mr. Hamilton shone out as the most powerful 
comparative geographer, and his hearers felt the true value of 
the application of his learning. 

With the aid of Captain Washington and Mr. Renouard, our 
accomplished fourth President gave renewed vigour to the 
Society's operations. He was President for a second term, from 
1841 to 1843, and Trustee from 1846 to 1857. He was also 

38 Mr. Greenouyh. 

a very active Trustee of the British Museum, and managed the 
affairs of the Dilettanti Club until within a week of his death. 
Mr. Hamilton died at the great age of 82, in 1859. 

Mr. Hamilton was succeeded in the chair of our Society by 
one of its greatest benefactors, Mr. George Bellas Greenough, 
who was a Vice-President when the Society was founded, and 
President from 1839 to 1841. Born in 1778, Mr. Greenough 
was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and in 1798 went to 
Gottingen, where the eloquence of Blumenbach attracted him 
to the study of natural science ; and he afterwards acquired the 
elements of geology and mineralogy under Werner at Freiburg. 
From 1802 to 1807 he was actively connected with the Royal 
Institution, and in the latter year he founded the Geological 
Society and became its first President. His chief geological 
work was the map of England and Wales, and he also pub- 
lished a ' Critical Examination of the first principles of Geology/ 
which deservedly attracted much attention at the time. In 
1824 Mr. Greenough built a villa in the Eegent's Park, where 
he formed a fine library and a large collection of maps and 
charts. He was one of the leaders of the first British Associa- 
tion Meeting at York in 1831, and in the same year was 
elected a Vice-President of our Society, an office which he held 
until he became President in 1839. His Anniversary Ad- 
dresses were worthy to follow those of Mr. Hamilton, and they 
can have no higher praise. After resigning the chair, he was 
either a Vice-President or Member of the Council until his 
death in 1854. By his will Mr. Greenough bequeathed his 
fine collection of geographical books, maps, and charts, to 
the Society of which he had been so active and useful a 
member from its foundation until his own death; and he 
added a sum of 500Z. to defray the expense of accommodating 
and arranging the collection. Lord Ellesmere, in his address, 
concluded his notice by saying that it should be the pride 
of geographers to record their admiration of the deep thinking 
philosopher and true geographer, George Bellas Greenough. 
His Lordship also suggested that a bust of Greenough should be 
placed near the collections with which he so munificently 
enriched the Society ; and this proposal was promptly adopted. 
The bust of Greenough, with that of Murchison, stands in the 
Society's map room. 

Mr. W. B-. Hamilton succeeded Mr. Greenough, and during 
this second term of his Presidentship the Society lost the 
services of its Secretary, Captain Washington. That ac- 
complished surveyor was needed afloat, and he resigned the 
Secretaryship in 1841. He was appointed to the Black Eagle, 
in which vessel he brought the King of Prussia to England, 

Colonel Jackson. 39 

and soon afterwards was promoted to post rank. Up to 1847 
he was surveying in the Blazer, and in 1855 he succeeded Sir 
Francis Beaufort as Hydrographer to the Admiralty ; maintain- 
ing the same spirit of activity, action, and order in the survey- 
ing service, by following in the footsteps of his revered 
predecessor. He lost no opportunity presented to him by his 
official position of rendering essential service to the Society, 
and of promoting every geographical expedition. He was 
especially energetic in connection with the search for Sir John 
Franklin's Expedition, and gave steady and cordial support to 
Lady Franklin through all her efforts to discover the fate of 
her husband and his gallant followers. Exhausted by over- 
work in his office, the Hydrographer died in 1864 at Havre, 
while seeking rest by travelling abroad. 

Captain Washington was succeeded by Colonel Jackson, 
who was our Secretary from 1841 to 1847. Originally in the 
East India Company's service, this officer volunteered for the 
Russian army in 1814, and rose in it to the rank of Colonel of 
the Staff Corps. When he retired, he received the appointment 
of Russian Commissioner in London for the Department of 
Manufactures, and he combined with this duty the Secretaryship 
of our Society. As a geographer his labours were very useful. 
He published 'Aide Memoire du Voyageur' in 1834, which 
contains many hints and instructions for young travellers; the 
useful manual, ' What to observe, or the Traveller's Re- 
membrancer;' and also a suggestive paper on 'Picturesque 
Descriptions.' As Secretary he edited the Journals with ability, 
and completed an index of the first ten volumes : and he wrote 
a glossary of geographical terms, a memoir on cartography, and 
the ' Military Topography of Europe/ edited from the French 
of Lavallee, which in his hands became almost a new work. He 
thus devoted many of the best years of his life to advancing our 
science, and, retiring from the Secretaryship in 1847, he died on 
March 16th, 1853, in the sixty-third year of his age. 

Mr. Hamilton was succeeded in 1843 by Mr. Roderick I. 
Murchison. It has already been seen that the name of pur 
great President did not appear in the list of our first Council, 
although he was an active Member of the Foundation Commit- 
tee. When the Geographical Society was founded, Murchison 
was just commencing his memorable investigations connected 
with the Silurian formations. He began this work at Llandeilo 
in the spring of 1831, and in September he was at Bishop- 
thorpe, active in the foundation of the British Association at 
York. He continued to work at the geology of South Wales, 
with ardour and marvellous insight, during the succeeding 
years. In July 1835 he first proposed the name " Silurian " for 

40 Roderick Murchison. — Lord Colchester. 

the formation, in 1836 he and Sedgwick identified the Devo- 
nian rocks with the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, and in 1838 
his great work ' The Silurian System ' was published. In 1839 
Lady Murchison bought the house at 16, Belgrave Square, which 
was for so many years the centre of kindly hospitality for 
geographers, where young aspirants received help and en- 
couragement, and the old were welcomed with generous appre- 
ciation. From 1840 to 1843 Murchison was hard at work, with 
his colleagues De Verneuil and Von Keyserling, in Eastern 
Europe, investigating the geology of Russia and the Ural 
Mountains, and he had only just returned from this important 
service, when he accepted the office of President of the 
Geographical Society for the first time. But, even in his 
busiest and most absorbing geological years, he had never been 
long absent from the work of our Society. He was on the 
Council in 1833, Vice-President in 1836, on the Council again 
in 1838, Vice-President in 1842, and was elected President in 
May 1843. His Vice-Presidents were his two predecessors, Mr. 
Hamilton and Mr. Greenough, with Lord Colchester and Sir 
John Rennie ; and among his Council were Sir John Barrow, 
Captain Beaufort the Hydrographer, Charles Enderby the great 
promoter of Antarctic V oyages, Bartle Frere, George Long, Sir 
Charles Malcolm, and Sir Woodbine Parish. His Secretaries 
were Colonel Jackson and Mr. Renouard. 

While still deeply immersed in the preparation of his work 
on Russia, Murchison delivered his first Anniversary Address to 
our Society on May 27th, 1844. On that occasion Sir John 
Franklin and Sir George Back became Vice-Presidents, and 
Captains Smyth and Washington joined the Council ; while Sir 
Henry de la Beche, the Director of the Geological Survey, was 
welcomed by Murchison as a new Fellow of the Society. The 
most interesting feature of the new President's first address was 
the account he gave of the Ural Mountains and the gold pro- 
duce of Siberia. In his second address he announced the de- 
parture from England of our gallant Vice-President, Sir John 
Franklin, on the memorable expedition during which he died 
while "forging the last link of the North- West Passage." 
Murchison was knighted in 1846, the year after vacating the 
President's chair at the end of his first term. 

The next President was Lord Colchester, who was born in 
1798, was educated at Westminster, and went to sea in 1811. 
He saw active service during the war, both in the Mediterranean 
and on the coast of North America, and in 1816 went to China 
in the Alceste with Lord Amherst's Mission. He accompanied 
the Ambassador in his journey through China, and drew the 
sketches which illustrated the history of the embassy. As 

Mr. W. J. Hamilton. 41 

Commander he had the Racehorse daring the Greek war in the 
Levant, and was posted in 1826. He was in command of the 
Volage on both the east and west coasts of South America, but 
retired from active service when she was paid-off. Joining our 
Society in 1836, he was on the Council in 1840, and President 
from 1845 to 1847. He continued as Vice-President, or as a 
Member of the Council, with scarcely any intermission, until 
1866, the year before his death. 

During Lord Colchester's term of office it became necessary, 
owing to want of funds, to reduce the expenses. The Society's 
financial embarrassment at this period was caused by excessive 
expenditure on expeditions as compared with the funds at its 
command, and was increased by the serious commercial crisis 
of 1846. The Secretaries, Colonel Jackson and Mr. Renouard, 
resigned, and it was resolved that there should be two honorary 
Secretaries, and an Assistant-Secretary on a reduced salary. 
This new system came into operation when Lord Colchester 
vacated the chair in 1847. At this time a scheme was sub- 
mitted to the Council for giving more definite direction to its 
work. It was in the form of a privately printed pamphlet, 
" On the Organization of geographical labour," and it received 
the attention of a Special Committee. But the state of the 
Society's affairs was not then favourable to the proposal. 

In 1847 Mr. William J. Hamilton became President, Mr. 
George Long and Major Shadwell Clerke the Honorary Secre- 
taries, and Dr. Humble the paid Assistant-Secretary. 

Mr. William John Hamilton, the son of the former President 
Mr. W. R. Hamilton, was born in London on July 5th, 1805. 
His education was commenced at Charter-house and completed 
at Gottingen, and in 1827 he entered the diplomatic service as 
Attache at Madrid. In 1835 Mr. Hamilton turned his attention 
to geology and obtained experience in field work with Sir 
Roderick Murchison. Soon afterwards he undertook au expe- 
dition, the main object of which was to investigate the compa- 
rative geography of Asia Minor. His ' Researches in Asia 
Minor, Pontus, and Armenia,' were published in two volumes, 
in 1842. For his valuable labours he was honoured with the 
Founder's Medal of our Society in 1843. He was our President 
from 1847 to 1819, and was twice President of the Geological 
Society. He was also Conservative Member for Newport from 
1841 to 1847, and Chairman of the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway Company. He was a most enlightened and zealous 
supporter of our Society, and continued on the Council until 
his death on June 27th, 1867. Mr. Hamilton was the father-in- 
law of one of our best and noblest naval Associates, the late 
Commodore Goodenough, whose father was also on our Council. 

42 Mr. Long. — Major Shadwell Clerke. 

Of the two Secretaries elected in 1847, Mr. George Long 
was an original Member, and had constantly been a Member of 
Council or Vice-President. Born at Poulton, in Lancashire, in 
1800, he was of Trinity College, Cambridge, and was a Wrangler 
in 1822. He was afterwards a Professor in the London Uni- 
versity, and took an active part in promoting the work of the 
Society for the diffusion of Useful Knowledge. He was one of 
the Editors of the ' Penny Cyclopaedia,' and the principal contri- 
butor to the valuable geographical articles in that work. A 
profound classical scholar, Mr. Long was the translator of 
Marcus Aurelius and Epictetus, and he contributed a paper 
on the Rivers of Susiana to our 'Journal' in 1842. After 
retiring from the Secretaryship, he was on the Council until 
1851 ; and he died at Portfield, near Chichester, on August 
10th, 1879. Major Shadwell Clerke, the Foreign Secretary, 
was an officer of great talent. He entered the army in 1804, 
and served with credit and gallantry in the Peninsular War, but 
he was wounded before Burgos, which resulted in the loss of 
a limb. He was actuated by a true zeal for geography, and 
an earnest desire to infuse a love for science into the services. 
With the latter object in view he ably conducted the ' United 
Service Journal,' and was one of the founders, with Admiral 
Smyth, of the United Service Museum. Major Shadwell Clerke 
was on our Council in 1845-46, Foreign Secretary in 1847-48, 
and was also Treasurer and Secretary of the Raleigh Club. 
He died in 1849. 

Mr. Hamilton, with the aid of these two zealous and accom- 
plished Secretaries, ably presided over our affairs. But cir- 
cumstances were, at that time, against success, and the prospects 
of the Society were not encouraging. Mr. Hamilton himself 
took a broad and enlightened view of our work. He said in his 
last Address ; — " that it is only by a complete union of scientific 
truth with popular interest that we can hope to see the science 
of geography take that hold of the public mind in this country, 
which shall ensure it the support necessary to secure its efficiency, 
and to maintain it in a healthful and powerful condition." 

It was by a steady adherence to the principle thus laid down 
by Mr. Hamilton, that the Society's progress was ensured, and 
that its subsequent prosperity became so great. The work of 
retrenchment, preparatory to very energetic measures to increase 
our numbers and efficiency, was commenced by the next Presi- 
dent, Admiral Smyth, whose bold and yet prudent management 
formed the turning-point of the Society's history. 

Admiral Smyth. 43 




1851 to 1881. 

Admiral W. H. Smyth, c.b., who was President from 1849 to 
1851, was the restorer of the prosperity of the Society. He 
was descended from Captain John Smith, whose valour and 
genius were so instrumental in the colonisation of Virginia. 
His father, Mr. Joseph Smyth, had estates in New Jersey, 
which were confiscated when the American Revolution suc- 
ceeded, owing to his staunch loyalty to the old country. His 
only son, born on January 21st, 1788, entered the navy in 1805, 
and saw active war service in the China and Indian seas. In 
1810 he was in command of a large gunboat in the defence of 
Cadiz, and was often engaged and under heavy fire from the 
French forts. As a reward for his excellent services at Cadiz, 
and for a valuable survey he had made of the Isla de Leon and 
adjacent coast, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in 
1813, and was sent to command a flotilla employed in the 
defence of Sicily. He executed some most valuable surveys, 
entirely through his own resources, for which he was made 
Commander in 1815. His 'Atlas of Sicily,' with a memoir, 
was published soon afterwards. From this time he was, for 
several years, actively engaged on surveys in the Mediterranean 
and Adriatic, first in the Aid, and from 1821 in the Adventure. 
His labours raised him to the first rank among maritime sur- 
veyors, and Sir Francis Beaufort, the Hydrographer, wrote to 
him : " The more I see of your Mediterranean Surveys, the 
more 1 admire the extent of your labours, the perseverance of 
your researches, the acuteness of your details, and the taste 
with which you have executed the charts." Smyth was pro- 
moted to post rank in 1824, and paid-off the Adventure in 
November of the same year. As an astronomer and meteoro- 
logist he was an untiring observer to the close of his life. He 
erected an observatory at Bedford, and from 1828 to 1842 a 
meteorological register was kept there and at Cardiff, which 
was published monthly in the ' United Service Journal.' 
Admiral Smyth's equatorial refractor was one of the first 
constructed in this country, and with it he made a series of 

44 Dr. Norton Shaw. 

observations of the highest value. His astronomical instru- 
ments were afterwards transferred to Dr. Lee's observatory at 
Hartwell, and in 1844 Admiral Smyth published his ' Cycle of 
Celestial Objects.' As an astronomer this distinguished officer 
stood in the first rank, and he was also an accomplished anti- 
quary and numismatist. He translated and edited the ' His- 
tory of the New World,' by Girolamo Benzoni, in 1857, for 
the Hakluyt Society. But it is for his great attainments 
as a geographer and hydrographer that our Society cherishes 
his memory. We have seen that he was one of our Founders. 
He was constantly on our Council from 1830, and Vice-President 
in 1845. He was President of the Society from 1849 to 1850, 
and Vice-President again from 1851 to 1855. In 1853 he 
became one of our Gold Medallists for his valuable and very 
popular work on the Mediterranean, as well as for his surveys. 
He died, at the age of 77, in September 1865, and his portrait 
hangs in the Society's Council Room. Admiral Smyth's 
eldest son, Mr. Warington Smyth, served on our Council from 
1871 to 1874. 

The Honorary Secretaries, during Admiral Smyth's Presidency, 
were Mr. John Hogg and Mr. Trithen. Mr. Hogg of Norton 
House, near Stockton-upon-Tees, was a zealous antiquary and 
comparative geographer, who served on our Council for several 
years, and was one of the Secretaries from 1849 to 1851. He 
contributed several papers, chiefly on scriptural geography, 
and always continued to take an interest in our work until 
his death on September 16th, 1869. Mr. Trithen was an 
Oriental scholar, and, after serving for a short time as our 
Secretary, became Professor of Modern Languages at Oxford, 
where he died in 1855. 

But the official from whom Admiral Smyth received the 
most active assistance was Dr. Norton Shaw, who was appointed 
Assistant-Secretary in 1849. His activity and zeal were chiefly 
exerted in procuring numerous additions to the list of Fellows. 
Norton Shaw was the son of an officer in the Danish service, 
and was born in one of the Danish West India Islands. He 
adopted the medical profession, and, before becoming our 
Assistant-Secretary, he had served as a surgeon under one of 
the great Companies of ocean steamers. Dr. Norton Shaw 
infused new life into the Society's proceedings, and through 
his energetic management the roll of our Fellows first assumed 
that progressive enlargement which continued long after his 
retirement. He was Assistant-Secretary for fourteen years, and 
soon after he resigned in 1863 Lord Stanley appointed him 
British Consul at Ste. Croix, where he died in 1868. 

With such efficient aid, Admiral Smyth applied himself 
vigorously and boldly to the work of restoring the Society's 

Colonel Yorke. — Dr. Hodgkin. 45 

affairs to a prosperous condition. Arrears were called in, and 
expenditure was reduced until it did not exceed the actual 
income. Very successful efforts were then made to increase 
the sterling value of the work, and the interest of the 
evening meetings, and the result was a considerable rise in 
the opinion, both at home and abroad, of the merit of the 
Society, and a rapid and unchecked increase in its numbers. 
In 1851 Admiral Smyth was able to announce that the 
Society was fairly afloat again, and his two spirit-stirring 
Addresses contributed, in no small degree, to this end. But no 
higher tribute could be offered to the value of Admiral Smyth's 
services than was done in the generous acknowledgment of his 
successor. Sir Roderick Murchison said : — " I found our geo- 
graphical vessel had been so ably piloted through the shoals 
with which she had been surrounded, and that her crew was in 
so healthful and sound a condition, that it would be easy for me 
to steer her onwards with the same genial trade-wind in which 
her good commander had transferred her to me. The present 
flourishing condition of the Society is due to the skill and 
moral courage with which Admiral Smyth conducted your 
affairs, supported by an efficient Council, and by our zealous 
Assistant-Secretary Dr. Norton Shaw." 

Admiral Smyth was succeeded by Sir Roderick Murchison, 
who had been knighted in 1846, and was President from 1851 
to 1853. The Honorary Secretaries, during this period, were 
Colonel Philip Yorke and Dr. Hodgkin. Colonel Yorke, the 
son of the Hon. and Rev. Philip Yorke, Rector of Great 
Horkesley and Prebendary of Ely, was an officer in the 
Guards, and always took a warm interest in our work. He 
was on the Council from 1847 to 1849, Secretary in 1851, and 
Vice-President in 1853. Colonel Yorke died childless in 
1874. Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, a Member of the Society of 
Friends, was born in 1798, and adopted the medical profession. 
He was Curator of the Museum at Guy's Hospital, and well 
known as a very active philanthropist. Dr. Hodgkin was one 
of our Honorary Secretaries from 1851 to 1862, and Foreign 
Secretary from 1862 to 1865. He accompanied Sir Moses 
Montefiore on a mission to Morocco, for the purpose of obtain- 
ing concessions in favour of the Jewish population, and he 
undertook two journeys to the Holy Land on philanthropic 
errands. Whilst on the second of these he was seized with the ill- 
ness which terminated his useful life at Jaffa on April 5th, 1866. 

During his second term of office, Sir Roderick was supported 
by a very strong geographical Council. His Vice-Presidents 
were the" Earl of Ellesmere, Admiral Smyth, Sir Woodbine 
Parish, and Sir George Back. Among the most active sup- 
porters of the Society was Sir Woodbine Parish, who served 

46 Tfie Hahluyt Society. 

almost continuously as Vice-President or Member of Council, 
from 1836 to 1853. He was for many years the regular referee 
on all subjects relating to South America. In the Council were 
four former Presidents besides Admiral Smyth ; there were the 
Hydrographer Sir Francis Beaufort, Captain FitzRoy, the sailor 
Duke of Northumberland (formerly Lord Prudhoe), Colonel 
Sykes, Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Mr. Murray of the Foreign 
Office, Mr. Renouard and Mr. Hogg, the former Secretaries, 
Lieut. Raper, e.n., the author of the standard work on naviga- 
tion, and John Arrowsmith the cartographer. Another great 
acquisition to the Council was Mr. A. G. Findlay. He served 
on it, almost continuously, from 1857 to 1874, and his assistance 
was highly valued by his colleagues, for his sound hydro- 
graphical knowledge. 

Hitherto one branch of geographical work, which had been 
considered essential in the days of Hakluyt and of Purchas, and 
is even more important now to the comparative geographer, had 
not been provided for. While current work was collected and 
published, no progress had been made in the efficient editing of 
earlier labours in the geographical field. But in 1847 the 
Hakluyt Society was formed for the purpose of printing 
rare and unpublished voyages and travels. This is a legitimate 
part of the work of geographers. For " the narratives of tra- 
vellers and navigators make us acquainted with the earth, its 
inhabitants and productions ; they exhibit the growth of inter- 
course among mankind, with its effects on civilization, and, 
while instructing, they at the same time awaken attention by 
recounting the toils and adventures of those who first explored 
unknown and distant regions." Sir Roderick at once perceived 
the importance of these objects, he became President of the 
Hakluyt Society at its foundation, and continued to hold that 
office until his lamented death, looking upon the Hakluyt as an 
auxiliary to the Geographical Society. In 1847 and 1848 the 
Secretary was Mr. Desborough Cooley, but in 1849 he was 
succeeded by Mr. R. H. Major of the Map Department in the 
British Museum, and by 1850 the Society was in that flourishing 
state in which it has ever since continued, performing work 
which is a needful supplement to that of the Royal Geographical 

Another important service to our science was done by 
Sir Roderick at this time. The papers on geographical 
subjects sent to the British Association had, since its founda- 
tion in 1831, been considered in the Geological Section. But 
in 1850 our President obtained a separate Geographical 
Section for us — Section E, and in 1851 the Geographical 
Section of the British Association assembled for the first time 
at Ipswich. The annual organization of this Section, after our 

Lord Ellesmere. 47 

own Session has come to a close, and its supply with original 
papers or reviews of work done, has ever since been an 
interesting and useful branch of the business of our Society. 

Sir Roderick Murchison's Anniversary Addresses, during his 
second term, were distinguished for those paiustaking analyses 
of the w r ork of travellers, and generous recognitions of their 
merits, which have invested the whole series of his geographical 
discourses with permanent value. He also commenced those 
brief but lucid essays on some special point which subsequently 
formed an admirable feature of his Addresses. In 1852 and 
1853 he discoursed on the great features of the African Con- 
tinent, and on the physical geography of the ocean. Sir 
Roderick extended his private hospitality, in the most liberal 
manner, to all the members of the Society, and frequently 
afforded them the opportunity of meeting the most distin- 
guished men of the day at his receptions in Belgrave Square. 
There can be no doubt that these soirees lent great support to 
the vigorous efforts of Dr. Norton Shaw in increasing the 
number of Fellows. This stimulating influence reached its 
highest point when the assemblies were held in the great art 
galleries of Lord Ellesmere and Lord Ashburton. 

The next President, who occupied the chair from 1853 to 
1855, was, from his position and his love for geography, most 
admirably fitted for the post. Lord Francis Egerton was born 
on January 1st, 1800, and, as second son of the first Duke of 
Sutherland, became heir to the Duke of Bridgewater and was 
created Earl of Ellesmere in 1846. Educated at Eton and dis- 
tinguished at Oxford, he soon took a high place in the House 
of Commons, and was Secretary for Ireland in the Duke of 
Wellington's administration (1828-30). But Lord Ellesmere, 
during the course of his useful and well-spent life, showed a 
greater love for literature and the arts than for politics. Between 
1834 and 1854 he contributed fifteen articles to the ' Quarterly 
Review,' and about half related to geographical research. In 
these charming essays he has discussed the manners and usages 
of the Japanese as told by the old Dutch writers, the chivalrous 
expedition of Rajah Brooke, and the researches of our Arctic 
and Antarctic explorers. Master of several languages, Lord 
Ellesmere was a poet by nature, and was thus able to put 
before his countrymen the thoughts of Goethe and of Schiller. 
Above all he was full of sympathy for the efforts of others, and, 
on several occasions, sustained with his purse men of genius 
who were labouring under difficulties, and who but for his 
timely aid could never have produced works which have taken 
a high place in science and letters. 
In the first year of Lord Ellesmere's Presidency, that dis- 

48 Sir Walter Trevelyan. 

tinguished Surveyor, Captain Francis Price Blackwood was 
Honorary Secretary, with Dr. Hodgkin. In 1841 Captain 
Blackwood had been appointed to the Fly, to assign the true 
positions and exact limits to the Great Barrier Reef, which 
stretches along the north-eastern shore of Australia. In the 
four years that he was thus employed, more than a thousand 
miles were surveyed and charted, and a beacon 70 feet in 
height was raised on Raine's Islet as a guide for passing 
through the Barrier Reef. In 1851 he went to Helsingborg, 
to observe the eclipse of the sun, and carefully examined the 
extraordinary projections of flame from the sun's limb. Captain 
Blackwood died in 1851, and was succeeded, as Honorary 
Secretary, by Sir Walter Trevelyan, one of our oldest and 
most zealous members, who had been on the Council since 
1843. After passing through Harrow and Cambridge, Sir 
Walter studied at Edinburgh, and became an excellent botanist 
and sound geologist; and he was besides an accomplished 
antiquary. In 1821 he visited the Faroe Islands, and was the 
author of an excellent work, to which his name is not attached, 
entitled 'Greenland, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands.' Sir 
Walter Trevelyan was Honorary Secretary from 1854 to 1857, 
Vice-President in 1857, and one of our Trustees from 1860 
until his death, which took place at Wallington, his seat in 
Northumberland, on March 23rd, 1879, when he was in his 
eighty-second year. 

Thus ably supported, Lord Ellesmere's term of office saw the 
Society rapidly increasing in prosperity, and in 1854 it was 
moved to more spacious and convenient premises in Whitehall 
Place. Our noble President also obtained the annual Govern- 
ment grant of 500Z. for the map room. He thus put the matter 
to the Chancellor of the Exchequer : — " The objects of our 
Society are of a nature which attracts to its operations men 
not only of first-rate, but of very varied eminence in all depart- 
ments of science and of the public service. We can command 
for our Council and management the services not only of men 
devoted to our special scientific pursuit, but of others also who 
are familiar with the conduct of business in every shape. We 
can thus offer a guarantee for redeeming our obligation to the 
public. Trust us and you will have no reason to repent of 
your confidence." The propriety and usefulness of the grant was 
further guaranteed by the powerful support of Mr. Joseph Hume. 
The library and maps were classified and arranged in the new 
premises by Mr. Trelawney Saunders, who was then the Curator. 
He drew up an account of the method adopted, which is pre- 
served in our archives. 

It was a source of great regret that, owing to the rule that a 

Admiral Beechey. 49 

President can only hold office continuously for two years, the 
Fellows were obliged to lose the services of Lord Ellesmere. 
In resigning his office, he gracefully insisted upon the hospitable 
privilege of still receiving his colleagues at Bridgewater House. 
" There are some functions," he said, " which I should be 
reluctant altogether to resign; and I have been better able 
than most men, from mere accidents of residence, to collect 
together, with the least inconvenience to the greatest number, 
the Members of the Society. If I am not wrong in supposing 
that such opportunities of occasional intercourse, to use an 
expression of Lord Stowell, ' lubricate the wheels of science,' I 
may hope to retain, as a simple Member of this Society, the 
honour, the privilege, and I must add the singular pleasure to 
myself, of promoting such intercourse as I have enjoyed as your 

Never has the Society had a warmer friend than Lord 
Ellesmere, or a President who was, from his varied accomplish- 
ments and popularity, better fitted to preside over its interests. 
He died, at the age of fifty-seven, on February 18th, 1857. 

He was succeeded by Admiral Beechey, our Arctic President, 
the son of the eminent artist Sir William Beechey. Born in 
February 1796, young Beechey was in Commodore Schomberg's 
brilliant action off the Isle of France in 1811, and in the 
Vengeur at the attack on New Orleans. In 1818 he was Lieutenant 
of the Trent under Franklin, in the Spitzbergen Expedition, of 
which he published a charming account in after years. No 
narrative had been given to the public when the expedition 
returned, and Beechey, remembering old Hakluyt's imputation 
on some of our early writers who, he says, " should have used 
more care in preserving the memory of the worthy acts of our 
nation," made up for the omission in 1843. In 1819-20 Beechey 
was first Lieutenant of the Hecla in Parry's first voyage, when 
he wintered at Melville Island. In 1821 he was with Smyth 
in the Adventure, surveying the north coast of Africa, and he 
went overland eastward from Tripoli as far as Derna, in July 
1822. During the three and a half succeeding years, Captain 
Beechey had command of the Blossom, engaged on a surveying 
and exploring voyage in the Pacific and up Behring Strait, 
where he extended the knowledge of the north coast of 
America to Cape Barrow. His ' Narrative of the Voyage of the 
Blossom,' was published in 1831. From 1837 to 1844 he was 
engaged on the survey of the coast of Ireland, and finally suc- 
ceeded to the important post of Superintendent of the Marine 
Branch of the Board of Trade. In 1854 he became a Rear- 
Admiral, and succeeded Lord Ellesmere as President of the 
Society in 1856. Suffering from ill-health, he still devoted his 


50 The Geographical Club. 

energies to the advancement of geography, and was transacting 
the Society's business up to the last week of his life. He died 
on November 29th, 1856. 

Sir Roderick Murchison filled the post which was vacated by 
Admiral Beechey's death for one year, and was then elected 
President for the regular term of two years, from 1857 to 1859. 
At this time Mr. Francis Galton succeeded Sir Walter Trevelyan 
as Honorary Secretary. Mr. Galton, the youngest son of 
Mr. S. T. Galton of Duddeston near Birmingham, and grandson 
of Dr. Erasmus Darwin, was born in 1822, and graduated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1844. In 1850, at his own cost, 
Mr. Galton fitted out an expedition to explore the interior of 
Southern Africa, through the country of the Damaras, and the 
Ovampo. In a journey of upwards of 2000 miles he fixed 
several positions astronomically, and for this service he was 
honoured with the Founder's Medal in 1853. In 1860 Mr. 
Galton published ' The Art of Travel, or Shifts and Contrivances 
available in Wild Countries,' which went through several 
editions ; and he also edited a volume entitled ' Vacation 
Tourists ' in 1862 and some succeeding years. He first joined 
the Council in 1854, was Secretary from 1857 to 1863, Foreign 
Secretary from 1865 to 1866, and, though occupied with other 
scientific pursuits, has ever since worked actively for the Society 
either as a Member of the Council or Vice-President. 

During the whole period of the Society's existence, from 
1830 to 1854, the old Raleigh Traveller's Club continued to 
perform its useful and convivial share of geographical work. 
Sir Roderick Murchison always strove to make the connection 
between the Club and the Society closer and more intimate. 
In 1834 the Raleigh Club gave a great dinner to welcome 
back Sir John Ross and his illustrious nephew from the Arctic 
Regions, and in 1838 a similar reception was given to the 
officers of the Euphrates Expedition. Returning travellers 
ever received a hearty reception at the Raleigh, and in June 
1838 Sir Roderick carried a resolution that the dinners should 
always take place on the same days as the meetings of the 
Society. He also urged all its Members to enrol themselves as 
Fellows of the Society. At last it was thought desirable to 
make th« connection still closer. On the 1st of May, 1854, at 
a special meeting of the Raleigh Club, four resolutions were 
carried by Sir Roderick: that the Raleigh Club should be 
dissolved, in order that a new Club might be formed in closer 
connection with the Society ; that the new Club should be 
called the Geographical Club, composed of Members of the 
Raleigh Club and Fellows of the Geographical Society ; that 
the first dinner should be on June 12th, 1854, and that Sir 

Sir Roderick Murchison. 51 

Roderick Murchison should be President ; an office which 1 e held 
during the rest of his life. Ever since, the dinners of the 
Geographical Club, with the President in the chair, have taken 
place previous to the meetings of the Society, to which the 
Members have adjourned. Here geographers and explorers 
of all nations have been welcomed and entertained, and our 
beloved President, Sir Roderick Murchison, presided at 206 out 
of the 223 Geographical Club dinners which took place between 
1854 and 1870. The annually increasing number of Fellows 
attending the evening meetings led to the formation of a second 
dining Club connected with the Society, called the Kosmos 
Club. It was founded in 1858 by Dr. Norton Shaw, and con- 
tinues to nourish under the auspices of its present Secretary 
Mr. Bates. 

In 1859 Earl de Grey and Ripon, the son of our first President, 
was elected to the same post, but he was obliged to vacate the 
chair on accepting office in the following year, and was succeeded 
by Lord Ashburton, from 1860 to 1862. 

It was in 1859 that the Royal Geographical Society received 
a Charter of Incorporation, and became a body politic and cor- 
porate, with perpetual succession, and a common seal. In this 
Charter the Council or governing body is declared to consist 
of a President, Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, Trustees, Secre- 
taries, and not more than twenty-one other Fellows ; and the 
Council is to have the sole management of the income and funds 
of the Society, and the appointment of officers and attendants. 
The Charter is dated February 8th, in the twenty-second year 
of Queen Victoria. 

In May 1862, on the retirement of Lord Ashburton, Sir 
Roderick Murchison was elected President for the fourth time, 
and he continued to occupy the chair during the eight succeed- 
ing years. Sir George Everest, the former Superintendent of 
the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, Admiral Collinson, 
the talented surveyor and Arctic Explorer, the veteran Sir 
George Back, John Crawfurd, the learned ethnologist and 
geographer, Sir Henry Rawlinson, and Viscoimt Strangford 
supported him as Vice-Presidents ; while he was aided on the 
Council by such surveyors as Sir Henry James and Sir Andrew 
Waugh, by such Arctic Explorers as M'Clintock and Sherard 
Osborn, by Galton, Baker and Grant among African travellers, 
and by our most eminent cartographers, Arrowsmith, Findlay, 
and John Walker. 

It was decided in 1862 that there should be two Honorary 
Secretaries, besides the Foreign Secretary ; and Mr. Francis 
Galton and Mr. William Spottiswoode (now President of the 
Royal Society) were elected. In the following year Mr. Galton 

e 2 

52 Sir Roderick Murchison. 

retired, and Mr. Spottiswoode and Mr. Clements Markham 
became the Honorary Secretaries. Mr. Clements Markham 
succeeded Mr. Major as Secretary of the Hakluyt Society in 
1858, and has continued to hold that post also. In 1865 he 
was elected Treasurer of the Geographical Club. In 1864 and 
1865 Mr. Clements Markham and Mr. Laurence Oliphant were 
the two Secretaries of the Geographical Society, and in 1866 
Mr. Oliphant was replaced by Mr. R. H. Major. After the 
retirement of Dr. Norton Shaw in 1863. Mr. Greenfield was 
Assistant-Secretary for one year, and in 1864 he was succeeded 
by Mr. Henry Walter Bates, the well-known author of that 
charming work, * The Naturalist on the River Amazons.' The 
Secretariat arrangements have since remained unchanged. Mr. 
Clements Markham and Mr. Major have, during all the succeed- 
ing years, been the Honorary Secretaries, and Mr. Bates the 
Assistant-Secretary and Editor of the Society's publications. 

Sir Roderick Murchison was created a K.C.B. in 1863, and 
a Baronet in 1866 ; and from other Sovereigns he also re- 
ceived well-earned honours. During the long period that he 
presided over the Society, Sir Roderick saw an extraordinary 
advance made in geographical discovery in all parts of the 
world, and his encouragement and active assistance were no 
slight elements in the success which attended the efforts of 
many explorers. Ever steadfast in forwarding the searches for 
our Vice-President Sir John Franklin, and his brave comrades, 
Murchison stood by Lady Franklin when the Government 
abandoned her, and was her warmest friend and supporter when 
she resolved to despatch M'Clintock's expedition. As regards 
African explorers, Sir Roderick, as is well known, became 
the personal friend of Dr. Livingstone, and the energetic 
supporter of Burton, Speke, Grant and Baker. Livingstone 
spoke of him as " the best friend I ever had — true, warm, and 
abiding." Almost the last work of our beloved President was 
the earnest endeavour to obtain a resumption of Arctic dis- 
covery, which was so warmly advocated by Sherard Osborn. 
He held that — "independent of the great geographical problem 
to be solved, the navy lacked something to occupy its energies 
in time of peace ;" and he sighed for the good days of adventure, 
of Raleigh and Drake, Hudson and Baffin. 

The character of Murchison was admirably portrayed by his 
successor, who served for so many years on the same Council with 
him. "Industry and energy, a clear head, a strong will, and 
great tenacity of purpose were among his leading character- 
istics ; while his warm feelings, his thorough honesty, his kind- 
ness of manner, his entire absence of jealousy, his geniality, fine 
temper, tact and firmness, peculiarly fitted him to preside over 

John Crawfurd. 53 

public bodies, and to leal his followers to good and useful 
ends. Many a young traveller has been sustained under his 
hardships by Sir Roderick's hopeful counsels. Sir Roderick 
indeed never deserted a friend in need. At one time he might 
be seen urging the Government to send out expeditions to 
search for Franklin ; at another he would be energetically 
defending Governor Eyre, an old Medallist of the Society, from 
what he regarded as persecution. When Speke and Grant 
were supposed to be in difficulties in Africa, he was active in 
organising relief. He was ever a steady supporter of Sir Samuel 
Baker ; and with Livingstone his name is entirely identified." 

One well-known face was missing from our meetings before 
we sustained the great loss of our revered President. Sir 
Roderick lived to record the merits of John Crawfurd, the 
great traveller and scholar. Born on the Island of Islay in 1783, 
Mr. Crawfurd was in his 85th year when he was unexpectedly 
carried off. In the East India Company's service, he was in the 
campaign with Lord Lake, but was soon afterwards transferred 
to Penang, where he commenced those studies of the Malay 
languages and people which enabled him eventually to compose 
his Malay grammar and dictionary. In 1811 he accompanied 
Lord Minto in his expedition to Java. Here he remained for 
nearly six years, amassing ethnological and geographical mate- 
rials ; the results of his researches appearing in 1820, in his 
' History of the Indian Archipelago.' In 1821 he was sent on 
a mission to Siam and Cochin China, and he acted as Governor 
of Singapore from 1823 to 1826*. In the latter year he went to 
the capital of Burma on an important mission, and on his return 
to England he took a somewhat leading part in the advocacy of 
free trade. Afterwards he devoted his energies to the study of 
ethnology, and was the life and soul of the Ethnological Society 
for many years, writing no less than thirty-eight memoirs for its 
journal. He first came upon the Council of our Society in 
1857, and continued to serjve upon it, and to be a constant 
attendant of onr meetings,) until his death in 1867. He scarcely 
ever failed to take part in our discussions, and while stoutly 
maintaining his own views, he always showed forbearance and 
courtesy to others. , . 

Sir Roderick deeply felt the loss of his dear old friend John 
Crawfurd. He was himself struck down with paralysis in the 
end of 1870, and he died full of years and honours on October 
22nd, 1871. His remains were followed to the grave by his 
successor Sir Henry Ravvlinson, by the Secretaries Mr. Clements 
Markham and Mr. Major, by the Assistant-Secretary Mr. Bates, 
and by Admiral Collinson, Admiral Richards, Colonel Grant, 
and Mr. John Murray. He bequeathed 1000/. to the Society 

54 Sir Henri/ Rawlinson. 

he had served so well ; and his bust now stands in the Map Room. 
There is also a portrait of Sir Roderick in the Society's Council 

In each of his Anniversary Addresses Sir Roderick Murchi- 
son usually dwelt upon one special point relating to discovery 
or to a question of physical geography, which formed a com- 
plete es?ay in itself. In 1853 his theme was physical 
geography ; in 1857, earthquakes ; in 1863, the sources of the 
Nile ; in 1864, the glaciers of the Himalayas and New Zealand 
compared with those of Europe, and on the power of glaciers in 
modifying the surface of the earth, and the agency of floating 
icebergs ; in 1865, on the importance of Arctic research ; in 
1867, on the Aralo-Caspian basin; in 1868, on the dependence 
of geography on geology ; in 1869, on a comparison between 
the former and present physical changes of the surface of the 
earth ; and, in 1871, on the connection of geographical with 
geological science. 

Sir Roderick Murchison was succeeded as President of the 
Geographical Society and of the Club by Sir Henry Rawlinson, 
and as President of the Hakluyt Society by Sir David Dundas. 
Since 1871 the President of the Society for the time being 
has always been President of the Geographical Club. Henry 
Creswicke Rawlinson was born in 1810. and served in the 
Bombay army from 1827 until 1833. From the latter year 
until 1839 he was actively employed in Persia. During that 
period he explored, with great zeal, perseverance, and industry, 
the provinces of Luristan, Khuzistan, and Azerbaijan, and the 
mountain ranges which divide the basin of the Tigris from the 
elevated plains of Central Persia. He brought great learning 
and a vast extent of historical research to bear on his geographi- 
cal enquiries, and identified rivers and towns by a comparison 
of their ancient and modern names. For these great services 
to geography Major Rawlinson received the Founder's Medal in 
1839. In 1840 he was appointed Political Agent at Kandahar, 
and he held the southern capital of the Afghans in safety, 
throughout all the troubles that ensued, eventually returning 
to India by way of Kabul and the Kaibar Pass. In 1844 he 
became Political Agent in Turkish Arabia, and in 1851 Consul- 
General, resigning his appointment in 1855, when he returned 
home, and became a Director of the East India Company and 
K.C.B. He had first joined our Council in 1850, and was 
almost constantly Vice-President until Sir Roderick's death 
in 1871. During 1858-59 he was Envoy in Persia, and has 
since 1868 been a Member of the Council of India. Sir Henry 
Rawlinson was President from 1871 to 1873, again from 1874 
to 1876, and has since been Vice-President. 

Sir Bartle Frere. 55 

Sir Henry Bartle Frere succeeded Sir Henry Rawlinson as 
President in 1873. He is a nephew of Mr. Bartle Frere, one 
of the Founders of- our Society, and also of the Right Hon. 
John Hookham Frere. Born in 1815, and entering the Indian 
Civil Service in 1833, he became Resident in Sind in 1856, a 
K.C.B. in 1859, and was Governor of Bombay from 1862 to 
1867. Always taking an instructed and warm interest in 
geographical pursuits Sir Bartle Frere has contributed papers 
to our Journal, and has done valuable service to the Society in 
many other ways. He had joined our Council soon after his 
return to this country, and in November 1872 a farewell dinner, 
with the President Sir Henry Rawlinson in the chair, was given 
to him on his departure to Zanzibar on an important diplomatic 
mission. It was the largest gathering of the Geographical Club 
that had ever taken place up to that time. On that occasion 
our President said that Sir Bartle Frere's administration of 
Sind, duriDg the Sepoy mutiny, evinced the very highest 
qualities of statesmanship, and that his great administrative 
success was achieved under every possible disadvantage and 
when, in other parts of India, disorder and rapine reigned 
supreme. It was under such circumstances that Sir Bartle 
succeeded in converting the lawless marauders of Sind into a 
peaceful and industrious peasantry. His subsequent govern- 
ment of Bombay is still remembered in the island with feelings 
of the utmost gratitude, and no Indian statesman was ever more 
beloved by every class of the native population. On his return 
from Zanzibar Sir Bartle Frere was elected President of the 
Society, in May 1873. He was obliged to resign in the follow- 
ing year in order to accompany the Prince of Wales to India, 
and soon after his return he went out as Governor of the Cape 
and High Commissioner in the end of 1875. While filling that 
responsible post, during a most anxious and difficult period, 
he never lost sight of the interests of our Society, and was 
ever ready to extend the most cordial assistance and encourage- 
ment to explorers of all nations. Leaving the Cape, to the deep 
regret of the people he had so ably governed, he returned to 
England in the end of 1880 to be warmly welcomed by his 
numerous friends and well-wishers at home. His great services 
to the State had obtained for him the Grand Cross of the Bath, 
the Grand Commandery of the Star of India, a Baronetcy, and 
a seat in the Privy Council. 

Sir Rutherford Aicock, k.c.b., succeeded Sir Henry Rawlinson 
at the end of his second term of office in 1876. Sir Rutherford's 
knowledge of China and Japan, where he had served in various 
diplomatic posts from 1844 to 1871 when as Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Peking he finally 

56 Recent Presidents. 

retired from active service, made him a great acquisition to our 
Council. He held the office of President from 1876 to 1878, 
and has since actively aided in the Society's work as Vice- 
President and as Chairman of the African Exploration Fund 

The Earl of Dufferin was elected President in 1878, before 
he had returned from Canada, and the author of the charming 
" Letters from High Latitudes," the accomplished statesman 
and geographer, was very warmly welcomed when he first took 
the chair in the following November. But his acceptance of 
the appointment of Ambassador to Russia obliged him to resign 
shortly afterwards, and he was succeeded in May 1879 by the 
Earl of Northbrook. It was a great advantage to the Society 
that, while we were receiving so much new geographical infor- 
mation from the little-known countries beyond our north-western 
frontier, the affairs of the Society should have been presided 
over by a statesman who had so recently been Viceroy of India. 
Resigning, owing to his acceptance of the office of First Lord 
of the Admiralty, Lord Northbrook was succeeded as President, 
in May 1880, by Lord Aberdare. 

The Royal Award. 57 





1830 to 1855. 

The measures adopted by the Koyal Geographical Society for 
promoting and encouraging discovery and research have been 
of four kinds. Awards have been presented to eminent ex- 
plorers and geographers, in the form of gold medals, grants of 
money, gold watches, or instruments. Aid has been given to 
travellers. The Government has been urged, by the Council, 
to undertake important discoveries by the despatch of expe- 
ditions ; and, on very rare occasions, the Society has itself 
undertaken the despatch and conduct of an expedition. 

The Royal Award of 50 guineas was, during the reign of 
King William, presented in money or as a single medal. Such 
recognitions have always been highly valued by discoverers and 
surveyors, and have formed a strong incentive to exertion. 
They were not wholly wanting in former days, and even, in the 
dawn of English geography, the Sovereign bestowed honorable 
decorations on those who nobly and successfully strove to 
increase our knowledge of the earth's surface by land and sea. 
Queen Elizabeth presented to Sir Humphrey Gilbert a jewel 
consisting of a small anchor of beaten gold with a large pearl 
on the peak, which he evermore wore on his breast. Sir 
Francis Drake received a medal suspended from his neck by a 
ribband. The Royal Society granted its Copley Medal to 
geographers on five occasions. Captain Cook received it in 
1776, and a medal was also specially struck in his honour. The 
Copley Medal was granted to Major Roy in 1785 for his mea- 
surement of the Hounslow base, to Major Rennell in 1791, and to 
Captain Sabine and Lieut. Foster, R.N., in 1821 and 1827 for 
Arctic work. 

The Society, on its first establishment, and during its early 
days in King William's reign, found that explorers were actively 
at work in various parts of the world. The faithful Lander was 
completing the discoveries of Clapperton on the Niger, Enderby 
was despatching vessels to the Antarctic Regions, Ross was still 
absent in the far north, and Back was at work on his errand of 
rescue, Burnes was making his remarkable journey to Bokhara, 

58 Expedition of Captain Alexander. 

Chesney was surveying on the Euphrates, and FitzRoy was exe- 
cuting his valuable surveys along the coasts of South America. 
These were the first seven recipients, from our Society, of the 
award granted by King William for geographical discovery and 

In 1832 the sum of fifty guineas was conferred on Mr. 
Richard Lander, in acknowledgment of his services in deter- 
mining the course and termination of the Quorra or Niger. A 
portrait of this intrepid explorer, the faithful companion of 
Clapperton, hangs in the Society's Council Room. The second 
Award was granted for Antarctic service. Mr. John Biscoe, 
E.N., left England in the brig Tula in 1830, despatched by 
Messrs. Enderby ; and he added one more to the many examples 
previously set by British seamen of patient and untiring perse- 
verance amidst the most discouraging difficulties. He was the 
discoverer of Graham's Land and Enderby's Land. Mr. Biscoe 
died in 1848. Sir John Ross received the third Award for his 
discovery of Boothia Felix and King William Land, and for his 
famous sojourn, during no less than four winters, in the Arctic 
Regions. The remarkable and most important journey of Sir 
Alexander Burnes from Kabul to Bokhara and back through 
Persia, secured for that accomplished but unfortunate officer 
the fourth Award granted by the Society. His portrait hangs 
in the Society's Council Room. The fifth, in the form of a 
medal, was granted to Sir George Back for his memorable 
journey for the rescue of Ross, and discovery of the Great Fish 
River. Captain FitzRoy for his South American surveys and ex- 
ploration of Patagonia, and Colonel Chesney for his Euphrates 
Expedition won, respectively, the sixth and seventh Awards. 

The Society, in its early years, did not confine its operations 
to the annual grant of the Royal Award. Expeditions were 
despatched, with its aid or under its auspices, to Africa, South 
America, Asia, and Australia; and active encouragement was 
extended to explorers. Captain Alexander of the 42nd High- 
landers (the present General Sir James Alexander of Westerton, 
co. Stirling) undertook an expedition north of the Orange River. 
Leaving Cape Town in September 1836, he advanced, through 
the then unknown country of the Namaquas, as far north as 
Walfisch Bay, and gave an interesting account of that sterile 
region. The Council obtained Government aid for Captain 
Alexander, subscribed towards his expenses, and took a warm 
interest in his proceedings. He was knighted for his services 
in Africa; and afterwards commanded the 14th Regiment at 
the siege of Sebastopol. 

The expedition of Schomburgk to Guiana was supported by 
our funds, and was still more closely connected with our 

Schomburgk and Ainsworth. 59 

Society. Robert Hermann Schomburgk was a Prussian scien- 
tific traveller who was first brought into notice by his careful 
examination of the West Indian Island of Anegada, and his 
delineation of the rocks and reefs which surround it. In 1834 
his services were engaged by the Society, to discover the interior 
of British Guiana, and to connect the positions astronomically 
fixed in that region, with those of Humboldt on the Upper 
Orinoco. It was intended that the work should occupy three 
years, and the Society undertook to contribute 9001. towards 
the expenses. In pursuance of his instructions Schomburgk 
left Demerara in September 1835 and, ascending the Essequibo, 
reached the s.w. extremity of British Guiana. Thence he 
ascended the Ripanuny, and in 1836 he sent home most inte- 
resting accounts of the physical aspects of the region, its vege- 
tation and scenery. In 1837 he ascended the Berbice, and in 
the following year he reached the Caruma Mountains and the 
Rio Bianco. Schomburgk was engaged on these arduous jour- 
neys during five years, and worthily followed in the footsteps 
of the illustrious Humboldt, while making a portion of his great 
predecessor's work more complete. During his researches, he 
discovered and sent home the magnificent Victoria Regia, con- 
structed an admirable map, and illustrated his discoveries by 
large and valuable collections. In 1840 he received the Gold 
Medal of the Society, and in 1843 he was knighted. Sir 
Robert Schomburgk edited Sir Walter Raleigh's ' Discovery of 
the Empire of Guiana ' in 1848, for the Hakluyt Society. During 
the latter years of his life he was Consul-General in Siam, and 
very soon after his retirement, he died on March 11th, 1865. 

Another expedition was fostered by our Society, in conjunction 
with the Society for the promotion of Christian Knowledge. Its 
object was to make acquaintances with the Nestorian Christians, 
and the mountainous country they inhabit, and it was entrusted 
to Mr. Ainsworth, formerly naturalist to the Euphrates Expe- 
dition, and Mr. Rassam of Mosul. Each Society granted a sum 
of bOOl. towards the expenses ; and joint instructions were care- 
fully prepared. Leaving England in 1838, the travellers ex- 
plored part of Asia Minor, and reached Mosul in 1839, proceeding 
thence into Kurdistan, and as far as Urumiyah. The expedition 
closed its labours in 1840, and although the work was not carried 
out to the extent anticipated, yet a great deal of geographical 
information was collected alon«r the line of route. 

In 1837 the Council took an active part in promoting an 
expedition for geographical discovery in Australia. A deputa- 
tion, composed of the President, Mr. Murchison, and the Hydro- 
grapher, waited upon the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
pointing out the advantages likely to accrue from exploring 

60 Sir George Back. 

Australia, and also recommending a nautical survey. The 
deputation was very favourably received, and a grant was 
obtained of 10007. for the expenses of a land expedition under 
Lieuts. Grey, of the 83rd (now Sir George Grey, k.c.b.) and 
Lushington, to start from Swan River. At the same time a 
survey of the coast was ordered in H.M.S. Beagle, commanded 
by Captain Wickham. Thus was Australian exploration com- 
menced under the Society's auspices. 

The Council, from the first foundation of the Society, gave 
its attention to the important subject of Arctic discovery. Our 
first efforts were to throw more light on the geography of the 
northern shores of America. The highest Arctic authorities 
were invited to furnish the Council with their views on the 
subject, and valuable minutes were received from Sir John 
Barrow, Sir John Franklin. Sir John Ross, Dr. Richardson, and 
Captain Beaufort. A committee was then appointed to examine 
the various plans. The Hydrographer entreated the Council to 
take every means they possessed of persuading the Government 
to fit out an expedition, aud accordingly a deputation consisting 
of Lord Ripon, Sir John Franklin, and Captain Back, laid the 
case before His Majesty's Government in 1836. The authorities 
were pleased to attend favourably to the representatives of the 
Council, and Captain Back was appointed to H.M.S. Terror, to 
proceed with her to the western shore of Sir Thomas Roe's 
Welcome, to winter there, and thence to complete the explora- 
tion of the American coast in the spring. 

It is well known that the object of the expedition was frus- 
trated, owing to the impossibility of penetrating through the ice 
in Frozen Strait. But the failure by Sir George Back has proved 
better than many a success achieved by less gifted men. The 
exploration of the patches of coast connecting the discoveries 
of former explorers was work which could be done at a 
future time, and for which geographers could wait. But the 
narrative of the voyage of the Terror, of the hair-breadth 
escapes, the masterly conduct of the officers, and gallantry of 
the men, is a distinct gain to our country's literature. It is an 
Arctic classic — a treasure worth more than many leagues of 
new coast line. 

On the accession of Queen Victoria, Her Majesty was pleased 
to announce her gracious intention of continuing the grant of 
fifty guineas which was commenced by her uncle. It was then 
decided that in future two gold medals should be annually 
awarded, each of the value of twenty-five guineas, to be called 
the Founder's and the Patron's Medal. At this time Mr. W. R. 
Hamilton, in his Anniversary Address, made some interesting 
remarks on the subject of our medals. He suggested that we 

The Royal Medals. 61 

ought to expend the means at our disposal in having the por- 
trait of the receiver engraved upon the die. " We should present 
him with one impression in silver, and strike off at least a hundred 
others in bronze for circulation among the various public 
museums at home and abroad, and for the supply of private 
collections. By such an arrangement the honour, name, and 
success of the receiver would not only be made known through- 
out Europe, but would be perpetuated, together with the de- 
lineation of his features, to the latest posterity." Mr. Hamilton 
referred, as an instance in point, to the bronze medal of Capt. 
Cook, which was struck, with his portrait, by the Royal Society, 
as a testimony of admiration for his great services to geography. 
Mr. Hamilton added, " But I fear this is a unique instance of 
the kind in this country." The President mentioned an addi- 
tional argument in favour of his suggestion, namely the encou- 
ragement it would give to a department of the fine arts which 
had long been neglected by our countrymen. It was eventually 
decided by the Council that two medals of equal value and 
equal honour might annually be presented to the two gentlemen 
who might be judged to have rendered the most distinguished 
services to the cause of geography. The Founder's Medal bears 
the portrait of King William IV., and the Patron's Medal that 
of Her Majesty Queen Victoria. 

From the return of Schomburgk and Ainsworth until after 
the restoration of the Society's prosperity by Admiral Smyth, 
the Council was able to do little more than recognise the merits 
of travellers by granting the Royal Awards. £100 was granted 
to Dr. Beke in 1842, and in 1846 the Council obtained grants 
of small sums from the Government and the East India Com- 
pany for Mr. Brockman, who was about to attempt a journey 
into the interior of Hadramaut. Otherwise it was only through 
the bestowal of our Gold Medals that the Society was able to 
encourage and promote geographical discovery during more 
than fifteen years. 

Still, even in our least prosperous period, we continued to 
encourage exploration, and to do good service by disseminating 
geographical knowledge through our publications. For work 
in Asia our Gold Medal was conferred on Sir Henry Rawlinson * 
in 1840, and on Lieut. John Wood of the India Navy in 1841, 
for discovering the source of the Oxus. Lieut. Symonds, b.e., 
received it in 1843 for his survey in Palestine, and for ascer- 
taining the difference of level between the Dead Sea and the 
Mediterranean ; our former President, Mr. W. J. Hamilton, in 
1844, for his exploration of Asia Minor ; Mr. Layard, in 1849, 

• See p. 51. 

02 Work in Africa and Australia. 

for his Nineveh excavations ; and Baron von Hiigel for his 
enterprising journey into Kashmir in the same year. In 1852 
Captain Henry Strachey received the Gold Medal for his exten- 
sive surveys in Western Tibet, and the sum of 25Z. was granted 
to Dr. Wallin of Helsingfors, for his remarkable journey across 
Arabia. On this, and some other occasions, the amount of the 
Royal Award was distributed in money, when, in the opinion of 
the Council, travellers had established for themselves strong 
claims to participate in the fund, although their services had 
not been of sufficient importance to justify the award of the 
medal, which is the highest honour at the disposal of the 

In Africa the principal work of this period was performed in 
Abyssinia. Dr. Ruppell, of Frankfort, received the Gold Medal 
in 1839 for his labours in that country, during which he made 
a large natural history collection and presented it to the 
museum of his native country ; and in 1845 the same honour 
was conferred upon Dr. Beke for his important geographical 
researches in the Abyssinian kingdom of Shoa, and in the pro- 
vince of Godjam, which he traversed in all directions, visiting 
the source of the Abai, Bruce's famous fountain of the Nile. 
Mr. Francis Galton earned the Gold Medal in 1853 for having, 
as already mentioned, fitted out an expedition to explore the 
interior of South Africa at his own cost, and for having success- 
fully conducted it through the country of the Damaras and the 
Ovampo, a journey of upwards of 2000 miles. It was his merit 
also to have constantly and accurately observed for latitude and 
longitude. His companion, Mr. Anderssen, who afterwards con- 
tinued the work of exploring as far as Lake N'gami, was presented 
with a portable box of surveying instruments, in 1855. 

The action taken by the Council, in encouraging the under- 
takings of Lieuts. Grey and Lushington, was the stimulus to 
further important geographical labours in Australia. Mr. 
Edward John Eyre was the first Gold Medallist who received 
that honour for Australian discoveries. Son of the Rev. 
Anthony Eyre, the Vicar of Stillingfleet, near York, our Medal- 
list was born in 1815, went out to Sydney in 1833, and bought 
a sheep farm on the Lower Murray. After several shorter ex- 
peditions, Mr. Eyre undertook a journey in 1840 to ascertain 
whether there were fertile lands in the interior, beyond a salt 
marsh called Lake Torrens. He endured the most terrible pri- 
vations, largely added to our geographical knowledge, and well 
earned the Society's highest honour. From 1846 Mr. Eyre was 
employed by the Colonial Office as Lieut.-Governor in New 
Zealand under Sir George Grey until 1852, as Governor of St. 
Vincent and Antigua, and finally of Jamaica from 1862 to 1865. 

Strzelecki, Sturt and Leichhardt. 63 

When Mr. Eyre was suffering persecution for his prompt sup- 
pression of a negro revolt, he was generously befriended by our 
President Sir Roderick Murchison, who knew that our gallant 
Medallist, who had for years been the humane friend of the 
aborigines of Australia, was not the man to err on the side of 
unnecessary severity. In 1845 Count Strzelecki received 
the Founder's Medal for his discovery of the extensive tract 
of New South Wales named Grippe's Land, and for his 
physical description of New South Wales, comprehending the 
fruits of five years of continual labour, during a tour of 7000 
miles on foot. Count Strzelecki, was afterwards a Member of 
our Council from 1855 to 1862. He was created a K.C.M.G., 
and died in December 1873. In 1846 two other Australian 
explorers received our Medals, Charles Sturt and Ludwig Leich- 
hardt. Captain Sturt had explored the rivers Darling and 
Murray, and afterwards undertook a journey in 1844, with the 
object of traversing the whole extent of the continent from 
Adelaide to the Gulf of Carpentaria. He succeeded in pene- 
trating to within 200 miles of the centre of the continent, when 
the illness of one of his party compelled him to retrace his 
steps. For these services to geography, for his energy and 
courage, combined with prudence and sound judgment, the 
Gold Medal was granted to Captain Sturt. This admirable 
traveller, the grandson of Mr. Humphrey Sturt of Critchill in 
Dorsetshire, was born in 1796 and, entering the army, accom- 
panied the 39th to Sydney in 1827. His great services, though 
recognised by our Society, were entirely neglected by the 
Government for a quarter of a century. Justice, as is so often 
the case, came too late. In May 1869 he received notice that 
he was to be created a Knight Commander of St. Michael and 
St. George, but he died on June 16th before the tardily bestowed 
honour was gazetted. Dr. Leichhardt received our Gold Medal 
in 1847 for his journey of 1800 miles from Morton Bay to Port 
Essiugton, by which he opened to Australian settlers new and 
extensive fields of enterprise, and connected the remote settle- 
ments of New South Wales with a secure port on the confines 
of the Indian Ocean. He afterwards perished while conducting 
another expedition over the waterless deserts of the interior in 
1850. In 1851 the Council awarded 25?. to Mr. Thomas 
Brunner, for a very enterprising journey among the Alps and 
along the western shore of the Middle Island of New Zealand, 
which, in those early days of colonization, was an undertaking 
of some risk and difficulty. 

Sir James Brooke, the Rajah of Sarawak and Governor of 
Labuan, worthily received our Gold Medal in 1848. The object 
to which he determined to devote his energies and means, from 

64 Simpson and Rae. 

an early period of his life, was the civilization of the Malay 
race. He sailed from England on his gallant and hazardous 
adventure in October 1838, in his yacht Royalist, and on 
August 1st, 1839, dropped anchor off' the coast of Borneo. 
Details of the skilful and gallant operations which led to the 
cession of Sarawak to Kajah Brooke are given in the interesting 
volumes of Admiral Sir H. Keppel. and Sir Bodney Mundy. 
Great advantages to geographical science, especially in the sur- 
vey of coasts and rivers, resulted from the introduction of 
civilization and commerce amongst the Malays and Dyaks of 
Borneo, and he who originated and ably carried out these plans 
was well entitled to the Medal of our Society. The last year 
of his residence in Sarawak was 1857, and he died at his seat in 
the south of Devonshire, on June 11th, 1868. 

For his valuable services in Guiana it has already been 
recorded that Sir Bobert Sehomburgk received the Medal in 
1840, and in 1850 Colonel Fremont was awarded the same 
honour for his conduct of an exploring expedition to the Bocky 
Mountains and North California, from 1842 to 1846. 

After the return of Sir George Back in 1838, the attention 
of Arctic explorers was mainly turned to the completion of the 
delineation of the northern coast of America. In the summer 
of 1837 Mr. Thomas Simpson, accompanied by Mr. Dease, had 
already started from the Great Slave Lake, under instructions 
from the Hudson's Bay Company. By tracing the coast from 
Franklin's furthest to Cape Barrow they succeeded in connect- 
ing the work of Franklin and Beechey ; and completed our 
knowledge from the Coppermine Biver to Behring Strait. In 
1839 Simpson turned eastward from the Coppermine, passed 
Cape Turnagain of Franklin, and advanced as far as Castor and 
Pollux river, thus connecting the work of Back and Franklin. 
Simpson also discovered the south coast of King William 
Island and built a cairn at Cape Herschel. When, in 1848, 
this cairn was reached by a band of dying heroes from the 
north, the North-West Passage was discovered. For these ser- 
vices Simpson received our Gold Medal in 1839. 

The work of delineating the Arctic shores of America was 
completed by Dr. John Bae, who was appointed to the com- 
mand of an expedition by Sir George Simpson, the Governor 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1846. Starting in boats from 
York Factory in Hudson's Bay, Dr. Bae wintered at Bepnlse 
Bay, in a stone hut, without fuel of any kind to give warmth ; 
he and his party maintaining themselves on deer, a large pro- 
portion of which were shot by himself. During the spring of 
1847 he explored on foot the shores of a great gulf, having 700 
miles of coast line, connected the work of Parry with that of 

Ross's Antarctic Expedition. 65 

Boss, and proved that Boothia was part of the American Con- 

In 1848 Rae accompanied Sir John Richardson on an expe- 
dition down the McKenzie River, which examined the Arctic 
shores eastward to the Coppermine River, in search of Sir John 
Franklin's party. In 1849 he continued the search in a boat 
via the Coppermine River, but found the coast impenetrably 
blocked with ice. In 1850, at the request of Government, he 
undertook a further search for the missing explorers, and by a 
long sledge journey (the daily distance of which averaged more 
than twenty-four miles) in the spring of 1851, and a boat 
voyage the same summer, the south shores of Wollaston and 
Victoria Lands were closely examined, their continuity proved, 
and Victoria Strait seen, named, and ascended from the south, 
to a higher latitude than the position where Franklin's ships 
were abandoned in 1848. 

These discoveries earned for Dr. Rae the well-merited honour 
which was conferred on him in 1852 by the award of the 
Society's Founder's Gold Medal. 

In 1854, after passing a second winter at Repulse Bay, he 
connected the work of Simpson and Ross, west of Boothia, 
established the insularity of King William Land, and brought 
home the first information of the fate of the Franklin Expedi- 
tion, for which he and his party of seven men received the 
Government reward of 10,000?. 

The Gold Medal was bestowed on Professor Middendorff 
in 1846, for his remarkable travels in northern Siberia, and 
for having reached the great headland of Taimyr. He also 
threw light on the boreal range of vegetation, and on the ques- 
tion of the frozen soil and sub-soil of Siberia. In 1853 
Captain Inglefield, R.N., received our Gold Medal for his voyage 
in Baffin Bay. 

Although, in his first volume, Sir James Ross quite correctly 
attributes the despatch of his memorable Antarctic Expedition 
to the action of the British Association in 1838, still the initia- 
tion of the idea of such an expedition was due to the Secretary 
of our Society. An important suggestion for this Antarctic 
voyage was addressed by Captain Washington to the President 
and Council of the Royal Geographical Society, and although 
it was not printed by us, it was recorded in the Bulletin of the 
French Geographical Society, and is referred to by M. d'Avezac 
in his eloquent obituary sketch of Washington. Sir James C. 
Ross had more experience of Arctic service than any other 
officer that ever lived. He endured nine Arctic winters, and 
passed sixteen navigable seasons in the Arctic regions. He 
was, without comparison, the fittest man for the command of the 


66 Franklin* s Expedition. 

expedition which first crossed the Antarctic Circle on January 
1st, 1841. In one short month he made one of the greatest 
geographical discoveries of modern times, amid regions of per- 
petual ice ; including a long range of high lands, named Vic- 
toria, the great volcano, 12,400 feet above the sea, called 
Mount Erebus, and the marvellous range of ice cliffs. Ross 
attained a latitude of 78° 11', thus approaching the South Pole 
more nearly, by hundreds of miles, than any of his prede- 
cessors. For this great service to geography, the Founder's 
Medal was granted to Sir James Ross in 1842. 

In 1848 the Founder's Medal was conferred on Captain 
Wilkes, of the United States Navy, for his services in command 
of the scientific exploring expedition, from 1838 to 1842. 

On the return of Sir James Ross, attention was once more 
turned to Arctic discovery. The despatch of Sir John Frank- 
lin's Expedition in 1845 was due to the representations of our 
Founder and former President, Sir John Barrow, who was then 
Secretary to the Admiralty. Sir John Franklin was at that 
time our Vice-President, and he had from the first been a fre- 
quent diner at the Raleigh Club, and a constant supporter of 
our interests. The Society therefore took a special interest in 
his expedition, the object of which was to add so largely to 
geographical knowledge. Never was an abler or a more gallant 
set of men assembled together under a more capable leader. 
The second in command was Captain Crozier, who had served 
with Parry and James Ross in Arctic and Antarctic voyages ; 
while foremost among their subordinates was our brave and 
accomplished Associate, Captain Fitzjames. During the first 
year the Erebus and Terror performed one of the most remark- 
able Arctic voyages on record, by sailing up Wellington 
Channel to 77° N., circumnavigating Cornwallis Island, and 
returning to winter at Beechey Isle. In the second year Sir 
John Franklin followed his instructions by pushing his way 
southwards towards the coast of America, knowing, from pre- 
vious experience, that if he could once reach it, the passage 
along the navigable lane which exists there every summer, 
would be comparatively easy. If he had been aware of the in- 
sularity of King William Land, and had hugged the Boothian 
coast, he would have succeeded. As it was his attempt was the 
best ever made ; it was ably conceived and most gallantly 
carried out in accordance with existing knowledge. Franklin 
nobly died in the execution of his duty. His brave followers 
lived on, to perish it is true, in the same glorious cause, but not 
until some of them, by reaching Simpson's Cairn, at Point 
Herschel, had discovered the North-West Passage. 

While most frequently conferring its honours on explorers 

Raper. — Robinson. — Erman. — Ritter. 67 

and discoverers, the Council of our Society did not overlook 
the less conspicuous, but not less useful labours of the scholar 
and the cartographer. The first recipient of the Gold Medal 
for literary work was Lieut. Henry Eaper, e.n. The son of 
Admiral Raper, who was well known in his day as a great im- 
prover of maritime signals ; this officer was born in 1799, and 
entered the navy at the age of twelve, on board his father's ship, 
the Mars. He was shipwrecked in the Strait of Gaspar in 1817, 
and suffered great hardships and privations on the rocky islet 
called Pulo Leat, until he was rescued by a vessel from 
Batavia. Afterwards, at his father's express wish, young Raper 
joined the Adventure surveying ship in the Mediterranean, 
under Captain Smyth, where he had charge of the chrono- 
meters. His last active service was in 1824, after which time 
he devoted himself to the cultivation of the scientific depart- 
ments of the navy, and in 1840 he published his ' Practice of 
Navigation,' a book of sterling merit, for which he was awarded 
our Gold Medal in 1841. Lieut. Raper served for several 
years on our Council, and was also Secretary to the Astronomi- 
cal Society. He died at Torquay in January 1859. In 1842 
the Gold Medal was awarded to Dr. Edward Robinson, the 
Professor of Biblical Literature at New York, for his biblical 
researches as connected with geography ; and in 1844 a similar 
honour was conferred on Professor Adolph Erman for his ser- 
vices in physical geography, meteorology, and terrestrial 
magnetism. The great German geographer, Carl Ritter, re- 
ceived the Patron's Medal in 1845. Ritter was the first who 
laid down and admirably carried out the principle that, in 
order to form clearer and more instructive ideas of geography, 
it was above all essential to study the configuration of the great 
masses of land. He was a perfect master of condensed descrip- 
tion. His vast erudition and extreme accuracy enabled him to 
furnish, in his compendious works, as much knowledge as if his 
readers had laboured through all the original sources of his 
information. Humboldt truly pronounced Carl Ritter to have 
been the first geographer of the age. 

In these ways : at first, and so long as the funds admitted of 
it, by assisting expeditions with money grants, and afterwards 
by conferring rewards, the Society strenuously endeavoured to 
advance the cause of geography during the first quarter of a 
century of its existence. The Royal Awards became the goals 
which aroused the ambition of young explorers, and urged them 
on to renewed efforts. The greatest honours that the Society 
could confer, they have always been very highly prized, and 
have been strong incentives to brave and even desperate enter- 
prises in the cause of discovery. It was not, however, through 

p 2 

68 Influence of the Society. 

these rewards alone that the Society made its influence felt for 
good. Of not less service were the publications which secured 
a permanent place of record for geographical achievements, and 
the library and map room through which the means of infor- 
mation was secured for our countrymen. The Society formed 
that home for geography the want of which had been more and 
more sorely felt during the previous half century. 

It is interesting to note how influential the education acquired 
by travel and geographical research has been in training men 
who have afterwards become eminent in science. Among the 
great scientific worthies who have travelled or made exploring 
voyages in far distant regions, the names of Banks, Kobert 
Brown, Sabine, Hooker, Darwin, Huxley and Wallace may be 
mentioned, and these by no means exhaust the list. 

Indian Surveys. 69 




1855 to 1880. 

When the prosperity of the Society rapidly began to increase 
under the fostering care of Admiral Smyth and Sir Roderick 
Murchison, it was not long before active aid to labourers in the 
field began again to combine with rewards for work achieved, 
in the furtherance of the cause of geography. As the funds of 
the Society increased, the encouragement and power to assist 
explorers increased also, but such aid mainly took the direction 
of African discovery. 

In briefly recording the Society's work, it will be convenient 
to treat of each continent or great division of the globe separately, 
beginning with Asia, and then taking in order Africa, Australia, 
America, and finally the Arctic Regions. 

So far as English labours are concerned, the most important 
Asiatic exploration has been undertaken from India, and 
generally under the orders of the Survey Department. It was 
therefore a well merited recognition of the value of the Indian 
Surveys when, in 1857, the Patron's Gold Medal was awarded 
to Sir Andrew Scott Waugh. The grant was made for his able 
extensions of the Great Trigonometrical Survey, and especially 
for his work in fixing 79 Himalayan peaks, one of which — 
Mount Everest (29,002 ft.) — is the loftiest mountain in the 
world. After his retirement in 1861 Sir Andrew Waugh was 
many years a Member of our Council, and a Vice-President, 
actively assisting us, almost until his lamented death in February 
1878. In 1865 another eminent Indian Surveyor, Captain T. G. 
Montgomerie, received the same honour for his survey of 
Kashmir, and of the mighty mass of mountains up to the 
Tibetan frontier, from 1855 to 1865. Observations were taken 
from peaks over 20,000 feet above the sea, and the accuracy of 
this most difficult and laborious survey was such that in a 
circuit of 890 miles, only a discrepancy of Abf a second in 
latitude and of fa in longitude was found. But the work for 
which Montgomerie is best known among geographers is that 
comprised in his system of employing carefully trained native 
observers to make discoveries in the unknown regions beyond 

70 Nain Sing. — Hay ward and Shaw. 

the northern frontiers of British India. Colonel Montgomerie 
died prematurely on the 31st of January, 1878, but both before 
and since his death the Society has recognised the useful labours 
of his trained subordinates. 

In 1875 a gold watch was presented to Mr. W. H. Johnson, 
of the Indian Survey Department, for his journey in 1865 across 
the Kuen-Lun Mountains to Ilchi in Khotan. Another gold 
watch had been granted, in 1866, to Mulla Abdul Medjid, for 
the service he had rendered to geographical science by his 
adventurous journey from Peshawur to Kokand, along the 
upper valley of the Oxus, and across the Pamir Steppes. In 
1868 the Pundit Nain Sing, another of Montgomerie's trained 
explorers, received a gold watch for his route survey from Lake 
Mansarowar to Lhasa, the capital of Tibet ; and in 1877 he 
had conferred upon him the Society's Gold Medal for his 
important journey across the vast lacustrine plateau of Tibet, 
and thence by a new route into Assam. 

But our rewards for Trans-Himalayan exploration have not 
been confined to Government surveyors. In 1875 the eminent 
botanist, Dr. Thomas Thomson, the companion of Sir Joseph 
Hooker in the Eastern Himalayas, and the first who reached 
the Karakorum Pass in the west, received the Founder's Gold 
Medal for work done nearly thirty years before. Mr. Hayward 
and Mr. Shaw both received our Medals for their adventurous 
and interesting journeys into Eastern Turkistan. In the case 
of Mr. Hayward the Society granted the explorer a sum of 
600?., and received a report and map of his journey across the 
Kuen-Lun to Yarkand and Kashgar. In 1870 he was honoured 
with the Founder's Gold Medal, but his useful career was 
brought to an untimely end in the same year. Mr. Shaw was 
more fortunate. He visited Yarkand and Kashgar in 1869, and 
was again at Yarkand with the first Mission of Sir Douglas 
Forsyth, executing a valuable survey of the country between 
the high table lands at the head of the Karakash River and 
the valley of the Upper Shayok, and taking numerous accurate 
observations for latitude and longitude and variation of the 
compass. He well merited the Patron's Medal which was con- 
ferred upon him in 1872. Mr. Siiaw was afterwards Resident 
at Leh, where he continued his geographical researches, and his 
lamented death in 1879 was a serious loss to our science. His 
' Journey to Kashgar ' continues to be one of the most popular 
books in our library. 

Lastly, as concerns the Trans-Himalayan Region, a very 
eminent Surveyor received our Gold Medal in 1878. Captain 
Henry Trotter, k.e., of the Great Trigonometrical Survey, 
accompanied the mission of Sir Douglas Forsyth to Kashgar as 

Explorers in China. 71 

geographer. He made a boat voyage on the Pangong Lake in 
October 1873, described the routes between Ladak and Turkis- 
tan, and his excursions in the neighbourhood of Kashgar as 
far as the Artysh district ; and made an important journey over 
the Pamir Steppe into Wakhan, during March and April 1874. 
He visited the Victoria Lake, which is Wood's source of the 
Oxus, and succeeded in connecting the Indian Surveys with 
those of Russia, at the same time throwing a flood of light on 
the geography of the Pamir and Eastern Turkistan. 

Four explorers in the Chinese Empire have earned the 
Royal Award. In 1862 Captain Thomas Blakiston received 
the Patron's Medal for his survey of the Yang-tsze-kiang for 
900 miles beyond the farthest point previously reached by 
Englishmen. Mr. Ney Elias, in 1873, earned the Founder's 
Medal for his enterprise and ability in surveying the new course 
of the Yellow River in 1868, and for his remarkable journey 
through Western Mongolia, by Uliassutai and Kobdo, during 
which he took a large series of observations for fixing positions 
and altitudes. In presenting the Medal to Mr. Ney Elias, Sir 
Henry Rawlinson recorded his opinion that the young explorer 
had performed one of the most extraordinary journeys of modern 
times. Baron F. von Richthofen travelled in various parts of 
China from 1868 to 1872, mapping the country and making a 
systematic examination of the physical geography and geology 
of twelve of its provinces. Colonel Yule said of Baron von 
Richthofen that in his person were combined the great traveller, 
the great physical geographer, and the accomplished writer, in 
a degree unknown since Humboldt's best days. For his great 
merits as a traveller Baron von Richthofen was awarded the 
Founder's Medal in 1878. In the following year the same 
Medal was given to Captain W. J. Gill, R.E., for his important 
geographical work in Western China and Tibet during 1877, 
and for his traverse survey and very complete maps of his route. 

Lieutenant Francis Gamier, of the French Navy, earned the 
Patron's Medal in 1870, for his exploring expedition from 
Cambodia to the Yang-tsze-kiang, during which he made 
valuable surveys, visited Talifu, and brought his party in safety 
to Hankow, travelling over 5400 miles. This distinguished 
young traveller was murdered by the Chinese rebels of Tonquin 
on the 20th of December, 1873, when only in his 34th year. 

Two eminent Russian explorers have received our Gold 
Medals for geographical work on the Asiatic continent. Admiral 
Alexis Boutakoff was the first to launch and navigate ships on 
the Sea of Aral, and he made a valuable survey of the chief 
mouths of the Oxus, for which he received the Founder's Medal 
in 1867. Colonel Prejevalsky, our other Russian Medallist, 

72 Livingstone. 

made successive expeditions, from 1870 to 1873, into Mongolia 
and to the high plateau of Northern Tibet, and in 1876 and 
1877 he penetrated from Kulja to Lob Nor. For these great 
services to geography our Patron's Medal was conferred upon 
him in 1879. xinother adventurous traveller in Central Asia, 
the Magyar, Dr. Arminius Vambery, was awarded the sum of 
40?. in 1865, for the self-reliance, courage, and perseverance 
with which lie penetrated to Khiva and thence, through the 
deserts of the Oxus, to Bokhara and Samarkand, in the disguise 
of a Dervish. Lastly, Mr. W. Gifford Palgrave was, in 1863, 
granted a sum of 25?. for his very daring and remarkable 
journey in and across Arabia. As regards assistance given by 
the Society, the grant of 34Z. for instruments to the Rev. F. W. 
Holland, to aid him in his valuable Sinai exploration in 1868, 
and of 50?. towards the survey of the Sinai Peninsula by 
Captains Wilson and Palmer, in 1869, must be mentioned. 
This by no means exhausts the list of travellers and surveyors 
on the Asiatic continent who have been helped on their way 
and cordially welcomed on their return by the Council of our 
Society. It is only the roll of the most deserving or the most 
fortunate, who have been carefully selected for special honour. 

Turning from Asia to the African Continent, the Society's 
great activity and liberal expenditure during the last quarter 
of a century have been two very important factors in the solu- 
tion of geographical problems which have occupied the thoughts 
and defied the efforts of former generations for many centuries. 
It is over thirty years ago since, in 1850, Admiral Smyth pre- 
sented a chronometer watch to " the Rev. David Livingstone of 
Kolobeng," for his successful exploration of South Africa ; and 
since then our Gold Medals have been presented to explorers 
of Africa no less than eleven times, a fact which indicates the 
constant efforts that have been made to increase our knowledge 
of the vast unknown portions of that Continent. 

The Society showed its high appreciation of the labours of 
the greatest of modern African travellers from the very first. 
David Livingstone was born at Blantyre in 1813, and after 
studying at Glasgow University, he went out to South Africa 
as a Missionary in 1840, settling at Kolobeng in the far 
interior in 1847. His first great journey, undertaken with 
the aid of General Sir Thomas Steele, Mr. M. C. Oswell, 
and Mr. Murray, was commenced in June 1849, with the object 
of discovering Lake N'gami, which he reached in August of the 
same year. Sir T. Steele sent the account of this journey to 
our Society, and it was at once resolved to recognise its im- 
portance by the award of a chronometer watch to the intrepid 
explorer. In 1851 Livingstone, accompanied by his wife and 

Livingstone. — Barth. 73 

Mr. Oswell, undertook another journey, and reached the Zam- 
besi river. In 1852 he was in Cape Town, receiving instruc- 
tion from Sir Thomas Maclear, the Astronomer Koyal of the 
Colony. He then set out on his most famous expedition, reach- 
ing Linjante, the capital of the Makololo in May 1853, and 
Sao Paulo de Loanda on May 21st, 1854. Returning to Lin- 
jante he visited the Victoria Falls of the Zambesi, and reached 
Quilimane, after having marched across the Continent of 
Africa, on May 26th, 1856. 

This famous journey, including great discoveries, secured for 
Livingstone our Founder's Medal in 1855, while it excited the 
interest of the whole civilized world. On reaching England 
he received a most enthusiastic welcome at our Meeting on 
December 15th, 1856, and during the next few months he was 
engaged on his narrative entitled ' Missionary Travels,' 45,000 
copies of which were sold. The Government, struck by the 
importance of his discoveries, placed at Dr. Livingstone's dis- 
posal those means and materials which formed the Zambesi 
Expedition. Sir Roderick Murchison, the great traveller's 
steadfast and unfailing friend, organised what was called the 
Livingstone Festival, a farewell dinner, at which 350 guests 
assembled on February 13th, 1858. In March Livingstone 
started for the Zambesi, accompanied by his brother Charles 
Livingstone, by Dr. Kirk, Mr. Thornton as geologist, Captain 
Bedingfield, k.n., and Mr. Baines the zealous traveller and 
artist. Livingstone, during this expedition, traced the course 
of the river Shire, and in September 1860 he discovered the 
beautiful Lake Nyassa and the smaller Lake Shirwa. But 
except as regards the geographical discoveries, this expedition 
was not successful. In 1862 Livingstone's wife died of fever at 
Shupanga. The " Universities Mission," which had come out 
with high hopes owing to Livingstone's representations, lost its 
leader, Bishop Mackenzie, and the work was eventually aban- 
doned. Dr. Livingstone returned to England in 1864. 

The years which include the discoveries of Livingstone saw 
much valuable work achieved in other parts of Africa. Dr. 
Henry Barth, a native of Hamburg, born in 1821, was an 
accomplished classical scholar as well as a great traveller. 
First associated with Richardson, Overweg, and Vogel, and 
afterwards by himself, he made numerous excursions around 
lake Chad, discovered the great river Benue, and succeeded 
in completing a hazardous and adventurous journey to Tim- 
buktu. For these services he received our Gold Medal in 1856, 
and in the following year he completed a work which Sir 
Roderick Murchison pronounced to be the masterpiece of all 
his labours, entitled 'Travels in North and Central Africa,' in 

74 Burton. 

five volumes. This work was published under the auspices and 
by the assistance of our Government, and Her Majesty conferred 
on him a Companionship of the Bath. Dr. Barth had under- 
taken to edit Leo Africanus for the Hakluyt Society, thus filling 
up a serious desideratum in our geographical literature, but 
this was prevented by his untimely death at the early age of 
44, in 1866. 

Corporal Church of the Sappers and Miners was granted a 
gold watch and chain by our Council in 1856, for his meritorious 
and intelligent services while employed upon the African expe- 
dition under Dr. Vogel, and especially for his diligence in con- 
ducting a long series of meteorological observations at Kuka. 

The exploration of the African equatorial lakes, commenced 
by that intrepid traveller and accomplished scholar, Captain 
K. F. Burton, forms an era in the history of discovery. The 
Council, in 1853, had secured the services of Captain Burton to 
explore the interior of Arabia, and assisted him with a grant 
of money. The result was his memorable journey from Yambu 
to Medina and Mecca. In the following year he attempted to 
explore Eastern Africa from Berbera to Zanzibar, with Lieu- 
tenants Speke and Stroyan, and he himself succeeded in reach- 
ing Harar, a place never before visited by Europeans. But 
further progress was prevented by an attacK of the Somalis, in 
which Stroyan was killed, and both Burton and Speke were 
severely wounded. These preliminary services had shown 
Burton to be an able and resolute explorer as well as an accom- 
plished orientalist. He was therefore selected to conduct an 
expedition from Zanzibar, under the Society's auspices, and 
with assistance both from the Foreign Office and the East 
India Company. A Treasury grant of 1000Z. was also obtained. 
In June 1857 Captain Burton, accompanied by Captain Speke, 
started from Zanzibar and succeeded in reaching the great Lake 
Tanganyika, about 700 miles from the coast. Careful and 
complete itineraries, and astronomical observations by Captain 
Speke, were made in spite of severe hardships, privations, and 
sickness. On their return Speke made a journey northwards 
from Unyanyembe, and discovered the southern shore of a vast 
inland fresh-water lake, which was named Victoria Nyanza. 
Burton generously gave all the credit of the topographical work 
to his companion, he himself undertaking the history and 
ethnography, with accounts of the languages and peculiarities 
of the people. Captain Burton's exhaustive memoir of the 
Lake Regions of Central Equatorial Africa, occupies the whole 
of the 29th volume of our ' Transactions.' It contains a complete 
description of the physical geography, the fauna and flora, the 
inhabitants and history of the countries along his line of route. 

Speke. — Baker. 75 

He worthily earned our highest honour, which was conferred 
upon him in 1859. 

In 1860 another expedition was despatched under the Society's 
auspices, commanded by Captain Speke, to land at Zanzibar 
and explore the Victoria Nyanza, which was believed to be a 
main source of the Nile. A Treasury grant of 2500/. was 
obtained to aid in defraying the expenses. On this occasion 
Captain Speke was accompanied by Captain Grant. Leaving 
Zanzibar in October 1860, the travellers reached Unyanyembe 
in 1861, and during that and the following year they marched 
northward to the Victoria Nyanza, skirted its western shore, 
and reached the kingdom of Uganda. Following the Nile for 
120 miles north of the lake, Speke and Grant were then obliged 
to leave the stream, but again struck it some 70 miles lower 
down, and at length reached Gondokoro on February 15th, 
1863, where they were met and assisted by Samuel Baker. 
The travellers descended the Nile and received a very hearty 
welcome on their return to England. Speke had been 
granted the Gold Medal of our Society, and further honours 
were in store for him from his Sovereign, when a melancholy 
accident terminated his life in August 1864. His companion, 
Captain Grant, received our Gold Medal in 1864, and was 
created a Companion of the Bath, and the honour of knighthood 
was conferred on Sir Samuel Baker, who had so opportunely 
aided the explorers at Gondokoro. In 1864 Baron von der 
Decken, who had made two surveys of the lofty mountain of 
Kilimanjaro, received the Founder's Medal, and this gallant 
young explorer would have done further valuable service had 
not his career been cut short prematurely in 1866, when 
attempting to ascend the river Juba in a steamer. He had only 
reached his 33rd year. 

Before he succoured Speke and Grant, Sir Samuel Baker 
had made discoveries in the basin of the Atbara, and afterwards, 
advancing up the White Nile, he discovered the second great 
water-basin, to which he assigned the name of " Albert Nyanza." 
Sir Roderick Murchison had presented our highest honour to 
him through his brother, in 1865 ; and on hearing of his great 
success, our President declared that nothing which had hap- 
pened since the foundation of the Society had given him greater 
satisfaction than that this devoted and high-minded traveller 
should have thus proved himself to be truly worthy of the 
Medal. It was actually granted for the chivalrous spirit he 
displayed in rushing to the rescue of Speke and Grant. In 
1871 Sir Samuel Baker, in the service of the Khedive of Egypt, 
again visited the scenes of his former discoveries, with the 
object of rooting out the slave-traders and kidnappers. In the 

76 Livingstone's last Expedition. 

performance of this great service he explored the kingdom of 
Unyoro, and collected much valuable information respecting 
the equatorial lake region. His devoted wife accompanied him 
in all his journeys, and the hero and heroine of a noble and 
most arduous achievement received a cordial and heartfelt 
welcome on their return. A dinner was given in honour of 
Sir Samuel and Lady Baker by the Geographical Club on 
December 8th, 1873. 

The Society, ever anxious to encourage the efforts of indi- 
vidual explorers, presented a sum of 100?. to M. Du Chaillu in 
1866, for his efforts to penetrate into the interior from the We4 
Coast of Africa, during which he made good astronomical obser- 
vations, and also to reimburse him for the loss of his instruments. 
Assistance was also given to M. Gerhard Rohlfs of Bremen, in 
the shape of a grant of 100Z. to enable him to continue his 
journeys which, during five years, commencing in 1861, he 
made in the northern part of the African Continent. His 
expedition in Morocco in 1863 and 1864, included the passage 
of the Atlas southward to the oasis of Tuat ; and afterwards he 
went from Tripoli to Kuka on the shores of lake Chad, and 
southwards by the Benue and Niger, and across the Yoriba 
country to Lagos, in the Gulf of Guinea. For these remarkable 
journeys M. Gerhard Rohlfs received the Patron's Medal in 

Dr. Livingstone returned from his Zambesi Expedition with 
feelings of disappointment. It was then that Sir Roderick 
Murchison proposed to him the great work of defining the true 
watershed of Inner Southern Africa. He gladly undertook 
this hard achievement, the Society granting 500/. towards his 
expenses, and obtaining for him the title and position of a 
Consul, the Government adding another 5007. Livingstone left 
England in August 1865, spent the following winter in Bombay 
and in Zanzibar, and finally advanced into the interior from 
the mouth of the Rovuma in April 1866. Travelling thence to 
Ujiji on lake Tanganyika, he discovered lake Bangweolo and 
the magnificent river Lualaba on his way. Afterwards he pene- 
trated into the Manyuema country, enduring most terrible pri- 
vations and, after having been lost to the outer world fur years, 
he was at length found and succoured by Mr. Stanley at Ujiji. 
Mr. Stanley finally parted with Livingstone at Unyanyembe in 
March 1872, and in the following August the dauntless veteran 
resumed his explorations. He died near the shores of Lake 
Bangweolo on May 4th, 1873. His faithful servants, Chuma 
and Susi, conveyed their beloved master's body, with his 
journals and other property, during an eight months' march, to 
Zanzibar. The remains arrived in England on April 15th, 

Search for Livingstone. 77 

1874, and were in the Society's Map Room until they were 
deposited in their last resting-place in the nave of Westminster 
Abbey. As an explorer, Livingstone trod some 29,000 miles of 
African soil, and laid open nearly one million square miles of 
new country. Sir Bartle Frere, who was our President when 
the great traveller died, thus concluded his sympathetic and 
careful sketch of Livingstone's career : — " As a whole, the work 
of his life will surely be held up in ages to come as one of 
siDgular nobleness of design, and of unflinching energy and self- 
sacrifice in execution. It will be long ere any one man will be 
able to open so large an extent of unknown land to civilized 
mankind. Yet longer, perhaps, ere we find a brighter example 
of a life of such continued and useful self-devotion to a noble 

Livingstone's long absence caused great anxiety to his friends, 
and especially to the Council of our Society, which was un- 
ceasing in its efforts for his succour, and liberal, beyond all pre- 
cedent, in the expenditure of funds with that object — not only 
of money voted from the Society's own resources, but of still 
larger sums mainly subscribed by the Council and Fellows. 
These efforts for the relief of the great traveller form a very 
noble episode in the history of the Geographical Society. They 
were commenced, owing to a false report of Livingstone's death, 
with a searching boat expedition, under the command of Mr. 
Young, r.n., which our Council induced the Government to 
despatch in 1866, and to which we contributed 160/. Mr. Young 
proceeded to the Zambesi, went up the Shire to lake Nyassa, 
navigated that inland sea, and satisfactorily disposed of the 
story, having performed the duty with skill, promptitude, and 
success. In 1870, at the recommendation of our Council, 
the Government sent out 1000/. to Zanzibar to furnish Living- 
stone with fresh supplies, to which a further sum was added by 
the great traveller's friend, Mr. James Young. Meanwhile 
Mr. Stanley, correspondent of the ' New York Herald,' left the 
coast for Ujiji in February 1871, and, as has already been 
recorded, he found Livingstone and brought him much needed 
succour. Returning to England in the summer of 1872, after 
performing this great service, Mr. Stanley was cordially received 
by our President and Council. He was entertained at a great 
dinner on October 21st, 1872, and the unprecedented step was 
taken of conferring upon him the Society's Gold Medal some 
months before the appointed time. Meanwhile the Council 
had started a Livingstone Search and Relief Fund, large sums 
were subscribed, and a well-equipped expedition was sent to 
Zanzibar, and was on the point of storting for the interior, when 
Mr. Stanley returned with the news of Livingstone's safety. 

78 Cameron. — Grandy. — Schweinfurth. 

But when Stanley announced that the aged explorer had 
once more started alone for the unknown interior, it was strongly 
felt that succouring expeditions should be despatched both to 
the east and to the west coasts. Lieut. Grandy, K.N., was sent to 
the Congo to meet Livingstone if he should emerge on the west 
coast, and Mr. James Young generously defrayed the heavy 
expenses of this part of the scheme. The conduct of the east- 
coast expedition was entrusted to Lieut. V. L. Cameron, k.n. 
On November 11th, 1872, these two young officers were enter- 
tained at dinner by the Geographical Club. Cameron's instruc- 
tions were to deliver supplies to Dr. Livingstone wherever he 
might find him, and to place himself under the great traveller's 
orders. But after reaching Unyanyembe, the melancholy 
certainty of Livingstone's death necessarily altered Cameron's 
plans, and in October 1873 the faithful servants arrived there 
with the body and proceeded to the coast. Cameron resolved 
to achieve some geographical success. He pushed onwards, 
reached Ujiji in February 1874, explored the southern half of 
Lake Tanganyika in a boat, and solved the long doubtful problem 
of its outlet. He then advanced across the Manyuema country 
to the Lualaba or Congo, crossed that river, and reached the 
capital of Urua in October 1874. In the same month of the 
following year Cameron arrived at Benguela on the Atlantic, 
and was thus the first European traveller who had walked across 
tropical Africa from east to west. At a great meeting of the 
Society on April 11th, 1876, in St James's Hall, Cameron 
gave an account of his memorable journey, and in May he was 
presented with our Founder's Medal. He was also promoted 
to the rank of Commander, and Her Majesty conferred upon 
him a Companionship of the Bath. The heavy expense of the 
expedition, upwards of 12,000/., fell mainly upon the Society, 
being only partly refunded by liberal private subscriptions, and 
by a grant of 3000/. from the Government. Lieut. Grandy 
was recalled on the news of Livingstone's death, but not before 
he had done some useful exploring work in the Congo 

While these resolute efforts were being made to increase our 
knowledge of tropical Africa, an accomplished German traveller 
had been engaged in exploring the south-western basin of the 
Nile. Dr. Schweinfurth, starting on his travels in 1868, 
succeeded in defining the limits of the basin of the Bahr 
Ghazal, crossed the water parting to the south, and reached 
the river Uelle, the course of which has not yet been explored. 
His work entitled 'The Heart of Africa,' is a most able 
description of the physical geography, ethnology, climate, 
botany, and resources of the Bahr Ghazal region. In recogni- 

Stanley. — St. Vincent Erskine. 79 

tion of its merits Dr. Schweinfurth received our Founder's 
Medal in 1874. 

In 1874 Mr. Stanley undertook a second journey into the 
interior of Africa, to explore the equatorial lakes, and discover 
the course of the Congo. In March 1875 he reached the 
southern shore of the Victoria Nyanza, where he put a boat 
together, which he had conveyed from Zanzibar in pieces, and 
launched it on the lake. He circumnavigated the lake, visited 
the capital of Uganda, and returned to his camp after an absence 
of fifty-eight days. Having made some journeys in the direction 
of the Albert Nyanza, and in the kingdom of Kumanika, Stanley 
proceeded to Ujiji, and followed Cameron's route round the 
southern half of Lake Tanganyika. He then marched across 
Manyuema to Nyangwe and embarked on the Lualaba, which 
eventually proved to be identical with the Congo. Leaving 
Nyangwe on November 5th, 1876, Stanley and his party rapidly 
descended the river, encountering frequent opposition from 
hostile tribes, until the falls were reached, but it took the party 
five months to pass these cataracts. The distance from Nyangwe 
to the mouth of the Congo is calculated at 1800 miles, and 
Mr. Stanley was navigating the river from November 1876 to 
August 1877. Dangers in every form were met with intrepid 
resolution, while marvellous resource and ingenuity were exer- 
cised in combating the great physical obstacles. Sir Eoderick 
Murchison, whose forecasts were seldom wrong, held the opinion 
that Livingstone's Lualaba was the Congo, and Stanley verified 
the fact. 

The Council of the Society, while encouraging and assisting 
exploration in tropical Africa, was not unmindful of the useful 
if less known labours of those who were zealously working 
further south, and also on the west coast. Mr. K. B. N. Walker 
received a sum of 143Z. in 1865, to aid him in his efforts to 
explore the Ogowe, 100Z. was granted to Mr. St. Vincent Erskine 
in 1870 for exploring the Limpopo, Mr. Wakefield of Mombas 
was granted 35?. in 1871, and in 1872 the services of Karl 
Mauch were recognised by the grant of 25?. Landing at 
Natal almost destitute, Herr Mauch gradually worked his way 
northward to the region lying between the lower courses of the 
Limpopo and the Zambesi, the region of the semi-fabulous 
Monomotapa of the early Portuguese. Here the enthusiastic 
explorer brought to light the abandoned gold-fields, and the 
ruins of an ancient city. He carried on his investigations year 
after year amid many privations, and also fixed the positions of 
several points, and the courses and width of rivers by exact 
observations. In 1873 a gold watch was granted to that well- 
known traveller and painter of African scenery, Thomas Baines. 

80 Baines. — Munzinger. — Winwood Reade. 

Born in 1822, the son of a Master Mariner at King's Lynn, 
young Baines went out to the Cape in 1842, and remained there 
until 1854. He was next engaged as artist with Gregory's 
N.W. Australian Expedition, and afterwards with Livingstone 
on the Zambesi. In 1861-62 he made a journey from Walfisch 
Bay to Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls, and from 1864 to 
1868 he was again in England. His large series of admirable 
sketches in oils was divided between our Society and Kew 
Museum. His unselfishness and willingness to oblige were 
only equalled by his extraordinary industry. His time and 
abilities were at the service of all who needed them, with or 
without payment. In 1868 Mr. Baines returned to Africa to 
explore the gold-fields of Tati, which were discovered by Karl 
Mauch. The results of his exploration of this region were 
exceedingly valuable, but he gained nothing for himself, and 
died very poor at Durban on May 8th, 1875. 

That excellent man and most painstaking and accurate 
explorer, Werner Munzinger, contributed several valuable papers 
to our Journal, although he did not receive any special recog- 
nition from the Society for his services. His career was pre- 
maturely cut short. He rendered such essential service to the 
Abyssinian Expedition that a Companionship of the Bath was 
conferred upon him at its close, but his best geographical work 
was the toilsome and arduous journey through the desert Afar 
region, and the memoir and map which were its result. 
Munzinger was making his way to the kingdom of Shoa when 
he was murdered by a party of Gallas on November 14th, 

The name of W. Winwood Eeade must here find a place 
among African explorers. Born in 1838, the stories of Du 
Chaillu led him to make a voyage to the Gaboon to hunt 
gorillas, and on his return he published his ' Savage Africa.' 
Afterwards he led an expedition from Sierra Leone to the upper 
waters of the Niger in 1869 ; and his observations are recorded 
in his ' African Sketch Book.' This zealous explorer and 
brilliant writer was cut ofF prematurely, dying at the early age 
of 37, in 1875. 

As regards the Niger region, a gold watch was presented to 
Bishop Crowther in 1880, in recognition of the service to 
geography which he has performed during his numerous voyages 
up the river. 

In consequence of the efforts made by His Majesty the King 
of the Belgians to promote African discovery, the Council of 
our Society resolved to raise an " African Exploration Fund," 
to be appropriated to the scientific examination of Africa. A 
Committee was appointed to carry the objects of the Fund into 

Keith Johnston. 81 

effect, and the Council granted 500Z. towards it, in March 1877. 
Seven routes were suggested for exploration : — 

1st. From the gold-fields of South Africa, past the south end 

of Tanganyika, to Unyanyembe. 
2nd. Along the east face of the coast range between the 

Zambesi and the Equator. 
3rd. From the east coast to the north end of Nyassa. 
4th. Between the north end of Nyassa and south end of 

5th. From the coast opposite Zanzibar to the south end of 

Lake Victoria ; thence to the north end of Tanganyika. 
6th. From Mombasa, by Kilimanjaro, to s.E. shore of Lake 

7th. From Formosa Bay, along the valley of the Kiver Dana, 

by Mount Kenia, to n.e. shore of Lake Victoria. 

In 1878 the Committee selected the 3rd and 4th, from Dar- 
es-Salaam, a few miles south of Zanzibar, to the northern end 
of Lake Nyassa, and thence to Tanganyika. The Council 
voted a further grant for the contemplated expedition, even- 
tually raising their contribution to 2000Z. Fellows and other 
well-wishers together subscribed 1989Z. Young Mr. A. Keith 
Johnston, the only son of the eminent geographer of Edinburgh, 
was selected to command this expedition. Born in 1844, he 
had been carefully instructed in geography by his father, and 
afterwards completed his education in Germany. For about 
eighteen months, in 1872-73, he was Assistant-Curator in our 
Map Room, and until 1875 he was learning active field 
work in the wilds of Paraguay. After his return he was 
engaged on literary geographical work until he left England 
in November 1878. He was accompanied by Mr. Joseph 
Thomson, a young Scotch geologist, and at Zanzibar he secured 
the services of Livingstone's faithful servant Chuma. After a 
preliminary trip to the Usambara Mountains, the party landed 
at Dar-es-Salaam on May 19th, 1879. Ascending the course 
of the river Rufiji, Mr. Keith Johnston was attacked by fever, 
and he expired on the 23rd of June. " Thus," says his young 
companion, " was one of the most promising explorers who had 
ever set foot on African shores, numbered with the long list of 
geographical martyrs who have attempted to break through 
the barriers of disease and barbarism which make the interior 
of Africa almost impenetrable." Mr. Thomson, at the age of 22, 
now found himself alone in the wilds of Africa, charged with 
heavy responsibility, and at the head of work in which few have 
succeeded. The brave young fellow proved equal to the 
occasion. With his foot on the threshold of the unknown, he 


82 Joseph Thomson. — Serpa Pinto. 

resolved to go forward and do his best. " Though the mantle 
of Mr. Johnston's knowledge could not descend upon me," he 
said, " yet he left his enthusiasm for the work of research, and 
I resolved to carry out his design as far as lay in my power." 

On the 2nd of July Mr. Thomson resumed the journey, and 
after many long and perilous marches he reached the northern 
shore of Lake Nyassa. Thence he advanced northwards, and 
on November 2nd, 1879, he came in sight of Lake Tanganyika. 
His work, as traced out by the Society, was now finished ; but 
Mr. Thomson, on seeing the great expanse of waters, felt 
impelled to explore the Lukuga outlet discovered by Cameron. 
Encamping his men under command of Chuma, he started on 
his march northwards, along the western shore, with only thirty 
porters. Suffering from fever, the enthusiastic young explorer 
felt as if he had got a new lease of life when, on Christmas Day 
1879, he beheld the noble river Lukuga bearing the drainage 
waters of the Tanganyika to the Congo and the Atlantic. For 
six days he advanced down the river's course, and reached a hill 
whence he could see the great plain of the Lualaba spread out 
below him. For a long time he was in constant danger from 
the fierce race of Waruas, but he eventually escaped and 
returned to his camp on April 4th. Mr. Thomson then made 
his way back to Zanzibar from the south end of Tanganyika, 
discovering a remarkable lake, which he named Lake Leopold, 
on his way. After resting for a few days at Unyanyembe, he 
finally reached the sea-shore at Bagamoyo. He thus concludes 
his modest and most interesting narrative : " I felt it to be my 
proudest boast that of the 150 men who left Dar-es-Salaam, 
only one did not survive to see the Indian Ocean again ; and it 
will ever be a pleasure to me to think that though often placed 
in critical positions, I never once required to fire a gun for either 
offensive or defensive purposes." 

This expedition was organized by, and directed from first to 
last, under instructions from a Committee of the Society's 
Council, the chairman of which was our former President, Sir 
Rutherford Alcock. It had a clearly defined aim, and it was 
conducted ably, economically, and with complete success, first 
by its lamented leader, and afterwards by a most competent 
successor, whose fortitude, energy, and sound judgment, com- 
bined with intelligent and instructed observation, are rare com- 
binations in any man, and most remarkable in one so young as 
Mr. Joseph Thomson. 

Finally, that gallant young Portuguese officer, Major Serpa 
Pinto, received our Gold Medal in 1881, for his discoveries 
and numerous astronomical observations, during the course of 
his march across Africa, from Benguela to Natal. 

Australian Explorers. 83 

This long array of gallant and most brilliant achievements, 
with which our Society has been more or less closely connected, 
has wrought a marvellous change on the map of Africa. Yet 
this is only one great division of the world, and it will now be 
seen that our activity has not been confined to the African 

The Society, since it initiated the expedition of Lieuts. Grey 
and Lushington, has taken a leading part in advocating and 
planning the exploration of Australia. A general plan for 
exploring North Australia was advocated by our Society, in 
consequence of a project for colonizing Carpentaria put forward 
in a book by Mr. Trelawney Saunders, and in accordance with 
the suggestions of our Associates Admiral Stokes and Captain 
Sturt. Her Majesty's Government decided upon adopting 
our proposal, and they selected an experienced surveyor, 
Mr. Augustus C. Gregory, to carry out this important project. 
Mr. Gregory had previously unravelled the condition of the in- 
terior of Western Australia, and in 1848 he had proceeded from 
Perth and travelled over 1500 miles in search of good land. In 
1856 his expedition went by sea from Sydney through Torres 
Strait, and landed on the Victoria River, about eighty miles 
from its mouth. He was accompanied by his brother Mr. F. 
Gregory, the botanist Dr. Muller, the geologist Mr. Wilson, and 
Mr. Baines the artist traveller. Ascending the Victoria to its 
source, the explorers crossed the water-parting at a height of 
1660 feet, and descended a stream flowing south, ending in a 
desiccated salt lake, which he called Sturt Creek. Returning 
to the Victoria, he next advanced thence to the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, and explored the region between the eastern side of 
that gulf and the then northernmost station of our settlers, 
ending his labours at Brisbane. He had marched over 6500 
miles in a country previously unknown, and received our 
Founder's Medal in 1857. The Patron's Medal was adjudicated 
to another Australian explorer, Mr. M'Douall Stuart in 1861, 
for having advanced across the continent from the south to 
within 245 miles of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Attempts to cross 
the continent were continuous, and Mr. Richard O'Hara Burke, 
with his companions Wills and Gray, at length traversed it from 
south and north. But they perished, and the Founder's Medal 
was awarded to the representative of O'Hara Burke in 1862. 
One man alone survived, Mr. John King, to whom a gold 
watch with a suitable inscription was presented. Meanwhile 
our Medallist, M'Douall Stuart, in 1861-62, successfully crossed 
the continent from Adelaide to Van Die men Gulf, exploring the 
route along which the electric telegraph was subsequently laid. 
In 1863 our Gold Medal was presented to Mr. Frank Gregory 

G 2 

84 North America. 

for his successful explorations in Western Australia, and gold 
watches, with honorary inscriptions, were adjudged to Mr. Wil- 
liam Landsborough, Mr. John M'Kinlay, and Mr. Frederick 
Walker, for valuable additions to our knowledge ; the first for 
his journey from Carpentaria to Victoria, the second for ex- 
ploring from Adelaide to Carpentaria, and the third for dis- 
coveries between the Nogoa and the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
Landsborough and M'Kinlay were leaders of expeditions for the 
relief of O'Hara Burke. 

Our rewards for Australian work have since been bestowed 
upon gallant and resolute men who have traversed the trackless 
and arid wastes on the western side of the continent. In 1872 
an overland telegraph line had been successfully laid across 
Australia from Port Augusta to Port Darwin. Central Mount 
Stuart is nearly on the centre of this line, and in April 1873 
Colonel Egerton Warburton, of the good old Cheshire stock, 
started thence to reach the western settlements. After eight 
months' march, the latter portion of which was through an arid 
region where the party was supported by the meat of their 
slaughtered camels, and finally narrowly escaped death from 
starvation, the frontier settlements on the De Grey River were 
reached in the end of December, nearly 1000 miles of entirely 
new country having been traversed. For tin's service to geo- 
graphy Colonel Warburton received our Medal in 1874. Mr. 
J. Forrest had the same distinction conferred upon him in 
1876, for his route survey across the interior from Murchison 
River to the line of the Overland Telegraph, when he marched, 
for the most part on foot, for 2000 miles, 600 of which was 
through a region covered with spinifex grass, and almost desti- 
tute of water. Lastly, our Patron's Medal was presented to Mr. 
Ernest Giles, in 1880, for having led several exploring expedi- 
tions between 1872 and 1876, the most important of which 
were from Beltana to Perth, and from Champion Bay to the 
Overland Line of Telegraph. 

If our honours have not so frequently been bestowed on 
travellers for work in North and South America, it is not for 
want either of important and interesting undiscovered regions 
to be explored, or of accomplished travellers to describe them. 
Since 1850 only two of our medals have been conferred for 
work in North America, and but one for South American ex- 
ploration. In 1858 the Patron's Medal was adjudicated to Pro- 
fessor Alexander Dallas Bache, who had been in charge of the 
Great Coast Survey of the United States since 1844. Sir 
Roderick Murchison did no more than justice to this national 
undertaking, when he said that " whether we regard the science, 
skill, and zeal of tne operators, the perfection of their instru- 

South America. 85 

ments, the able manner in which the Superintendent has 
enlisted all modern improvements into his service, the care 
taken to have the observations accurately registered, or the 
noble liberality of the Government, all unprejudiced persons 
must agree that the United States Coast Survey stands without 
a superior." Captain John Palliser received the Patron's Medal 
in 1859 for the successful results of the expedition under his 
command during 1857 and 1858, in exploring large tracts of 
British North America, and particularly for the determination 
of the existence of practicable passes across the Rocky Moun- 
tains within British territory. Palliser's Expedition originated 
in the pressing recommendation of our Society. 

Since the days of Schomburgk, the Gold Medal has only 
been awarded to one traveller in South America. Mr. William 
Chandless received it in 1866, for his unaided exploration of 
the River Purus, one of the great southern tributaries of 
the Amazon, for a distance of 1866 miles, and for laying down 
the course of this previously undefined stream by a continuous 
series of astronomical observations for latitude and longitude, 
and true compass bearings. The great danger encountered in 
travelling for months through a country of interminable forest, 
in which lurk hordes of savage Indians, was shown in the 
treacherous slaughter of Mr. Chandless's servant, and his boat's 
crew, in descending the river. The result of his enterprise was 
the discovery of a vast tract of interesting country previously 
unknown, and a profound modification of all our maps of the 
interior of tropical South America. Commander Musters, e.n., 
was, in 1872, awarded a gold watch, with a suitable inscription, 
for his adventurous journey in Patagonia through 960 miles of 
latitude, in 780 of which he travelled over a country previously 
quite unknown to Europeans. But this by no means exhausts 
the list of accomplished and deserving South American tra- 
vellers, the successors of Humboldt, of Woodbine Parish, and of 
Schomburgk. The names of Pentland, Poeppig, Martius, Maw, 
and Smyth ; of Wallace, Spruce, and Bates ; of Tschudi, Wer- 
termann, and Raimondi ; of Cox and Moreno, at once recur to 
the mind. South America is indeed the classic land of tra- 
vellers ; the land to the descriptions of which the writer of 
travels and theportiayer of scenery must go for his best models, 
the land which inspired our ablest geographical writers from 
the classic works of Humboldt to the charming narrative of 
Bates. No travellers have been more thoroughly fitted for 
their tasks by previous training, none have more resolutely 
faced dangers and privations, and some among them stand first 
as accurate scientific observers, while their works are the best 
models on which a book of travels can be written. Every 

86 Searches for Franklin. 

geographical author should be a student of Humboldt, of 
Schomburgk, and of Bates. 

The searches for Sir John Franklin's expedition, in which the 
whole nation took so deep an interest, were specially advocated by 
our Society. The expedition had been sent out through the 
influence of our Founder and former President, and was com- 
manded by one of our Vice-Presidents. It is our pride, too, to 
be able to reflect that Sir Koderick Murchison stood by the 
noble-hearted widow of Franklin, supporting her efforts to the 
last when others, including the Government, fell away from her ; 
and that the attempts made by Sir Eoderick to obtain a renewal 
of the glorious work of Arctic discovery only ceased with his 

When Sir James Eoss returned, without tidings, in 1849, 
Captains Collinson and M'Clure were despatched in the Enter- 
prise and Investigator to search by way of Behring Strait, while 
Captain Austin's expedition sailed in April 1850 to follow the 
footsteps of Franklin up Baffin Bay and Barrow Strait. No 
expedition was ever more ably and successfully commanded 
than that of Captain Austin, and its proceedings form a turning- 
point in the history of Arctic exploration on several grounds. 
It was the first in which steam power was efficiently used in ice 
navigation, and the work of Cator and Sherard Osborn on board 
the Intrepid and Pioneer in Baffin Bay pioneered the way to a 
revolution in the methods of encountering and overcoming ice 
obstacles. Then it was Captain Austin who brought the care- 
fully calculated system for winter quarters to the highest per- 
fection, and no one has since improved upon his methods and 
arrangements. Lastly, it was Captain Austin who inaugurated 
the system of extended sledge parties, depots, and auxiliaries ; 
which was developed, in its details, by the genius of M'Clintock. 
Thus, in 1851, a most complete system of search was carried 
out, consisting of six extended parties to be away sixty days 
each, marching in different directions, and each supported by 
an auxiliary sledge to lay out a depot. 

Captain Austin returned in the autumn of 1851, and when 
another expedition sailed in the next year, it merely followed 
exactly the arrangements of its predecessor. Indeed its leading 
spirits were Austin's old officers — M'Clintock and Sherard 
Osborn, Mecham and Hamilton, MacDougall and May. Sir 
Henry Kellett, in the Besolute, wintered at Melville Island in 
1852-53, and Lieut. Mecham fortunately discovered a record 
left by Captain M'Clure which announced the position of 
the Investigator in a harbour of Banks Land. Knowing the 
position, Captain Kellett sent Lieut. Pirn to communicate early 
in the spring of 1853, and the gallant crew of the Investi- 

Collinson and M'Clure. 87 

gator, just when the ship was about to be abandoned after three 
winters, were saved. By marching across to the Resolute and 
afterwards returning home by Baffin Bay, M'Clure, his officers, 
and crew traversed a North- West Passage. It was in 1853 
and 1854 that the Arctic sledge travelling, developed and 
matured under Captain Austin, was still further extended. 
M'Clintock, in 1853, marched over 1328 miles, and was absent 
from the ship 105 days. Mecham was away 94 days and went 
over 1163 miles. Richards and Osborn discovered the northern 
shores of the Parry Islands. But the most brilliant feat in 
naval Arctic travelling was performed by our Associate Lieut. 
Mecham in 1854. He was travelling for 61 days, and marched 
over 1336 miles, at an average rate of 20 miles a day. 

Sir Robert M'Clure, who received the honour of knighthood 
on his return, had our Patron's Medal adjudged to him in 1854, 
for his discovery of the North- West Passage, before it had been 
ascertained that Franklin's dying heroes were ahead of him in 
that great achievement. In presenting it, the Earl of Ellesmere 
said that when M'Clure sailed, the language in naval circles 
was — " that man will not return by the v\ ay he has gone, unless 
at least he should meet Franklin. He will return eastward or 
he will return no more." Ho died on October 17th, 1873, and 
was attended to his grave by the President and Secretary of 
our Society, and by many old Arctic officers. The author of 
the narrative of his voyage thus sums up his character: 
"M'Clure was stern, cool, and bold in all perils, severe as a 
disciplinarian, self-reliant, yet modest as became an officer. 
With a granite-like view of duty to his country and profession, 
he would in war have been a great leader ; and it was his good 
fortune, during a period of profound peace, to find a field for 
all those valuable qualities and to add fresh glory to a navy, 
the life-blood of which is honour and renown. The name of 
M'Clure will be for all time associated with the most remark- 
able voyage of discovery of our generation." Captain Collinson, 
in the Enterprise, while prosecuting the search for Franklin 
during three winters and five summers, also made a most re- 
markable voyage. He penetrated further eastward from Beh- 
ring Strait than any ship has ever done before or since, and his 
route, from Behring Strait, led him along that prescribed for 
Franklin, if successful in reaching the north coast of America. 
In 1858 he was awarded our Founder's Medal. Admiral Sir 
Richard Collinson has since worked hard for our Society as a 
most active Member of Council and Vice-President during 
eighteen years, from 1857 to 1875. In the latter year he was 
obliged to retire, owing to the pressure of his duties as Deputy- 
Master of the Trinity House. 

88 Final Search for Franklin. 

The labours of the searching expeditions added largely to 
our knowledge of the Arctic Regions. Not only was a vast 
extent of land and sea added to our maps, but light was thrown 
on the physical geography and hydrography of a considerable 
area previously unknown, as well as on questions relating to its 
geology and the distribution of animal and vegetable life. 
Above all a bright page was added to the history of naval 
prowess ; and it was no small advantage that the historian of 
the Arctic searches was a prominent and zealous actor in the 
work of exploration. Sherard Osborn's ' Stray Leaves from an 
Arctic Journal,' his ' Discovery of a North- West Passage by 
Captain M'Clure,' and his 'Career and Last Voyage of Sir 
John Franklin ' are classic works in the geographical litera- 
ture of England. They will remain as the record of great 
events in naval chronicle, and will " awaken in the breasts of 
future Parrys, Franklins, or M'Clures that love for perilous 
adventure which must ever form the most valuable trait in the 
character of a great maritime people." 

The heart of our President, Sir Eoderick Murchison, was set 
upon never ceasing to search the Arctic Regions until true 
tidings were obtained of the fate of Sir John Franklin and his 
gallant companions. He, therefore (news having arrived from Dr. 
Rae that an Eskimo statement pointed to King William Island, 
a place not hitherto searched, as the scene of the disaster, and 
that relics had been obtained which corroborated the story), 
very cordially joined with Lady Franklin in her efforts to induce 
the Government to send out a small expedition to search the 
unvisited shores of King William Island. A memorial was pre- 
sented to the Prime Minister by Sir Roderick, as President of 
the Society, dated June 5th, 1856, which was signed by 
Admirals Beaufort, Beechey, Austin, Collinson, Smyth, and 
FitzRoy, by General Sabine, by the Earl of Ellesmere, and by 
many other eminent Arctic officers and geographers. The 
Government refused its request. Then it was that Lady 
Franklin resolved, with the aid of her steadfast friends, to 
despatch an expedition on her own responsibility. The cost was 
10,412Z. ; the subscriptions amounted to 2981Z. Sir Roderick 
Murchison gave 100/., Sir Thomas Acland, 100Z. ; the mother 
of Lieut. Fairholme of the Erebus, 1501. ; the relations of 
Lieut. Hornby of the Terror, 1501. ; an old and dear friend 
of the gallant Fitzjames, 100Z. ; Sir Francis Beaufort, 50Z. ; the 
Hydrographer, 201. ; Captain Collinson, 20?. ; Sir James Ross, 
201., and several other old Arctic officers, besides many Fellows 
of the Society were among the subscribers. Captain Allen 
Young gave 500Z. besides his own valuable services. But the 
great bulk of the expense fell upon Lady Franklin. She was 

Sir Leopold M'Clintock. 89 

so fortunate as to obtain the willing services of Captain 
M'Clintock, the most eminent among Arctic sledge travellers, 
to command her steamer, the Fox, and the expedition sailed on 
June 30th, 1857. In the first season the Fox was forced to 
winter in the pack of Baffin Bay and was exposed to extreme 
danger at the breaking up of the ice. But, undaunted by this 
disaster and resolved not to return home, M'Clintock again 
turned the Fox's head northwards, and was rewarded by reaching 
a point whence King William Island could be searched by sledg- 
ing parties in the spring of 1859. M'Clintock marched entirely 
round the shores of King William Island and examined 
Montreal Island, at the mouth of the Great Fish River, while 
Allen Young completed the discovery of the southern side of 
Prince of Wales Land. The result was that, by rinding the 
famous document at Point Victory (signed by Captains Crozier 
and Fitzjames), the fate of Sir John Franklin and his heroic 
followers was ascertained, while the skeleton beyond or south 
of Simpson's cairn, on Cape Herschel, was a silent but 
certain proof that to them belongs the glory of having solved 
the question of the North- West Passage. When M'Clintock 
returned from this most successful expedition he received the 
honour of knighthood, while his time in the Fox was allowed to 
reckon as time served in one of Her Majesty's ships. 

The Council desired to commemorate, in an especial manner, 
the great services to geography of our gallant Vice-President 
Sir John Franklin. They therefore awarded the Founder's 
Medal, in 1860, to his widow, in token of their admiration 
of her noble and self-sacrificing perseverance in sending out, at 
her own cost, several searching expeditions, until at length the 
fate of her husband was ascertained. It was adjudged to her 
not only as the merited recompense of her husband's dis- 
coveries, but also as a testimony of the admiration entertained 
by British geographers for her who devoted twelve years of her 
life to this glorious object, in accomplishing which she sacrificed 
so large a portion of her worldly means. 

The Patron's Medal of 1860 was adjudged to Sir Leopold 
M'Clintock, for the consummate skill and unflinching fortitude 
with which he and his gallant companions not only enlarged 
our acquaintance with Arctic geography, but also brought 
to light the precious Record which revealed the history of the 
voyage and of the final abandonment of the Erebus and Terror. 
His interesting narrative of the voyage of the Fox, entitled 
1 Fate of Sir John Franklin,' passed through four editions. 

After the return of M'Clintock there was very lamentable 
neglect of Arctic work in this country during several years ; 
but the Council never ceased to take an interest in the efforts 

90 Kane, Hayes, Nordenskjold, Payer, and Weyprecht. 

of other nations, and to show their appreciation of useful work 
well done, in a tangible form. In 1853 Dr. Kane, in the little 
brig Advance with a crew of seventeen men, led the first Ameri- 
can expedition into Smith Sound, and the Founder's Medal was 
adjudged to him in 1856 for his discoveries and arduous 
labours during two winters in the ice. Dr. Kane's companion, 
Dr. Hayes, led another expedition to Smith Sound in 1860, and 
made a very gallant attempt to advance northwards along the 
western shore with a dog sledge. For this service to geography 
Dr. Hayes received the Patron's Medal in 1867. The admiring 
attention of our Council was also turned to the achievements of 
the Swedish explorers in the Spitzbergen seas. Professor 
Nordenskjold received our Founder's Medal in 1869 for his 
valuable work in Spitzbergen, which was continued in subse- 
quent years ; and when he succeeded in the glorious achieve- 
ment of making the North-East Passage in 1879, the Medal 
was conferred upon the commander of bis ship, the Vega, the 
gallant Captain Palander. The Norwegian, Captain Carlsen, 
had, in 1873, received a gold watch for circumnavigating 
Spitzbergen in 1863, and Novaya Zemlya in 1871. 

The discovery of Franz Josef Land by the Austro-Hungarian 
Expedition, under the command of Lieuts. Payer and Wey- 
precht, and the admirably conducted sledging expeditions of 
Payer excited the admiration of English geographers. In 1875 
the Founder's Medal was adjudged to Lieut. Weyprecht, and 
the Patron's Medal to M. Julius Payer. The latter officer 
came over to England, and was entertained at dinner by the 
Geographical Club, on November 10th, 1874, and also by the 
Trinity House. 

But in the meanwhile our Arctic Associates had, during ten 
years, been striving to obtain a renewal of Arctic exploration 
by the Government of this country. It was in 1865 that 
Captain Sherard Osborn resolved to bring this important 
subject before the Society. He fully recognised the fact that 
the great work could only be accomplished gradually, and that 
one expedition must follow another until all the knowledge 
attainable by human means, in this field of inquiry, had been 
secured. He also saw that a mere quest for the Pole was not 
an aim which would secure influential or intelligent support, 
but that the objects of Arctic exploration, in these days, must 
be to obtain valuable scientific results. Lastly he felt that the 
route for an expedition must be that which held out the best 
prospect of crossing the threshold of the unknown region and 
reaching new ground. He therefore wisely and correctly 
selected Smith Sound, at the head of Baffin Bay, as the direc- 
tion that ought to be taken in the first instance. 

Sherard Osborn. 91 

Sherard Osborn's memorable paper on the renewal of Arctic 
research, was read at the Meeting of the Eoyal Geographical 
Society on the 23rd of January, 1865, with Sir Roderick 
Murchison in the chair. Seldom has so influential an assembly 
been brought together to support our Chair, men of the highest 
eminence in science being as numerous as Arctic and other naval 
officers. The address was eloquent and conclusive, and stirred 
up the feelings of those who heard it to such purpose that the 
subject was never again allowed to drop. Our President 
espoused the cause most warmly, secured the adhesion of other 
scientific societies, and headed a deputation of our Council to 
the Duke of Somerset, then First Lord of the Admiralty. But 
in March 1865 Sherard Osborn had accepted an appointment 
which obliged him to go to Bombay, and the movement, for a 
time, lost its chief support. In private correspondence Sir 
Roderick deeply regretted Osborn's absence, speaking of him 
as " our right band. ' Efforts were not, however, relaxed, and 
at last Osborn decided that the time had arrived for the formal 
renewal of his proposal. He read a second paper on the subject 
on April 22nd, 1872, and the Council appointed an Arctic 
Committee, with Admiral Sir George Back as its chairman, in 
that year. A second Committee, formed of Members appointed 
jointly by the Royal Society and by our Council, was formed in 
1873 ; and the Reports of these two Committees laid down the 
canons for Arctic exploration, enumerated its important objects 
in great detail, and adopted the views which Sherard Osborn 
had advocated since 1865. Our President Sir Henry Rawlin- 
son, accompanied by Sir Joseph Hooker and Admiral Sherard 
Osborn, armed with these Reports, had an interview with 
Mr. Disraeli on August 1st, 1874, and on the 17th of November 
the Prime Minister announced that the Society's petition had 
been successful. " Her Majesty's Government have had under 
consideration the representations of the Council of the Royal 
Geographical Society in favour of a renewed expedition under 
the conduct of Government, to explore the region of the North 
Pole, and having carefully weighed the reasons set forth in sup- 
port of such an expedition, the scientific advantages to be 
derived from it, its chances of success as well as the importance 
of encouraging that spirit of maritime enterprise which has ever 
distinguished the English people, have determined to lose no 
time in organising a suitable expedition for the purpose in view." 
Accordingly the Alert and Discovery, Arctic exploring ships, 
were commissioned, under the command of Captain Nares, who 
had served under Kellett in 1852-54. 

But a very serious loss to our Society and to the navy, 
•saddened the departure of the Arctic Expedition. On May 

92 The Arctic Expedition of 1875-76. 

6th, 1875, Admiral Sherard Osborn died very suddenly. His 
body was followed to the grave by the President and Secre- 
tary of our Society, and by a large concourse of Arctic and 
other naval friends. Osborn became a Fellow in 1856, and 
was on our Council from 1867 until his death. He was 
also Vice-President of the Bombay Geographical Society 
from 1865 to 1867. He read various interesting papers at 
our meetings, constantly joined in our discussions, while his 
munificent present to our library will be noticed in another 
chapter. The Society never had a warmer or a more zealous 
friend. His cheery voice and hearty joyous smile, which 
won upon men's feelings as much as his close reasoning 
and well-marshalled facts affected their judgments, will long 
be remembered. 

The Arctic Expedition achieved all that our Council desired 
or expected in the face of greater dangers and obstacles than 
were ever anticipated. It succeeded in crossing the threshold 
of the unknown region, its ships attained a higher latitude than 
any other vessel has ever reached, they wintered further north 
than any human being has ever been known to have wintered 
before, and Captain Markham planted the Union Jack on the 
most northern point ever reached by man. Moreover the 
expedition explored that portion of the previously unknown 
Arctic region which could be reached from the direction of 
Smith Sound, with most valuable scientific results. On his 
return Sir George Nares and his officers were honoured with 
the warm approval of their Sovereign and of the Admiralty, 
and the leader was created a K.C.B. He and his officers had a 
magnificent reception at a special meeting of our Society, held 
at St. James's Hall, with the Prince of Wales in the chair, on 
December 12th, 1876. On the previous day they were enter- 
tained at dinner by the Geographical Club, when the largest 
number of Members assembled that had ever been brought 
together since its foundation. Sir George Nares was adjudged 
the Gold Medal of our Society for his great services to Arctic 
geography, and Captain Markham received a gold watch, with 
a suitable inscription, for having advanced his country's flag to 
the most northern point ever reached by man. The work of 
the expedition was done well, but geographers, who have 
studied the subject, are mindful that Arctic work cannot be 
completed by a single effort, and that the reasons for the 
continuance of northern exploration are as strong now as they 
ever were. 

The most gratifying recognition of the merits of our ex- 
plorers was the dinner given to them by the old Arctic officers, 
to the number of twenty-eight, on December 6th, 1876. Th« 

Sir G. Back. — N.E. Passage. — The Dutch. — Leigh Smith. 93 

veteran Sir George Back, who presided at this dinner, gave 
expression to the feelings of old Arctics in a heart-stirring 
speech that will not soon be forgotten by those who heard it ; 
and it was the last occasion on which the good old Admiral, the 
Father of Arctic explorers, spoke in public. 

Born in 1796, George Back achieved undying fame in the 
Arctic Regions, first in the Spitzbergen Seas, next with Franklin 
on his two land journeys, then in his chivalrous attempt to 
succour the Rosses, when he discovered the Great Fish River, 
and lastly in the memorable voyage of the Terror. He was 
an accomplished artist, as well as an accurate observer, and an 
undaunted explorer. He received our Gold Medal in 1835, 
and became a Fellow in 1836. From that time he was con- 
stantly either a Member of Council or Vice-President, and was 
twice President of the Raleigh Club. He was a genial and 
most entertaining host, a steadfast and warm-hearted friend, and 
a hard-working Member of our Council. Sir George Back died, 
at a good old age, on June 23rd, 1878. He showed the regard 
he entertained for the Society and its objects, by his bequest 
of a legacy of 600?. and of the fine portrait of himself by 
Brockedon,* which now hangs in the Council Room of the 

After the return of our Arctic Expedition, the glorious work 
was, it is to be hoped only for a time, abandoned to private 
efforts and to other countries. In 1878-79, Nordenskjold 
achieved the North-East Passage. The Dutch nation, inspired 
by the patriotic energy of Jansen and Koolemans Beynen, has 
sent the little schooner Willem Barents on three useful ex- 
ploring voyages to the Arctic seas in 1878, 1879, and 1880. 
Captain Markham, in the little schooner Isbjorn, made a polar 
reconnaissance in 1879 ; and in 1880, Mr. Leigh Smith, in a 
steamer built specially for exploring, made important dis- 
coveries along the south coast of Franz Josef Land. For 
this great service to geography he received the Patron's Gold 
Medal in 1881. 

The Council, remaining true to the principles originally 
laid down, has not confined its honours to geographers only 
who have worked in the field. Scholars and cartographers, 
those who have discussed and utilized the work of tra- 
vellers, have also had their labours and their merits duly 

The Society has adjudged the Royal Award to two of its 
Presidents. It is true that Admiral Smyth had fairly earned 

* Mr. Wm. Brockedon, f.r.s., was on our Council in 1831, 1838, 1843, and 
1844. He was an artist, and also a great Alpine traveller; author of 'The 
Passes of the Alps,' and Murray's ' Handbook of Switzerland.' He died in 1855. 

94 Smyth, Murchison, Arrowsmith. 

the honour by his great geographical services in the field. 
But when, in 1854, he received the Founder's Medal, the Council 
and Fellows thought chiefly of the pilot who steered the So- 
ciety's ship through a stormy sea and brought her safely into 
port, of him who had given the Society, from its origin, the 
great benefit of his assistance and advice, and his vigorous 
superintendence while he occupied the presidential chair. 
The presentation of the Founder's Medal to Sir Eoderick 
Murchison, in 1871, was but a very slight acknowledgment of all 
that the Society owes to him who placed it amongst the fore- 
most, the most active, the most popular, and the most widely 
known of our scientific bodies. The history of the award of 
a Gold Medal to Sir Roderick was thus related by Sir Henry 
Rawlinson. " When ill-health forced him to retire, the Council 
had under consideration the presentation to him of some fitting 
testimonial. But while they were deliberating on the best 
means of carrying out this resolution, it was ascertained that Sir 
Roderick, with a delicate and touching appreciation of the 
value of the Society's approbation, would prefer to any tes- 
timonial, however costly and elaborate, the simple medal which 
he had himself so often presented to others as the reward of 

Three eminent cartographers have been selected by the 
Council for the Royal Awards. Foremost was John Arrowsmith, 
an original Fellow of our Society, and a Member of the Council 
from 1851 to 1868. He was born at Winston, near Barnard 
Castle in Durham, on April 23rd, 1 790, and in 1810 he came 
to London to join his uncle Aaron Arrowsmith, who was then 
the leading cartographer in this country. For many years young 
John aided his uncle in the construction of his large collection 
of maps, and soon after his uncle's death he commenced his 
admirable ' London Atlas,' the first edition of which appeared in 
1834. From that time he worked earnestly and ardently to 
the last, although from 1861 he ceased publishing on his own 
account. While engaged on his Atlas he laboured with the 
greatest industry, and lived in the most frugal manner. When 
that work had achieved success he still continued his pains- 
taking career. He purchased his uncle's house, No. 10, Soho 
Square, from his cousin Samuel in 1839, and continued to live 
there until 1861. A great number of his maps illustrate the 
papers in our Journals, and the perspicuity and fidelity with 
with which he laboured for many years in analysing and com- 
paring the crude and hastily constructed sketch-maps which 
travellers brought home from distant lands, and the pains he 
took to delineate such fresh knowledge correctly, quite irre- 
spective of any pecuniary profit, renders his name justly famous 

Petermann. — Mrs. Somervilie. — Colonel Yule. 95 

among practical geographers. It will long be remembered, 
how, for so many years, he pointed out the places on the wall- 
diagrams as the authors read their papers at our Meetings, 
" describit radio," as Lord Ellesmere said. John Arrowsmith 
was adjudged the Patron's Medal in 1863, for the very important 
services he had rendered to geographical science. He died at 
his house in Hereford Square, on May 2nd, 1873, in his 84th 

In 1868 the Founder's Medal was awarded to Dr. Augustus 
Petermann for his services, as a writer and cartographer, in 
advancing geographical science, and for his well-known publica- 
tion, the ' Geographische Mittheilungen,' commenced in 1856. 
Dr. Petermann-was born at Bleicherode in Prussia in 1822, and 
first studied geography under Berghaus. In 1845 he came to 
Edinburgh to assist in the preparation of the English edition 
of the ' Physical Atlas ' of Berghaus, published by Keith John- 
ston, and from 1847 to 1854 he was in London. Keturning to 
Germany in 1855, he took the management of the geographical 
establishment of Justus Perthes at Gotha, including the editor- 
ship of the ' Mittheilungen.' From that time his life was one of 
ceaseless activity and usefulness in furthering the interests of 
geography. He died at Gotha on September 23rd, 1878. To 
Mr. A. Keith Johnston of Edinburgh the Patron's Medal was 
adjudged in 1871. The two editions of his great 'Physical 
Atlas ' cost him ten years of the best period of his life ; the 
result was that the study of physical geography at once took its 
place among the necessary branches of a liberal education. In 
1860 he published his ' Dictionary of Geography.' Mr. Keith 
Johnston only survived a month, after the presentation of the 

Mrs. Mary Somervilie was, throughout a very long life, emi- 
nently distinguished by her proficiency in those branches of 
science which form the basis of physical geography, and, in 
1869, the Council unanimously agreed that she had well earned 
a claim to the Patron's Medal, which was accordingly adjudged 
to her. Her first work, ' The Connection of the Physical 
Sciences,' appeared in 1834, and her ' Physical Geography ' in 
1848. It was Sir Bartle Frere who pointed out that, among 
the acts of Sir Roderick Murchison's Presidency, one of those of 
which he was most proud, was his having induced the Council 
to decree Gold Medals to two illustrious women : Mrs. Somer- 
vilie as the pre-eminent geographer and physicist, and Lady 
Franklin for ner heroic exertions in determining the real fate of 
her husband. 

Colonel H. Yule, c.b., received the Founder's Medal in 1872 
for the eminent services rendered by him to geography in the 

96 Colonel Yule. — Mr. Buribury. 

publication of his three great works, ' Narrative of a Mission to 
the Court of Ava in 1855/ 'Cathay and the Way Thither/ 
1865, and his new edition of ' Marco Polo ' in 1871. ' Cathay 
and the Way Thither ' was one of the Hakluyt Society's series, 
and that the Geographical Society's Gold Medal should be 
adjudged to its editor, proves the close connection between the 
work and objects of the two Societies. Colonel Yule's exhaustive 
and masterly edition of ' Marco Polo ' is a work, the publication 
of which forms an epoch in geographical literature, and it 
is fitting that our Council should have conferred its highest 
honour on the first comparative geographer of this country. 
Since 1877, when he succeeded Sir David JJundas, Colonel Yule 
has been President of the Hakluyt Society. In 1880 the 
Council recorded their appreciation of the literary labours of 
Mr. E. H. Bunbury, in the production of his ' History of Ancient 
Geography/ a work of the highest value, combining accurate 
scholarship with large observation, and displaying a thorough 
acquaintance with modern geographical discovery, as well as 
with classical literature. A copy of the Council's Resolution 
was presented to Mr. Bunbury, by the President, with the best 
thanks of the Council for the service he had rendered to geo- 
graphical science and culture. 

This long roll of eminent explorers and geographers whom 
the Society has delighted to honour, this record of assistance 
given to expeditions in every part of the world, represents the 
main branch of the labours of an institution which has, during 
half a century, striven zealously and unceasingly to perform a 
duty which is of national importance. 

The Society's * Journal.' 97 



Next, in usefulness and importance, to the operations of the 
Geographical Society in the field, are the measures for record- 
ing the results of discoveries, for disseminating knowledge, for 
providing instruction and information, and for encouraging 
educational measures connected with the study of geography. 

In the first year of the Society's existence the form of our 
* Journal ' was decided upon by the Council, and the first 
volume was published in octavo, as at present, containing 264 
pages, illustrated by eight maps. The first six volumes were 
edited by the first Secretary, Captain Maconochie, R.N., and in 
addition to the papers, contained analyses of recent publica- 
tions, and miscellaneous geographical information. The two 
succeeding Secretaries, Captain Washington, R.N., and Colonel 
Jackson, continued the same plan of giving analyses of books, 
and in 1837 it was resolved that all the maps should be 
engraved on copper. In order to supply the information 
as rapidly as possible, the 'Journal ' was published in two parts, 
in May and November, and for a short time, in 1839 and 1840, 
it came out in three parts, in February, May and November. 
A very useful addition was also made, in those years, in the 
shape of lists of geographical works and maps recently pub- 
lished. But in 1842 the issue of two parts during the year 
was reverted to, and in 1847 the analyses and miscellaneous 
information were discontinued. Colonel Jackson completed an 
index of the first ten volumes in 1844. 

Owing to the depressed state of the Society's affairs, the 
' Journal ' in 1848 only contained 144, and in 1849 only 200 
pages ; but as our prosperity increased, so the size and import- 
ance of the ' Journal ' continued to grow, and in 1862 it consisted 
of 31 geographical papers, illustrated by 16 maps, and com- 
prising 583 pages. The index of the second ten volumes of the 
1 Journal,' by Mr. G-. S. Brent, was issued in 1853. From 1848 
to 1855 the 'Journal,' issued once a year, was the only publica- 
tion, and it began to be felt that the information received 
by the Society ought to be utilised more expeditiously, and 
more frequently. Moreover the papers which did not obtain a 


98 ' Proceedings' 

place in the ' Journal,' as well as the discussions, were lost to the 
Fellows and to the public. 

It was at the suggestion of Mr. Francis Galton, then the 
Honorary Secretary, that the series of ' Proceedings ' was com- 
menced in 1855. to be published periodically, and to contain all 
papers read at the Meetings, together with the discussions, and 
additional geographical notices. These 'Proceedings' were issued, 
in pamphlet form, at intervals of six weeks during the Session, 
and latterly six numbers formed a volume. The numbers did 
not appear at regular intervals, the first being published in 
about the middle of January and the last in September. There 
are twenty-two volumes of the ' Proceedings ' (Old Series), from 
November 1855 to December 1878, and the average size of the 
three last yearly volumes was 580 pages. 

This publication was capable of great improvement, and 
of being made the leading authority in the world on all sub- 
jects relating to geography. In the year 1872, as the Council 
did not contemplate any change at the moment, one of the 
Honorary Secretaries, when an opportunity offered, undertook 
to edit a Geographical Periodical independent of the Society, 
to embody all the information which such publication ought to 
contain. The sections into which it was divided were original 
articles or papers, reviews of books, reviews of new maps and 
charts, geographical news in concise paragraphs, correspondence, 
obituary and other personal notices, and reports of proceedings 
of Geographical Societies at home and abroad. It was a 
monthly publication, each number being illustrated by one 
or two maps. ' The Geographical Magazine ' continued to have 
a steady constituency of 1000 to 1200 subscribers, and appeared 
regularly on the 1st of each month, under the editorship of 
Mr. Markham, from July 1872 to December 1878. But in the 
fulness of time the Council of the Royal Geographical Society 
felt the necessity for so enlarging and improving their 'Proceed- 
ings ' as that they should cover the whole ground occupied by the 
Magazine. Thus the Magazine found its successor in a monthly 
periodical containing the same matter, and published by the 
Society. Its last number appeared in December 1878, and the 
first number of the New Series of the ' Proceedings ' m January 
1879. 'The Geographical Magazine' completed its work and 
fulfilled its mission. Its labours were not iu vain, its objects 
did not die with it, but were actively and ably pursued by its 

The ' Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society ' 
(New Series) ' and Monthly Record of Geography ' have 
since been published on the first day of every month with 
perfect regularity, and very ably edited by the Society's 

Separate Volumes. 99 

zealous and accomplished Assistant-Secretary, Mr. H. W. Bates. 
Each number contains the papers read at the Society's Meetings, 
with the discussions, occasionally also a memoir or communi- 
cation which has not been read, announcements, geographical 
news in concise paragraphs, proceedings of Foreign Societies, 
notices of new geographical books and of maps, and obituaries ; 
and is illustrated by two or more good maps. Meanwhile the 
1 Journal ' has continued to be issued, and to contain the more 
important papers illustrated by maps, so that it forms an 
unbroken series of annual volumes from 1831 to 1881. The 
'Journals' contain the whole series of Council Reports and 
Presidential Addresses. . From 1854 they have been accom- 
panied by a Report on the progress of Admiralty Surveys 
annually supplied by the Hydrographer. An index to the 
third ten volumes (1850 to 1860) was prepared by our Gold 
Medallist, Colonel H. Yule, c.b., and issued in 1867, and a 
fourth index, now completed by Mr. Duffield Jones, brings that 
laborious work up to 1870. 

The Society has, in addition to its periodical publications, 
occasionally issued separate volumes on special subjects. The 
first of these, printed at the Society's expense, appeared in 
1837. It was a translation from the Danish of the ' Narrative 
of an Expedition to the East Coast of Greenland, by Captain 
Graah,' with an original chart. The translator, Mr. Gordon 
Macdougall, was accidentally drowned in 1835, but the work 
had the advantage of supervision by Sir James Ross, who added 
some explanatory notes. The second volume separately issued 
was a ' Grammar of the Cree Language, with which is com- 
bined an analysis of the Chippeway Dialect,' by Mr. Joseph 
Howse of Cirencester, published in 1844. But there was an 
interval of nearly thirty years before the Society undertook 
the issue of another separate volume. ' The Lands of Cazembe,' 
published in 1873, contains Lacerda's Journey to Cazembe, 
translated and annotated by our Gold Medallist, Captain R. F. 
Burton ; the Journey of the Pombeiros across Africa ; and a 
resume of the journey of Monteiro and Gamitto, by Dr. Beke. 
The last separate volume that has thus been issued consists of a 
selection of papers on Arctic geographical and ethnological 
subjects, reprinted and presented to the Arctic Expedition of 
1875 by the President, Council, and Fellows of the Royal 
Geographical Society. It proved useful on that occasion, and 
also in the Swedish Expedition of Professor Nordenskiold, 
which discovered the north-east passage. 

Great efforts have been made, from the foundation of the 
Society, to bring together a complete geographical library, and 
an equally extensive collection of maps. But for many years 

u 2 

100 The Library. 

there were great difficulties owing to insufficient space, and for 
some time the want of funds offered another obstacle. The 
Council, and many of the Fellows, zealously exerted themselves, 
in days of adversity as in times of prosperity, and the means at 
the disposal of the Society were not unfrequently supplemented 
through the munificence of individual Fellows. 

The following account of the progress of the Library has 
been prepared by Mr. Edward Caldwell Rye, the Society's very 
able and efficient Librarian. 

" In the original prospectus of the Society, of the 24th of 
May, 1830, one of its primary objects is stated to be 'to 
accumulate gradually a library of the best books on geography, 
a selection of the best voyages and travels ... as well as all 
such documents and materials as may convey the best informa- 
tion to persons intending to visit foreign countries ' ; it being 
also proposed ' to open a communication with all those philo- 
sophical and literary Societies with which geography is con- 
nected.' The subsequent regulations contain a clause that 
1 The Society shall also commence the formation of a Library, 
... to which all Members shall have access, and strangers by 
their orders, under such restrictions as may appear to the 
Council necessary.' 

" The first practical step towards this object is recorded in 
the Council Minutes of 1832, from which it appears that the 
Library then consisted of about 400 volumes, chiefly contributed 
by friends and Members of the Society, a list of whose names 
is annexed to the Report. The names (81 in number) of these 
donors, the absolute founders of the present Library, are those 
of learned Associations, noblemen, men of science, and publishers, 
from whom it is invidious to make a selection, since nearly all 
are familiar as household words: Faraday, Humboldt, Hors- 
burgh, Von Martius, Babbage, and the Court of Directors of 
the East India Company, amongst others, representing a past 
generation, and Mr. John Murray, so long associated with 
standard works of travel, still contributing. Small progress 
was made at first, the funds of the Society only permitting a 
trifling annual outlay on books ; and in 1834 the Library was 
considered to be the least satisfactory part of the Society's 
work, an appeal for help being made to the liberality of 
Members and friends. In 1836 and 1837, progress was far from 
satisfactory, many geographical works of the first importance 
being entirely wanting, and no suitable apartments found in 
which books could be placed for consultation. Many accessions 
are recorded in 1838, chiefly owing to the liberality of Foreign 
Institutions (the Depot de la Marine, Paris, being the earliest 
to receive honourable acknowledgment), — the first fruits of 

The Library. 101 

the wise extension beyond strictly geographical objects autho- 
rised by the original prospectus. In 1839 and 1840 the increase 
was still higher, and foreign academies and official departments 
continued to assist. Suitable rooms at No. 3, Waterloo Place 
being then obtained, the Council in 1841 made a strenuous 
appeal to the Members for further aid, stating it to be their 
object ' that no work relating to geography, no map or chart 
extant, should be wanting to the Library.' This produced in 
the following year a special gift of 50Z. from Mr. James Alex- 
ander (who made two subsequent similar gifts), and some 
donations of books, especially one by Mr. (afterwards Sir Walter) 
Trevelyan, one of the original donors, and who not only sub- 
sequently gave more books to the Library, but on his death 
bequeathed to the Society all his books that might be deemed of 
geographical importance. The Library was of very consider- 
able extent and value in 1843, from more accessions ; and 
further steady but slight increase was made until 1848, when, 
in consequence of the pressing need of proper arrangement, a 
careful inspection was made by a Committee, who took measures 
for preserving the books and obtaining the necessary accommo- 
dation. A special subscription for defraying the cost of these 
works was set on foot, and by the next year had reached nearly 
250Z., whereof the greater part was expended. 

"In 1850, the Library contained over 4000 volumes (Sir 
Walter C. Trevelyan again, with Mr. C. Baring Young, having 
specially made liberal gifts) ; in 1852 the first Catalogue, 
prepared by the Secretary, Dr. Norton Shaw, was seen through 
the press by Mr. Greenough, who also recouped to the Society 
the honorarium awarded to Dr. Shaw. Eolations of exchange 
were in this last year established with many other Libraries 
and Public Institutions at home and abroad, and large and 
important accessions were recorded. \n this year also was 
commenced the system of special grants by the Council for the 
Library use, as the balance of the subscribed fund above- 
mentioned was then exhausted. From this time, the importance 
of the Library was firmly established and recognised ; and in 
1856, on the lamented death of Mr. G-. B. Greenough, one of 
its earliest and most steadfast supporters, it received a large 
and important addition in the bequest of that gentleman's books 
and maps relating to geography, accompanied by a legacy of 
500?. for the expense of accommodating the collection. Steady 
accumulations continued during succeeding years (1858 being 
marked by special improvement), and in 1865 the main 
Catalogue now in use was completed and issued to the Fellows 
gratis. In 1871, the supplementary Catalogue, including works 
acquired between 1865 and 1870, and the Classified Catalogue 

102 The Library. 

of the whole (both prepared by Mr. Evans of the British 
Museum) were completed and published, the supplement being 
distributed gratis. The Classified Catalogue is practically an 
amplification of a similar work prepared many years before for 
the Library by Mr. F. Galton. The large accumulations since 
1870 have rendered it desirable that a second supplement, 
covering from that year to the end of 1880, should be prepared. 
This has been done by the present Librarian, and is now in the 
hands of the Printers. 

" On the removal in 1872 to the premises now occupied by 
the Society, the accommodation for books was increased about 
one-fourth, and this has in subsequent years been still further 
and largely added to by the erection of new presses in all avail- 
able places, and by the appropriation of a special room apart from 
the Library for duplicates and works not frequently consulted. 

"The first Librarian of the Society was Mr. Charles Brad- 
bury, appointed in December 1832, who also acted as draughts- 
man. He resigned in November 1836, and was succeeded by 
Mr. R W. Clifton, who was followed in December 1837 by 
Mr. Webb, R.N. In December 1841 Mr. J. Shillinglaw became 
Librarian, resigning in November 1846. After him Mr. Cart- 
wright discharged the duties, as well as those of clerk ; and in 
1854 so distinguished a geographer as Mr. Trelawny Saunders 
acted as temporary Librarian, practically re-organizing the 
library. That work being accomplished, Mr. Wheeler, the 
Chief Clerk, continued in charge of the books, until succeeded 
in both offices by Mr. E. Street in 1862. Lieut. A. J. Clark, 
a Fellow of the Society, acted on an emergency in 1864, 
until Mr. H. Purrier was appointed. In November 1866 Mr. 
J. H. Lamprey was made Librarian ; and on his retirement in 
March 1874, the present Librarian was appointed. The duties 
had by that time so much increased, that an assistant (Mr. Vin- 
cent Hawkins) was engaged in the following October. 

" The work of the Library is superintended by a separate 
Committee, originally indicated in 1853. It meets practically 
every month during the Session, and has been very constantly 
and zealously presided over by Mr. Fergusson who, from 1863 to 
1881, has given his time and valuable aid to the Society's work. 
The expenditure is now, on the average of the past six years, 
about 150Z. per annum for books, and 907. for binding. During 
that period, a further sum of 2007. has also been expended. 
This was the munificent present of the lamented Admiral Sherard 
Osborn during his life, ' in recognition of the valuable assistance 
afforded to him by the use of the Library/ 

" The Library now contains upwards of 20,000 books and pam- 
phlets, for the most part either purely geographical or bearing 

The Library. 103 

upon the sciences with which geography is connected, as desired 
by the original promoters of the Society. This large number 
of volumes, still steadily increasing, represents exchanges of 
publications and important donations, besides regular and 
occasional purchases. In addition to the gifts above alluded 
to, which form as it were a part of the history of the Library, 
having been made at critical periods of the existence of the 
Society, there are some which it is impossible here to pass 
over, though to give a proper recognition of obligations of this 
nature would require far more space than is available. The 
Library is most especially indebted to the various Departments 
of Her Majesty's Government for invaluable and continued 
support, perhaps most of all to the Secretary of State for India 
and to the different branches of the Indian Administration, 
from whom have been received the costly series of Gazetteers, 
the voluminous Reports (frequently illustrated, and which under 
that modest name are often exhaustive scientific treatises), the 
lengthy accounts of Trigonometrical, Topographical, Marine, 
Geological, Statistical and Revenue Surveys, the selections 
from Government papers, and the confidential and early details 
of explorations which enrich the presses devoted to Asia. It 
is to the attention to the Society's welfare in this respect by 
Mr. Markham, while he was in charge of the Geographical De- 
partment at the India Office, from 1867 to 1877, that many of 
these acquisitions are due. To the Secretaries of State for 
Foreign Affairs and the Colonies (as also the separate Colonial 
administrations, notably those of Canada, Victoria and New 
Zealand), the Intelligence Department of the War Office and 
the Admiralty, we are also largely indebted. Nor are the 
Governments of foreign countries less generous in their aid. 
Of them, the United States authorities stand conspicuously in 
the front rank, their gifts being second only to those on Indian 
subjects above mentioned in mere extent, and perhaps even wider 
in scope. The many comprehensive publications of the various 
State Geographical and Geological Surveys under Hayden, 
Wheeler, Powell, King, and others, of the Engineer Department, 
and Naval Observatory, the Senate documents, and Coast Sur- 
veys, are but the chief among the mass of works, bearing 
more or less on geography, which we continue to receive from 
Transatlantic official sources. And, as the outcome of a truly 
national Institution, the numerous Smithsonian publications 
can here be fitly acknowledged. 

" Of other foreign State benefactors, the French Marine De- 
partment and Minister of Public Instruction, the Prussian and 
Egyptian General Staffs, and various officials of the German, 
Russian, Netherlands, Scandinavian, Austrian, Mexican, Chilian. 

104 Tlie Library. 

and Peruvian Governments, deserve especial thanks for their 

" To the individual contributors above recorded must be 
added the names of John Crawfurd, who presented ' Purchas 
his Pilgrimes,' Lord Stanley, Sir Roderick Murchison and 
Kenneth R. Murchison, Sir W. Codrington, Desborough Cooley, 
J. P. Gassiot and C. H. Wallroth, as having either by 
costly gilts or continued support shown how much they cared 
for the Society's best interests ; for Arctic works, the well-known 
names of Back, Barrow, and Hooper are to be in like way 
signalised ; and valuable presents by Commodore Jansen, Dr. 
Forchhammer, Dr. Ziegler, Count Wilczek, General Kaufmann, 
Professor Raimondi, Capt. Vidal Gormaz, and the Archduke 
Iiudwig Salvator of Austria, sufficiently attest a world-wide 
interest in our welfare. This short list would be still more 
incomplete, if mention were not made of the continuous interest 
in the Library shown by our Secretary Mr. Markham, whose 
gifts of the great works of Gay and Castelnau, the earliest 
(1589) publication by Hakluyt, Van der Aa's collection of 
voyages, and all the early histories and memoirs of Viceroys 
referring to Peru, signalise themselves among minor donations 
too numerous to be given here. 

" The chief aim of the Library Committees has been to obtain 
books which are beyond the reach of most individual pur- 
chasers ; and with this view they have secured such desiderata 
as the long and costly series of French Voyages, the 1599 
edition of Hakluyt, Eden's Travels, the Journal of the Godef- 
froy Museum at Hamburg, &c. The collection is, however, 
least rich in old books of importance. 

"Receiving the publications of over thirty other Geographical 
Societies, subscribing for or being presented with every geo- 
graphical periodical of any value, purchasing every important 
work of travel or bearing on scientific geography as soon as 
possible, and with the series of all corresponding scientific 
bodies kept up to date, the Library may now perhaps fairly be 
considered as the best purely geographical one in existence. 
It is largely consulted by the Fellows, whose power of borrowing 
is constantly exercised (though for the most part on works of 
transitory interest), by the officers of public Departments, and 
by travellers, authors, teachers, students, missionaries, mer- 
chants, publishers, and artists, who find in its stores material 
not elsewhere obtainable. In connection with the sciences 
allied to geography, it may be noted that the fact of some 
members of the Staff being Fellows of other Societies, has on 
several occasions enabled our own Fellows to obtain ready 
access to authorities incidentally valuable, but not properly 

The Map Room. 105 

within the scope of our Library. The aid which in earlier times it 
was enabled to afford to the State (e.g. during the Abyssinian War 
and San Juan Boundary dispute) is now of a less direct nature, 
as the Intelligence Department of the War Office has acquired so 
great an official standing and value. But that Department makes 
the most constant and the largest demands upon our resources. 

"From time to time the Library is consulted by foreign 

• geographers, who on some occasions have for that purpose 

visited England ; and as the extent of its possessions in the 

allied sciences is gradually getting better known, it is acquiring 

a reputation for referential purposes. 

" The Bibliography of the present issue of the Society's 
*■ Proceedings,' tending as' it does not only to add to a know- 
ledge of geography (for there is no similar abstract in English 
of geographical works), but to increase the area of the Society's 
influence, may also be properly mentioned here, as it is founded 
on books that come under the Librarian's notice in his official 

The collection of maps and charts now contains 35,000 
sheets, 500 atlases, numerous pictorial illustrations, 63 relief 
maps and models, and 240 large maps or diagrams suitable for 
the illustration of lectures. It has annually continued to in- 
crease by donations and purchase, receiving a very large and 
important accession in 1855, from the munificent bequest of Mr. 
Greenough. All the principal maps published by Mr. Edward 
Stanford were presented by that gentleman; and in 1880 a 
complete collection of the maps published by the late M. P. H. 
Vandermaelen of Brussels, through his executors. Donations are 
received from the Admiralty, the War Department, and the Ord- 
nance Survey Department, from the Secretary of State for India, 
and from various Foreign Governments, of the sheets of national 
surveys. The complete catalogue of maps and charts, including 
all the maps in the 'Journal,' was finished in 1880 and is about 
to be published. The interest taken in the Society's labours 
led to the Map Room being raised to the position of a national 
institution. In 1854 Her Majesty's Ministers felt themselves 
justified in tendering a yearly grant of 5001. to the Society, in 
order that the collection of maps and charts might be rendered 
available for general reference. This proposition was gratefully 
accepted, and arrangements were promptly made in accordance 
with the Treasury Minute. Thus, through this grant, the 
Society's Map Room has become a valuable place of reference 
which is open to the public, and which has ever since been 
constantly utilised by the Intelligence Department of the War 
Office and by other Government Departments, as well as by 
numerous individual inquirers. It is a gratifying incident in con- 

106 Instruments. — ' Hints to Travellers.' 

nection with the grant that our Associate Mr. Joseph Hume, m.p., 
the rigid economist and jealous guardian of the public purse, 
raised his powerful voice in favour of a measure which he con- 
sidered to be useful and desirable. From 1854 the Society's 
Map Room has been, as Sir Roderick Murchison had long main- 
tained it should be, the " Map Office of the Nation." 

The Society's collection of instruments was formed both to 
enable travellers to become familiar with their use ; * and in 
order that the Council may be in a position to lend sets or single 
instruments to explorers and travellers who may apply for such 
loans, and are found to be qualified to observe. The system of 
lending instruments has been very successful. Several travel- 
lers are now annually enabled, in this way, to add considerably 
to the value of their reports, and the supply of instruments has 
become a regular and very useful branch of the Society's work. 
A complete set of instruments, with other articles necessary for 
the equipment of an observer in the field, is placed under a glass 
case in the Map Room, as a guide to intending travellers, and 
to remind them of useful things which might otherwise be 

With the instruments, the Council has always seen the im- 
portance of furnishing instructions for their use, and suggestions 
to the explorer on all points relating to their work. The first 
book of the kind, was Colonel Jackson's ' What to observe, or 
the Traveller's Remembrancer,' a fourth edition of which was 
issued in 1861. Meanwhile the Council had appointed a Sub- 
Committee consisting of Captain FitzRoy, R.N., and Lieutenant 
H. Raper, r.n., to report upon the best form in which informa- 
tion could be furnished to inquirers. The result was the publi- 
cation of a pamphlet entitled ' Hints to Travellers,' containing 
the report of the Sub-Committee, and papers by Admiral Smyth, 
Admiral Beechey, Colonel Sykes, and Mr. Francis Galton. 
The report gives a list of necessary instruments, instructions for 
drawing maps and plans, and for observing for latitude and 
longitude. Admirals Smyth and Beechey furnish many valu- 
able hints; Colonel Sykes's paper is on the use of thermometers 
to determine heights; and Mr. Galton discusses a traveller's 
outfit, and gives instructions for describing a new country. 

The second edition of ' Hints to Travellers ' was revised by 
a Committee, consisting of Sir George Back, Admiral Collinson, 
and Mr. Francis Galton, in 1864. Their information is prefaced 
by the remark that it is to be understood as addressed to a per- 
son who, for the first time in his life, proposes to explore a wild 
country, and who asks what astronomical and other scientific 
outfit he ought to take with him, and on what observations he 

* See page 19. 

Scientific Lectures. 107 

ought chiefly to rely. It, therefore, commences with a descrip- 
tive list of needful instruments and other articles, which is 
followed by detailed instructions for observing for latitude and 
longitude, for rough triangulatiou, for ascertaining altitudes by 
boiling-point, for projecting routes, for constructing maps, with 
hints on photography by Professor Pole, and on collecting 
objects in natural history by Mr. Bates. This edition was ex- 
tensively circulated, and was followed by a third edition in 1871. 

The fourth edition of ' Hints to Travellers ' appeared in a 
new form in 1878, under the sole editorship of Mr. Galton. 
Instead of being an ordinary 8vo. pamphlet, it is a little square 
volume of 104 pages, very compact, and easily fitting into a 
coat pocket. The principal additions are a " Memoir on Surveys " 
by Major Wilson, r.e., a paper on observations with theodolites 
or altazimuth instruments by Colonel J. T. Walker, r.e., and 
several useful tables. There was a rapid and extensive sale of 
the fourth edition, and a new and revised edition is now about 
to be prepared. 

In 1876 the Council had under its consideration a series of 
proposals drawn up by several of its Members, and concurred in 
by eminent men of science among the Council, which had for their 
object the adoption of measures with a view to giving greater 
encouragement to the study of the more strictly scientific side 
of geography, and of the causes which, by their combined action, 
have made the earth what we find it. The result of a careful 
consideration of these proposals was that the Council recorded 
its willingness to set aside an annual sum of 500Z. for scientific 
purposes. It was decided that three lectures should be delivered 
at Evening Meetings during each Session, by the most eminent 
physicists whose services could be secured. These valuable 
lectures were continued during the three following years : — 

1876-77. Major-Gen. Steachey, c.s.i. 
Dr. Cabpenteb, c.b. 
A. K. Wallace, Esq. .. 

Introductory lecture on scientific 

On the temperature of the deep 
sea bottom. 

Comparative antiquity of conti- 

On the main land masses. 

On the magnetism of the earth. 

Plant distribution as a field for 
geographical research. 

Geographical evolution. 

The modifications of the external 
aspects of organic nature pro- 
duced by man's interference. 

John Bali,, Esq .. q» the origin of the flora of the 

European Alps. 

1877-78. Professor Duncan .. .. 
Captain Evans, b.n., c.b. 
W. J. Thistelton Dyeb, Esq 

1878-79. Professor Geieie ., 
Professor Rolleston 

108 Instruction to Travellers. 

But it was found that the lectures were not suited to the 
large mixed audiences which assembled at the Geographical 
Society's Meetings. The object of the Council would, it became 
evident, be more satisfactorily attained by a system of instruc- 
tion to those who were actually desirous of acquiring a know- 
ledge of scientific geography with some practical object. 

A very large number of Englishmen visit countries which 
have never been geographically described or correctly mapped, 
and traverse routes along which no observations have ever 
been taken. Many more annually pass and repass over tracts 
respecting which some previous contributions have been re- 
corded, but which need additional and more correct observations 
before they can be adequately described and mapped. Every 
year these wanderers, in various professions and engaged upon 
divers avocations, spread themselves over every quarter of the 
globe ; yet, for want of necessary training, they travel and return 
without any or with few results that can be utilised for geo- 
graphical purposes. 

In many instances such travellers would gladly and even 
zealously add the work of observing and of collecting geographical 
information to the more direct objects of their journeys. It is 
probable that nearly all would do so if they were made sensible 
of the value of such work, and if the means of acquiring the 
necessary training were within their reach. These considera- 
tions induced the Council of the Society to take steps for pro- 
viding this preliminary training. It was believed that by 
undertaking to make proper arrangements for the purpose, the 
increase of valuable observations, for geographical purposes, in all 
parts of the world would be promoted. Mr. John Coles, late R.N., 
the Curator of the Society's Maps, was accordingly appointed to 
give instruction in practical astronomy, route surveying, and 
mapping; and steps were taken to make it generally known 
that such instruction was provided by the Council. At the 
same time the construction of a small observatory on the roof 
of the Society's house was sanctioned, which was finished and 
in use by February 1880. 

Mr. Coles began to give instruction in October 1879, and he 
has since given 232 lessons to 21 students, down to the end of 
1880. The subjects taught embrace nearly all the problems in 
practical astronomy and surveying, the use of the transit- 
theodolite, ordinary 5-inch theodolite, sextant and artificial 
horizon, hypsometrical apparatus, manner of plotting a traverse- 
survey by means of the prismatic compass, and map construction. 
The students have included civil engineers, naval and military 
officers, surgeons, magistrates, botanists, missionaries, and one 

School Prizes. 109 

This measure has answered perfectly, and is likely to be still 
more successful in the future. Its scope might hereafter be 
extended, and it is calculated directly to advance the interests 
and objects of the Society. For upon the careful and efficient 
training of explorers depends the value and accuracy of their 

A system had been inaugurated, some years previously, for 
promoting the teaching of geography in our schools, and thus 
widely disseminating a taste for our pursuit, and sowing seeds, 
some of which might surely be expected to bear fruit in after 
years. In 1868 the Council resolved, at the suggestion of Mr. 
Francis Galton, to offer prizes for competition in the principal 
public schools, with the object of encouraging the study of 
geography. For some years previously an annual prize of 57., 
termed the "Royal Geographical Society's Prize," had been 
granted by the Council, with beneficial results, to the Society of 
Arts, and awarded at their annual examination. It was now 
further resolved to offer two gold and two bronze medals, one 
of each to successful candidates in an annual examination on 
subjects of political and physical geography respectively, the 
first examination to take place in 1869, and to be repeated 
in each succeeding year. The decision of the Council to take 
this step was influenced by the Report of the Royal Commis- 
sion on Public School Education in 1864, in which an opinion 
is expressed that greater attention should be paid to geography 
and history, than they now receive at schools. After the 
Council's action had received the test of ten years' experience, 
Mr. Galton was able, in 1878, to announce the continued success 
of the Public Schools' competition. Most of the Schools which 
sent candidates for the first examinations continued to do so, 
showing that they had found by experience that the teaching 
of geography did not interfere with other branches of study. 
Out of the forty medals which had been given, twelve had 
been gained by Liverpool College, five by Eton, and four 
each by Rossall and Dulwich. There could be no doubt that 
the effect of the medals had been to increase the standard of 
geographical teaching in many schools, and ample testimony 
has been borne, both by schoolmasters and by medallists, to 
the great service rendered to the cause of education by these 

A perusal of this chapter will have shown the nature of the 
measures adopted by the Society with the object of instructing 
and training explorers and geographers, and of utilising the 
results of their labours. We begin by striving to infuse a taste 
for geographical studies in our public schools. We next supply 
the means of efficient instruction to all who are about to visit 

110 Recapitulation. 

distant lands, and are willing to benefit by the facilities offered 
by the Society. Through our annually increasing library and 
map collection, the geographer is enabled to prosecute his 
studies with peculiar advantages ; and the results of the labours 
of explorers and of the researches of students receive wide pub- 
licity through our • Journals ' and ' Proceedings,' and are thus 
fully utilised. 

Opening Prospects. 




Finance — Members — Meetings — House Accommodation. 

The power of forwarding the objects of the Society, of accumu- 
lating geographical information and making it available, of 
furthering and assisting exploration and discovery, depends 
upon the support received by the Society from the public. It is 
only on the condition that the Geographical Society's work is 
felt and recognised to be work of national importance, that it 
can be efficiently and continuously performed. The great object 
of the Founders of the Society, and of their Successors, has been, 
by activity and diligence, to establish the Society's reputation, 
and to prove the value of its labours. Through evil report and 
through good report, the work has been steadfastly pushed for- 
ward during half a century ; and successive Members of the 
Council have given their time and abilities, in ungrudging 
measure, to the Society's business. It is this unostentatious 
work, this attention to the measures for increasing the number of 
Members, to financial details, and to administrative business, 
upon which the prosperity and well-being of the Society is 

The Society commenced its operations with 460 Members in 
1830, the admission fee being 3/., the annual subscription 21., 
which might be compounded for by one payment of 20Z.* In 
the first two years, from July 1830 to March 1832, the receipts 
amounted to 5239Z., and it was the original plan of the Council 
to form a reserve fund by investing the sums received as com- 
positions, and to meet current expenses with the amount repre- 
sented by annual subscriptions. During the first ten years the 
receipts averaged 1500Z. a year, and by 1840 a reserve fund of 
4000?. had been invested. The number of Members increased 
to 700, but arrears of payment were very large. Through the 
kindness of Mr. Robert Brown, one of our seven Founders, the 
Society obtained shelter and a place of meeting, during those 
first ten years, at the rooms of the Horticultural Society in 
Regent Street, for which a house-rent of 110Z. was paid. But, 
as the collection of books and maps increased, and the evening 
meetings became more popular and more numerously attended, 

* The composition is now 28Z. on entrance, or 251. at any subsequent period if 
the entrance fee be already paid. 

112 Early Struggles. 

the want of better accommodation was more and more felt. The 
difficulty in obtaining suitable rooms was caused by want of 
sufficient funds, and also by the Society's large expenditure in 
furthering geographical exploration which, during the first ten 
years, was munificent, considering the means at its disposal. 

At last, in 1839, the Society took a lease of a suite of rooms 
at No. 3, Waterloo Place, at a rent of 2631. a year, which it 
continued to occupy until 1854. There was an expenditure of 
2701. in fitting up and furnishing these rooms. The evening 
meetings were still held in the public room of the Horticultural 
Society, in Kegeut Street. 

The most depressed period of the Society's affairs was from 
1845 to 1850, when the arrears increased to alarming propor- 
tions, the deficits were chronic, and there was an annual neces- 
sity for selling out and encroaching upon the reserve fund, to 
meet them. In 1848 there was a diminution in the number of 
Members. The Financial Committee reported that the Society 
was in a state of financial embarrassment, and a representation 
was made to the Prime Minister, asking for Government sup- 
port on the ground of the national character of the Society's 
work. The receipts had fallen to 583Z., while the expenditure 
was 755Z. No help was granted. The Council had to face and 
overcome its difficulties without assistance, and it did so with 
most complete success. 

During Admiral Smyth's tenure of office the most strenuous 
and effectual efforts were made to give a healthy tone to the 
Society's finances, and to increase its resources. The number of 
Members began to increase, and fresh interest was given to the 
Society's meetings. In 1850 the sums invested had been 
reduced, by sales to meet annual deficits, to 1886Z., while the 
subscriptions and entrance fees only amounted to 1036Z. Con- 
tinued efforts were made to induce the Government to grant 
suitable apartments for the Society's use, but without result. 
But Admiral Smyth did not lose heart. " It is our part," he 
said, " to deserve success by eschewing despondency. I 
therefore call upon you all, and severally, to stand by your 
colours — 

" ' True as the dial to the sun 

Although it be not shin'd upon.' " 

Meanwhile, through the kindness of the Principal and Council 
of King's College, improved accommodation for the evening 
meetings was provided at Somerset House. 

The true foundation of the Society's success has been the close 
attention to its finances which has been given since 1850. In 
addition to the care bestowed upon them by the Treasurers, the 
Council has continuously had the great benefit of diligent 

Whitehall Place. — Burlington House. 113 

assistance, in its financial affairs, from eminent merchants or 
actuaries of ability and long experience. From 1846 to 1863 
Mr. Osborne Smith was constantly a Member of the Finance 
Committee, Mr. Brooking from 1855 to 1868, Mr. Charles 
White from 1869 to 1871, and Mr. S. W. Silver from 1871 to 
1881. Sir George Balfour was also a most valuable Member 
of the Finance Committee from 1863 to 1868. 

From the time of Admiral Smyth the affairs of the Society 
continued to improve without any check. In 1853 the Council, 
in order most efficiently to carry out the objects of the Society, 
was divided into permanent working Committees under the 
following heads : — 

1. Regulations and Bye-laws. 

2. Finance and House. 

3. Library and Maps. 

4. Publications. 

5. Expeditions. 

In the following year the Society took the lease of 15, White- 
hall Place, a commodious house with suitable Library and Map 
Room, at a rent of 500Z. a year for 16 years. The work of 
removing the valuable collection of maps and charts, and 
properly arranging them in Whitehall Place, was ably per- 
formed by Mr. Trelawney Saunders. The establishment of the 
Society in a house of its own, added very materially to its use- 
fulness, and to the convenience of the Fellows. At first the 
Library was fitted up for evening meetings, but it was very soon 
found that the accommodation was quite insufficient ; and in 
1858 the use of the large room in the west wing of old Burling- 
ton House was accorded by the Royal Society and the University 
of London. This long and handsome room, hung with portraits 
of the Presidents of the Royal Society, conspicuous among whom 
was Sir Joseph Banks, the Founder of the African Association 
and the great patron of geography, continued to be our place 
of meeting from 1858 to 1868. Here took place the crowded 
receptions of Livingstone and Speke, and here Sherard Osborn 
read his memorable paper on the renewal of Arctic research. 

The number of Fellows continued to increase rapidly. In 
1850 there were 700, in 1858 the number was over 1000, and 
by 1868 it had passed 2000. From that time the rate of 
increase was more marked, for the figure 3000 was reached by 
1876, and in 1880 the number of Fellows was 3371. From 
1830 to 1860 the elections took place by ballot among the 
general body of the Fellows at the evening meetings. But in 
1861 the elections were entrusted to the Council. It had been 
found that very great inconvenience attended the method of 


114 Purchase of No. 1 Savile Row. 

ballot at the crowded evening meetings. It was impracticable 
to carry round the boxes to obtain the vote of each Fellow, and 
very few took the trouble of voting as they entered the hall. 
Consequently it was unanimously agreed, at a General Meeting, 
that the elections should be entrusted to the Council, the names 
of Candidates proposed and of Fellows elected being regularly 
announced at each evening meeting. Besides the 3371 ordinary 
Fellows, there are nine Honorary Members, consisting of 
Crowned Heads or Imperial or .Royal Personages who take an 
interest in geographical pursuits ; and 59 Honorary Correspond- 
ing Members who are distinguished foreign geographers and 

By 1864 the finances of the Society may be considered to 
have been brought back to a satisfactory condition. The 
receipts were 5256Z., and the expenditure only 3655?., leaving a 
large sum for investment. The funded capital of the Society 
was 10,500Z. 

There was a considerable annual increase to the funded 
capital, which was accumulated with a view mainly to the pur- 
chase of a freehold property, at the conclusion of the lease of 
15 Whitehall Place. In 1870 the funded capital amounted to 
19,250Z. The freehold of the house at No. 1 Savile Row was 
purchased in this year for 14,527Z. A further expenditure of 
3798Z. was incurred for alterations and building the Map Room, 
1074Z. for removal expenses, and 334Z. for dilapidations on 
giving up the lease of 15 Whitehall Place. The extensive 
alterations were superintended by a Building Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. James Fergusson, and the Treasurer, Mr. Reginald 
Cocks. The total sum sold out amounted to 18,250Z. Thus 
the Society became possessed, for the first time, of suitable 
premises of its own, consisting of an Office, Council Room, 
large national Map Room, Library, rooms for the Assistant- 
Secretary and Office Keeper, Instrument Room, and rooms for 
draftsman, and for the binder and map-mounter. An Obser- 
vatory has since been added, at the top of the house, for the 
convenience of students receiving instruction in practical 
astronomy. The value of the house and furniture, exclusive of 
library and map collections (insured for 10,0007.) is estimated 
at 20,000Z. 

After the wing of old Burlington House was pulled down in 
1869, the evening meetings of the Society took place for a time 
at the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street. But since 1870 
they have been held, by permission of the Chancellor and Senate 
of the University of London, in their grand hall in Burlington 
Gardens. On great occasions, such as the reception of Lieut. 
Cameron, and of the officers and men of the Arctic Expedition 

Present Prosperity. 115 

on their return in 1876, the accommodation in Burlington 
Gardens has been found to be insufficient, and it has been 
necessary to hire a still more spacious place of reception, 
namely St. James's Hall. 

The great number of Fellows has ensured the financial 
prosperity of the Society. Since 1870 this prosperity has steadily 
increased. The receipts in 1880 amounted to 8600?., and the 
actual expenditure was 8490?. ; while the Society's funded 
capital had again risen to 18,500?. The expenditure on the 
house, including office expenses and salaries, was 1792?. ; on the 
Library, 467?. ; on the Map Koom, 1125?. ; on the evening 
meetings, 157?. ; on lectures and instruction to travellers, 112?. ; 
on awards, 207?. ; and on the publications, 3197?. In most 
years the donations towards the expenses of travellers also forms 
a considerable item in the accounts. 

Her Majesty the Queen is Patron of the Society, the Prince 
of Wales Vice-Patron, and the Duke of Edinburgh Honorary 
President. The Council consists of a President, six Vice-Pre- 
sidents, a Treasurer, two Trustees, two Secretaries, a Foreign 
Secretary, and twenty-one Ordinary Members. Their meetings 
take place once every fortnight during the Session, from Novem- 
ber to June, and they are also divided into the following Com- 
mittees for the transaction of the Society's business : — 

1. Finance and House. 

2. Library and Map. 

3. Expeditions. 

4. Hints to Travellers. 

5. School Prizes. 

6. Scientific Purposes. 

By this machinery, and by the work of the Society's able 
and zealous permanent staff, the objects and interests of geo- 
graphical science are furthered and extended. Instruction is 
afforded to travellers and explorers, assistance and advice pro- 
vided, the means of reference furnished by one of the largest 
collections of geographical books and maps in the world, which 
is constantly being improved and added to, and information is 
regularly disseminated at the evening meetings and through the 
Society's publications. "While this ordinary work is thus pro- 
vided for, the Council is always willing to consider any new 
proposal for increasing its usefulness, and for still further 
widening the sphere of operations which are of such vital 
importance to a great maritime and commercial people. 

I 2 

116 Work to be done in the far North. 



The progress that has been made in the science of geography 
since the Society was founded is only partially shown by a 
comparison of an atlas of 1830 with the maps of the present 
day. For this progress is not alone comprised in the discovery 
and delineation of unknown countries. Its range is far wider. 
There have also been great improvements in the methods of 
investigation, in systematic arrangement of facts, in carto- 
graphy, and in the construction and use of instruments. 

At the same time the most striking advances have been 
made in the work of discovery, and in completing our general 
knowledge of the earth's surface, preliminary to more syste- 
matic and detailed surveys. Yet, bearing in mind that the 
first discoveries are merely reconnaissances, it may safely be 
said that, great as our progress has been during the last 
half century, it only represents a very small fraction of what 
remains to be done. 

Glancing first at the Arctic Regions, which had attracted so 
much attention during the period from the peace in 1815 to the 
attempt of Parry to push northwards from Spitzbergen in 1827, 
in 1830 only unconnected strips of coast line had been traced 
along the coast of Arctic America, and it was unknown whether 
there was a passage along that coast to Fury and Hecla Straits. 
Baffin's Bay had been re-discovered, and Parry had pushed 
westward along Barrow Strait to Melville Island, but nothing 
was known of the region between Barrow Strait and the con- 
tinent. Knowledge respecting the eastern sides of Greenland 
and Spitzbergen, the coasts of Novaya Zemlya, and the sur- 
rounding seas was vague and inaccurate, and an enormous area 
was entirely unknown. 

Now the whole coast of Arctic America has been delineated, 
the remarkable archipelago to the north has been explored, 
and no less than seven north-west passages have been traced by 
our naval explorers.* The channels leading northwards from 

* 1. Along the west coast of Banks Island to Melville Sound. 2. Through 
Princess Royal Strait to Melville Sound. 3. Down McClintock Channel. 

Arctic and Antarctic Work. 117 

Smith Sound, the shores of the Palseocrystic Sea, considerable 
portions of the east coast of Greenland, and the south shore of 
Franz Joseph Land, have been discovered. Captain Markham 
has advanced the Union Jack to 83° 20' n., and Nordenskiold 
has achieved the north-east passage. 

Still much remains to be done in the Arctic Regions. The 
interior of Greenland presents a problem of the deepest in- 
terest, while the discovery of its northern shore has been an 
object of honourable ambition for three centuries. The line 
of the Palaeocrystic Sea has been traced from the North 
Americnn coast along Banks and Prince Patrick Islands, 
Grinnell Land, and North Greenland ; while a stream of this 
tremendous ice flows down Melville Sound to press upon the 
coast of King William Island, and fragments find their way 
down the east coast of Greenland. But the extent of this 
ancient ice is still unknown, and a complete discovery of the 
area it occupies, and the causes of its accumulation, will be a 
most important addition to geographical knowledge. The 
exploration of the northern side of Franz Joseph Land, of the 
lands north of Siberia, and the solution of numerous scientific 
questions within the undiscovered area, furnish work to occupy 
many successive expeditions in the future. Every new dis- 
covery increases the interest of those which are to follow. At 
first mere isolated geographical facts were ascertained ; but as 
discovery advances, and these facts become more numerous, 
they begin to explain each other. The whole physical economy 
of the Polar Region will thus gradually be brought to light, and 
generalisation will become possible. In the Arctic Regions 
there is still an important and most difficult piece of work to be 
done ; and it is the duty of our Society to promote and further 
it by every means in its power. 

In the Antarctic Regions there is another enormous field for 
discovery. When the Society was founded, our Antarctic know- 
ledge was derived from the voyages of Cook and Bellingshausen, 
who ascertained that there was no land over a very extensive 
area in high latitudes, and from those of Bransfield, Powell, 
and Weddell. Our second royal award was granted to Captain 
Biscoe, who, in February 1831 and 1832, discovered Enderby 
and Graham Lands ; and in 1839 Balleny made known the 
Balleny Islands and Sabrina Land. Dumont d'Urville dis- 
covered Terre Adelie and Cote' Clarie, in 1841 Sir James Ross 
established the existence of a great southern continent, and in 

4. Down Peel Sound and Franklin Strait, and round the west side of King 
William Island. 5. Bound the east side of King William Island. 6. Down 
Prince Regent Inlet and through Bellot Strait. 7. Through Fury and Hecla 
Strait and Bellot Strait. 

118 Work to be done in Africa. 

1 842 he penetrated to 78° 11' s., the furthest ever reached. Sinee 
that time nothing has been done in the Antarctic Kegions. 
South of 78° there is an area of millions of square miles which 
is absolutely unknown. 

Next to the regions of the Poles, the greatest undiscovered 
area, when the Society was founded, was in the continent of 
Africa. In the 17th century, the wide African spaces had 
been well covered with names derived from Ptolemy, Leo 
Africanus, Edrisi, Pigafetta, and De Barros and other Portu- 
guese sources. But the more critical school of geographers, which 
flourished in the end of the 17th and in the 18th centuries, 
rejected all names and details for which no sufficient authority 
could be given. Delisle (1698), who was followed by D'Anville, 
left the greater part of inner Africa a blank, retaining only the 
single great lake of Lopez and De Barros (Tanganyika). The 
maps of 1830 show a lofty chain, Ptolemy's " Mountains of the 
Moon," running across the continent, near the equator, and the 
Nile flowing northwards from them.* The coast kingdoms and 
colonies are indicated, and the mouths and lower courses of 
some of the great rivers. A dotted line shows the conjectural 
position of a long lake named " Maravi," in 10° s. Fezzan 
also appears, and lake Chad, with the routes of Denham, 
Clapperton, and Lander. Otherwise interior Africa is a blank 
space ; a mysterious region, well fitted to excite the interest of 
geographers, and the adventurous ambition of explorers. 

Fifty years has seen a vast change in all this. The 
discoveries of Burton, Speke, and Baker, revolutionised the 
orography of equatorial Africa, and established the existence 
of great lakes — the reservoirs of the Nile and the Congo. 
Livingstone revealed to us the basin of the Zambesi, and 
by discovering Nyassa, cleared up the mystery of lake " Ma- 
ravi." Stanley descended the Congo, and Cameron crossed 
Africa, from Zanzibar to Benguela. The course of the Niger 
was traced by many persevering efforts, as well as those of 
the Senegal, the Gambia, the Ogowe, the Limpopo, and 
the Orange river; while intermediate regions have been 
brought within our knowledge through the labours of daunt- 
less explorers of several nations — Portuguese on both coasts 
and across the continent, French in the north and west, Ger- 
mans mainly from the west and east coasts, and in the Nile 
and Niger valleys, Englishmen in all parts; and single tra- 
vellers of all four nations have left their marks in every direc- 
tion. Africa has been a glorious field of generous rivalry 
among civilised Europeans. 

* But Ptolemy erroneously placed the Nile sources and the Mountains of the 
moon in about 12° s. 


Work to be done in Africa. 119 

Yet much remains to be done. There is a wide field for 
discovery between Morocco and the Niger. The course of the 
Uelle, beyond the point reached by Schweinfurth, is entirely 
unknown, as well as the immense region between the Uelle and 
the Congo. The country between lake Tanganyika and Albert 
Nyanza is undiscovered. South of Abyssinia, there is a great 
mountainous region, drained by the Juba and the Godjeb or 
So bat, of which we know next to nothing. D'Abbadie's 
journey to Enarea and Kaffa, and that of Father Massajah are 
the only ones on record in this direction. Here there is a 
region inhabited by a brave and industrious people, and re- 
ported to be fertile and productive. Even now the coffee 
from these highlands finds its way through Abyssinia to Mas- 
sowah. Further south, the country east of the Victoria 
Nyanza, overlooked by the snowy peaks of Kenia and Kili- 
manjaro, is equally unknown; and still further south there 
are unexplored countries along the east coast to the Lim- 
popo, in the interior, between the Congo and Zambesi, and 
along the course of the Cunene. 

Moreover, it must be remembered that the work of the 
first discoverers, though the most difficult and perilous, and 
therefore the most glorious, is of the character of a recon- 
naissance. The whole must hereafter be systematically 
explored and surveyed before we can acquire accurate 
knowledge of the structure — the physical geography of inner 
Africa. This will be the work of many years, and will need 
the fostering support and help of our Society. 

Asia is the seat of the most ancient civilisations. Great 
trade routes have traversed it from end to end during many 
centuries. Important cities and countries were well known 
in history, while their actual positions are uncertain. The 
exclusiveness of the Chinese, and the barbaric fanaticism of 
Muhammadans, render vast regions, once civilised and the 
centres of commerce, as inaccessible as the wildest parts of 
Africa. Consequently there was, and still is, a wide field for 
exploration in the interior of the Asiatic continent ; and dis- 
covery of a most interesting kind. For no mere daring 
explorer is fitted for Asiatic discovery. Classical and oriental 
learning, critical acumen, and historical knowledge are as 
necessary here as the ordinary qualifications of a trained 
traveller. Comparative geography, one of the highest branches 
of our science, by identifying sites, and demonstrating, from 
history, the changes which have taken place in the course of 
ages, has been an essential auxiliary to the student of the 

Ehysical aspects of Asiatic regions. Thus the knowledge that 
as been acquired since 1830, on the continent of Asia, is not 

120 Work to be done in Asia. 

only extensive, but also of the highest scientific and historical 
interest. It has not only made known to us the geography 
of new regions ; but has also thrown light upon the history 
of our race. The writings of Arrian and Ptolemy, of the 
Chinese Pilgrims and the Arab geographers are as necessary 
to the student of Asiatic geography as the reports of recent 
explorers ; for a mastery ot comparative geography is essential 
for a due comprehension of the existing physical conditions of 
many parts of this continent. 

In 1830 the Indian atlas had already been commenced, and Per- 
sian topography was based on the itineraries of Kinneir ; while the 
Himalayan region had been explored by Moorcroft and Trebeck, 
Baillie Eraser, and Herbert and Webb. Bogle and Turner had 

Penetrated into Tibet, China was known to us through the 
esuit survey published by Du Halde, and Arabia through the 
work of Burckhardt. But the great mountain system of Central 
Asia was not understood, and the fountains and courses of most 
of the great rivers were unknown. 

During the fifty years of our Society's existence, the trigono- 
metrical survey of British India has been almost completed, 
the height of the loftiest mountains in the world were fixed 
between 1845 and 1850, our officers have mapped the whole of 
Persia and Afghanistan, surveyed Mesopotamia, and explored 
the Pamir Steppe. Japan, Borneo, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, 
and the greater part of China have been brought more com- 
pletely to our knowledge, Eastern Turkestan has been visited, 
and trained native explorers have penetrated to the remotest 
fountains of the Oxus, and the wild plateaux of Tibet. Over 
the northern half of the Asiatic Continent the Russians have 
displayed equal activity. They have traversed the wild steppes 
and deserts of what on old atlases was called Independent 
Tartary, have surveyed the courses of the Jaxartes, the Oxus, 
and the Amur, and have navigated the Caspian and the Sea of 
Aral. They have pushed their scientific investigations into the 
Pamir and Eastern Turkestan, until at last the British and 
Russian surveys have been connected. 

Still, many years must elapse -before our knowledge of the 
geography of Asia will approach completeness. The sources 
and upper courses of the great rivers Yang-tsze, Cambodia, 
and Irawadi, and part of the course of the Brahmaputra, are 
unknown. Our acquaintance with the head waters of the Oxus 
is still very far from being satisfactory, while the northern half 
of the Tibetan plateau, and much of the Kuen-Lun range are 
quite unknown. Coming nearer to our own dominions, Kafiri- 
stan is still a mystery, and even the Zhob and other valleys 
within the Sulimani Range have never been visited by 

Work to be done in America. 121 

Europeans. There are also very extensive tracts in Arabia 
which no traveller has ever explored. 

The survey and geographical description of North America 
is progressing under the admirably organised Departments of 
the United States Government, while good work is also being 
pushed forward in the Dominion of Canada. An enormous ex- 
tension of our knowledge has taken place since 1830, when 
California was only settled by scattered Mi&iones, and the 
country to the north of it was unexplored, except by a few 
trappers. Our Society has watched the progress of these mar- 
vellous changes with the greatest interest, and has benefited 
by the fact that scientific research has gone hand in hand with 
the settlement of the country. It has conferred its highest 
honours on an eminent United States surveyor, and on two 
explorers of the Rocky Mountains ; but it has felt that the 
actual work in the field is already in good hands. This is not 
the case, to anything like the same extent, in Central and 
South America, where much exploring work remains to be 

Commencing our review of South America from the south, 
there is much that remains undiscovered in Patagonia and the 
extreme south of Chile, although valuable progress is annually 
made by the Hydrographic Department of Chile, under the 
able and zealous lead of Captain Vidal Gormaz. As regards 
the interior of Patagonia, Captain Musters was the very first 
traveller who ever traversed that wild region from south to 
north, and this fact alone shows how much remains to be done 
there. Proceeding northwards, the labours of Mr. Minchin and 
others in the region through which the Bolivian-Brazilian 
frontier passes has quite recently increased our geographical 
knowledge ; and our science is no less indebted to Colonel 
Church for his work in the basins of the Beni and Mamore\ 
Still there is a vast extent of interesting country which is 
practically unexplored in the provinces of Lipez, Chichas, and 
Carangas, and especially round the western side of lake 

In many respects the Andean system is, to the physical 
geographer, the most interesting mountain mass in the world. 
Here the phenomena of earthquakes may be studied on the 
largest and most awful scale. Here are volcanic chains ex- 
tending hundreds of miles, and fossiliferous Silurian rocks 
raised in the form of mountain peaks over 20,000 feet above 
the sea. Here, too, the meteorological and other physical 
phenomena of mountain chains are of peculiar interest. Yet 
the orography of western South America is very imperfectly 
understood, and this is particularly the case as regards the 

122 Work to be done in America. 

peaks and ridges of south-western Bolivia. In the vast region 
of the Madeira basin, which has been the scene of Colonel 
Church's invaluable labours, there is a yet more extensive 
unknown area, over which historical tradition lias thrown a halo 
of romance. The course of the Madre de Dios, which drains 
the eastern slopes of the Andes of Cuzco, and of the Caravayan 
rivers, with their rich auriferous deposits, are unknown, and the 
work of discovery in this most interesting region remains to be 

There is a wholly undescribed Andean country, comprised 
in the Peruvian provinces of Lucanas, Parinacochas, Cangallo, 
Aymaraes, and Cotabambas, and in the coast valleys and 
deserts between Arequipa and Nasca. There is also much 
useful geographical work to be done in northern Peru and 
Ecuador, especially in the basins of the Pastasa, Morona, San- 
tiago, Tigre, and Napo. The Putumayo was recently as- 
cended in a steam launch by Mr. Simson ; but the basins, 
both of the Putumayo and the Japura, need further examina- 
tion. There is an enormous tract in Colombia, bounded by 
the slopes of the Cordillera on the west, on the east by the 
Orinoco and Rio Negro, on the north by the river Meta, and 
on the south by the Uaupes and Japura, which is practically 
unknown. This region is also surrounded with a halo of 
romance, for here the old conquerors of the 16th century 
believed that the far-famed El Dorado dwelt in golden abund- 
ance. Many parts of the Colombian Andes need exploration, 
as well as the whole region, from the Rio Branco to the 
Atlantic. Enough has been said to show that there still re- 
mains a vast amount of exploration, and even of discovery 
to be achieved in South America, and that, so far as that 
continent is concerned, geographers will have no need to sigh 
because there are no more worlds to conquer, for generations 
yet to come. 

In Australia and New Zealand, the whole interior of those 
countries has been discovered and explored since the Society 
was founded. The maps of 1830 show very little more than 
inaccurate coast lines. Now, the arid wastes of Australia 
have been traversed in various directions, and the whole con- 
tinent has been crossed from sea to sea, with an amount of 
brave endurance and indomitable courage which have ex- 
cited the admiration of geographers, and gained for the 
explorers themselves the highest honours that the Society 
can bestow. Little now remains to be done on the mainland 
of Australia ; but the interior of New Guinea has yet to be 
explored, as well as New Britain, the Solomon Group, and 
many islands to the north and north-east of New Guinea. 

Hydrography. 123 

be remembered that, even when the whole of this preliminary 
reconnoitring work is completed, the labours of the geo- 
grapher are only commencing. It will then be necessary to 
push forward those more detailed surveys which are neces- 
sary before the physical configuration and aspects of a region 
can be correctly understood and described. Our work, as 
geographers, is to measure all parts of earth and sea, to 
ascertain the relative positions of all places upon the surface 
of the globe, and to delineate the varied features of that 
surface. This great work has been proceeding from the first 
dawn of civilisation, and it will probably be centuries longer 
before it is completed. 

Nor are our labours confined to the land. Hydrography 
is an equally important branch of our work. Sir John Barrow, 
in his opening address in 1830, urged upon the Society that, 
on the exactitude of the minutest details of hydrography, 
mainly depended the safety of navigation, and he recommended 
its members to look forward to the completion of surveys, 
and to extended observations on prevailing winds and cur- 
rents. " Every accession to hydrographical knowledge," he 
added, "must be of great importance to navigation and 
therefore a fit object for promulgation by the Society." 
Having the interests of hydrography at heart, and making it 
a part of its duties to advocate and watch over the execu- 
tion of surveys, the Society was joined by all the eminent 
nautical surveyors. The hydrographer, Sir Francis Beaufort, 
was an active member of our Council for twenty-five years, 
making the work of his department known through the 
Society's publications, and sometimes inducing the Council to 
represent to the Government the urgency for undertaking 
some particular survey.* On four occasions the Society has 
conferred its highest honours upon naval surveyors, and the 
Society has been reminded of its duties relating to hydro- 
graphy by successive Presidents, and by the reports which 
accompany their Addresses, as well as of the importance of 
increasing the accuracy of the surveys. For instance, Admiral 
Beechey, in 1856, told us that " rapid reconnaissance of a 
coast might have been tolerated half a century ago, but that 
such a survey of any shore cannot now be accepted." 

* "A Deputation composed of the President, Captain Beaufort, and Mr. 
Murchison, waited upon Lord Glenelg, recommending a nautical survey to 
complete the parts of the north-west coasts of Australia left unfinished, and to 
examine more thoroughly Bass and Torres Straits. The Deputation was most 
favourably received; a survey of the coasts was ordered, and H.M.S. Beagle, 
commanded by Captain Wickham, will sail early in June." — R. G. 8. ' Journal,' 
vol. vii. p. 10 ; 1837. 

124 Deep- Sea Soundings. 

Great progress has been made in providing accurate charts 
for navigation during the last fifty years ; but much remains 
to be done. Commander Hull, R.N., who was Superintendent 
of Charts at the Admiralty from 1873 to the end of 1879, 
read an admirable paper on this subject at the United Service 
Institution in 1874, entitled the "Unsurveyed World," in 
which he showed the coasts that have been surveyed, those that 
have been only partially surveyed, and those that have merely 
been explored. The first class of coasts still bears but a small 
proportion to the rest ; and, in furthering the advance of the 
good work by all legitimate means, whether by inviting dis- 
cussion, publishing information, rewarding and encouraging 
zealous and meritorious surveyors, or making well-considered 
representations, the Society will perform in the future, as it 
has done in the past, a useful national service. 

Since the foundation of the Society a new branch of geo- 
graphical investigation and study has come into existence, 
namely, the physical geography of the sea, which is an im- 
portant extension of hydrography. Mathew Fontaine Maury, 
the Superintendent of the National Observatory at Washington, 
was the creator of this branch of our science. As Commodore 
Jansen truly said in his able memoir — " Maury threw a new 
light upon the ocean, and. on its profoundest abysses, that will 
never be extinguished ; and it was through Maury's initiative 
that the naval profession now forms the most intelligent and 
active corps of co-operators in systematic research into the 
hidden chambers of the great deep. It was Maury who, by his 
wind and current charts, his trade-wind, storm, and rain charts, 
and last, but not least, by his work on the Physical Geography 
of the Sea, gave the first great impulse to all subsequent 

The progress of our knowledge of the bottom of the ocean 
has been nearly continuous since 1840, in which year Sir James 
Ross, on board the Ereous, obtained a sounding in 2677 fathoms. 
In 1847, on January 12th, Captain Owen Stanley, in the Battle- 
snake, found bottom, near the equator, at a depth of 2600 
fathoms. Then followed the work of officers of the United 
States; and in 1856 Derryman, with the Brooke machine, 
obtained twenty-four deep-sea soundings on a great circle from 
St. John's, Newfoundland, to Valentia. In 1857 Lieut. Dayman, 
in the Cyclops, obtained a complete series of deep-sea soundings 
across the Atlantic, showing the great fall of 7200 feet, and 
the "Telegraphic Plateau." In 1858 Lieut. Dayman sounded 
from Newfoundland to Fayal, and from Fayal to the English 
Channel, and in 1859 across the Bay of Biscay, and along the 
coast of Portugal, to Malta. Then followed the work of Sir 

Work in the Future. 125 

Leopold M'Clintock in 1860 in the Bulldog, of Captain Short- 
land in the Hydra in 1867, from Malta to Bombay, and of the 
Porcupine, Lightning, and Gannet. Finally, the important 
voyage of the Challenger under Captain Nares, from 1873 to 
1875, in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, added enor- 
mously to our knowledge of the physical geography of the 
sea. The greatest depth was between St. Thomas and 
Bermuda, where a sounding of 3875 fathoms was obtained.* 
A line was taken across the Atlantic from Greenland to Ireland 
by the Valorous in 1875 ; and many deep sea soundings have 
been added by vessels employed by the Telegraph Maintenance 
Company. Our lamented associate, Admiral Sherard Osborn, 
who was the Managing Director of this Company, communi- 
cated a most interesting paper on the geography of the beds 
of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Mediterranean Sea 
in 1870. Osborn bore generous testimony to the great service 
performed by Maury, and said that the geographer must not 
be satisfied with observations on the surface of the ocean, but 
must endeavour to probe mysteries down to the solid crust on 
which the ocean rests. This then is a branch of geogra- 
phical enquiry, in which much remains to be learnt, and which 
has come into existence since the Society was founded. 

This rapid glance at the unknown and unexplored parts of 
the earth, shows that many years must elapse before all has 
been discovered, and that there is abundant work before the 
Society, even of this preliminary kind. In his Anniversary 
Address of 1851, Admiral Smyth offered some remarks on the 
duties of the Society which are as applicable now as they were 
then. He said that "one by one the last remnants of the 
unknown would yield to the efforts of explorers ; but, had we 
even actually arrived at so desirable a consummation, would 
our labours then be terminated ? Would Geographical Socie- 
ties cease to be requisite ? Certainly not. Our work might 
then be said to be only beginning. Till we actually know the 
whole extent and surface of the globe on which we move, its 
peculiarities as a whole, and the mutual relations of its several 
parts, it can never be thoroughly investigated or understood ; 
and much will long remain, as it now is, only a source of 
wonder and confusion." When, in the far distant future, the 
whole surface of the earth has been surveyed and mapped, the 
study of physical geography may be recommenced on a sound 
basis, and generalisations will become more accurate, and will 

* Or 23,250 feet. This is 5752 feet less than the height of Mount Everest 
above the level of the sea. So that the perpendicular height of Mount Everest 
above the lowest depth of the ocean is 8 miles, or 52,252 feet. 

126 Work in the Future. 

be founded on more correct and reliable data. Until then, 
investigations in all the branches into which the science of 
geography is divided must be continued, with patience and 
industry, and with the best information that can be obtained. 

Geography is a progressive science. Every year, with its 
discoveries and novelties, also brings forth a large crop of 
corrections and of information which modifies preconceived 
theories and opinions. It is this freshness, this constant sup- 
ply of new material, which constitutes one of the many charms 
of geographical research. 

The Geographical Society thus commences its second half- 
century of work with a bright prospect of continued useful- 
ness. It has an honourable record of past labours to look back 
upon. It has now reached a high position as regards popular 
support and financial prosperity. It goes forward in the full 
assurance, which is justified by its former history, that it 
will have a long career of activity and success ; and that its 
efforts to perform good work, and to encourage and assist 
the labours of others, will constitute a service of national value 
and importance. 




Presidents op the Royal. Geogbaphioal Society 

. 129 

Honorary Secretaries ,, ,, 

. 129 

Foreign Secretaries , , , , , , 

. 130 

Trustees , , , , , , 

. 130 

Treasurers , , , , , , 

. 130 

Paid Secretaries , , , , , , 

. 131 

Assistant Secretardjs , , , , 

. 131 

Librarians , , , , , , 

. 131 

Clerks in Charge op the Library , , 

. 131 

Map Curators ,, ,, ,, 

. 131 

Map Draughtsmen , , , , , , 

. 132 

Chief Clerks ,, , , , , 

. 132 

Clebks , , , , , t 

. 132 

Office Keepers , , , , , , 

. 132 

Map Mounter , , , , , , 

. 132 

Membebs OF CoUNCUi FBOM 1830 TO 1880 

. 133 

III. Eefebences to Obituaby Notices of distinguished Fellows 
in the Pbesidential Addbes8es, and 4 Pboceeddj gs ' (New 
Series) .. 


IV. List of Explobebs and Geogbaphebs to whom the Royal 
Geogbaphioal Socdjty has gbanted Honorary Awards: — 

Arctic . . .... 147 

Antabotio 147 

Africa 147 

Asia 148 

Indian Abchdpelago 148 

Austbalasia 148 

Nobth Amebica 149 

South Amebica . . 149 

Marine Subveyobs 149 

Eminent Geogbaphebs < . . 149 

128 Appendix. 


V. Grants made by the Royal Geographical Society in aid op 

Travellers and Expeditions 150 

VI. List op Papers in the ' Journals ' and ' Proceedings ' op the 
Royal Geographical Society : — 

Arctic 153 

Antarctic 157 

Europe 157 

Asia 159 

Africa 175 

America 187 

Australasia 194 

Oceania 199 

Indian Ocean 200 

Miscellaneous 202 

VII. List op Maps published in the ' Journals ' and ' Proceedings ' 

op the Royal Geographical Sckhety: — 

1. The World 206 

2. Polar Regions 206 

3. Europe 208 

4. Asia 209 

5. Africa 217 

6. America and West Indies 223 

7. Australasia 227 

8. Atlantic Ocean and Islands 229 

9. PAcnrc Ocean and Islands 229 

10. Indian Ocean Islands 230 

VIII. Alphabetical List of the Authors op Papers in the Royal 

Geographical Society's * Journals ' and ' Proceedings ' . . 231 

IX. Presddents op the Geographical Section C, British Association 243 

, , 1 1 t. Section E, , , , , 244 

Secretaries ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 245 

X. Presidents and Secretaries op the Hakluyt Society.. .. 246 

XI. The Hakluyt Society, 1881 246 

List of Presidents and Secretaries. 





(* Gold Medallists.) 

1831-33. Viscount Goderich. 

1833-35. General The Right Hon. Sir George Murray, o.c.b. 

1835-37. Sir John Barrow, Bart. 

1837-39. Mr. W. R. Hamilton. 

1839-41. Mr. G. B. Greenough. 

1841-43. Mr. W. R. Hamilton. 

1843-45. Mr. R. I. Murchison. 

1845-47. Admiral Lord Colchester. 

1847-49. *Mr. W. J. Hamilton. 

1849-51. *Admiral W. H. hmyth, c.b. 

1851-53. Sir Roderick Murchison. 

1853-55. The Earl of Ellesmere, K.a. 

1855-56. Admiral Beechey. 

1856-59. Sir Roderick Murchison. 

1859-60. Earl de Grey and Ripon. 

1860-62. Lord Ashburton. 

1862-71. *Sir Roderick Murchison, Bart., k.c.b. 

1871-73. Major-General Sir Henry Rawliuson, k.c.b. 

1873-74. The Right Hon. Sir H. Bartle Frere, Bart., g.c.b., g.cs.i. 

1874-76. *Major-General Sir Henry Rawlinson, K.C.B. 

1876-78. Sir Rutherford Alcock, k.c.b. 

1878-79. The Earl of Dufferin, k.p., k.c.b. 

1879-80. The Earl of Northbrook, g.cs.i. 

1880-81. Lord Aberdare. 


1847-49. Mr. George Long, and Major Shadwell Clerke. 
1850-51. Mr. John Hogg, f b.s., and Dr. Trithen. 
1851-53. Colonel Phihp Yorke, f.r.s., and Dr. T. Hodgkin. 
1853-54. Capt. F. P. Blackwood, b.n., and „ „ 

1854-57. Sir Walter Trevelyan, Bart., and „ „ 

1857-62. *Mr. Francis Galton, F.B.8., and „ „ 

1862-63. „ „ „ and Mr. W. Spottiswoode, f.b.8. 

1863-64. Mr. Wm. Spottiswoode, f.b.s., and Mr. Clements R. Markham. 
1864-66. Mr. Clements R. Markham, c.b., f.b.s., and Mr. L. Oliphant. 
1866-81. „ „ „ „ and Mr. R. H. Major. j 


130 Secretaries, Trustees, and Treasurers. 


1830-46. Rev. J. C. Renouard (1840, Editor of Journal to 1844). 

1862-65. Dr. T. Hodgkin. 

1865-66. *Mr. Francis Galton, f.b.s. 

1866-71. Mr. Cyril Graham, c.M.o. 

1871-75. Mr. John Ball, f.r.s. 

1875-81. Lord Arthur Russell, m.p. (to 1881). 


1830. Sir George Staunton, Bart., and Sir George Duckett. 

1836. „ ' „ „ and Mr. F. Baily. 

1845. „ „ „ and Mr. W. R. Hamilton. 

1858. „ ,, „ and Mr. R. Monckton Milnes. 

1859. Mr. R. Monckton Milnes (cr. Lord Houghton, 1863) and Sii 

Walter Trevelyan, Bart. 

1878. Lord Houghton and Sir John Lubbock, Bart, (to 1881). 


1831. Mr. John Biddulph ; also Trustee in 1839. 

1845. Mr. Robert Biddulph. 

1864. Mr. Reginald Cocks (to 1881). 

Permanent Staff. *"* 




1830 — July. Captain A. Maconochie, b.n., k.h. 

1836 — May 23. Captain Washington, b.n. 

1840— Nov. 9. Colonel Jackson (1844, Editor of ' Journal ')• 

1847— April 3. Dr. Humble. 

1849— Jan. 22. Dr. Norton Shaw. 

1863— July 13. Mr. Greenfield. 

1864— April 25. Mr. H. W. Bates (to 1881). 


1832— Dec. 15. Mr. Charles Bradbury. 
1836— Nov. 14. Mr. R. W. Clifton. 
1837— Dec. 11. Mr. Webb, b.n. 
1841— Dec. 13. Mr. Shillincrfaw. 


1846— Nov. 23. Mr. Cartwright, to 1851. 

1854 — Aug. 8. Mr. Trelawney Saunders (Temporary Librarian). 

1854— Nov. 23. Mr. Wheeler. 

1859— March 21. Mr. W. C. Street. 

1863— Jan. 12. Mr. E. B. Tattershall. 

1864— Nov. 14. Mr. A. J. Clark. 


1864— Nov. Mr. H. Purrier. 
1866— Nov. 12. Mr. J. H. Lamprey. 
1874— Feb. 18. Mr. E. C. Eye. 

(Assistant, Vincent Hawkins, Oct. 4, 1874.) 


1854 — Jan. 22. Mr. Trelawney Saunders. 

1857 — June 15. Staff-Commander C. George, b.n. 

1877— June 18. Mr. J. Coles, b.n. 

Assistants : — 1857 — June 19. Mr. Oulet. 

1872— April. Mr. A. Keith Johnston (to 1873). 
1878— June. Mr. E. A. Reeves. 

K 2 


Permanent Staff. 


1873— Nov. 12. Mr. W. J. Turner. 
1881 — April. Mr. Henry Scharbau. 


1846— Nov. 23. Mr. Cartwright. 

1854— Nov. 23. Mr. Wheeler. 

1862— Nov. Mr. E. Street. 

1863— April 13. Mr. H. W. Farley. 

1875— Feb. 15. Mr. A. E. Ball. 

1876— May 15. Mr. E. Duffield Jones (to 1881). 


1854— Nov. 23. Mr. Price (to 1863). 
1859— March 21. Mr. E. Street (to 1862). 
1859— Oct. 24. Mr. Reginald Suggate (to 1881). 
1863— Jan. 12. Mr. E. B. Tattershall (to 1864). 
1866— Oct. 8. Mr. S. J. Evis (to 1881). 

1846— Dec. 28. 
1853— July 24 
1876— Dec. 4. 


Serjeant Lightfoot. 

Robert Suggate. 

S. J. Evis (to 1881). 

1857— Sept. 


R. Burnett (to 1881). 

Members of Council. 








(P. President; V.-P. Vice-President; C. Council; Treat. Treasurer ; Sec. Secretary ; 
For. Sec. Foreign Secretary ; Trust. Trustee ; Presidents in Small Capitals ; 
* Gold Medallist.) 

Abebdabe, the Right Hon. Lord, P. 1880. 

Acland, Sir Thomas Dyke, Bart., C. 1840, 41, 42. 

Addington, The Right Hon. H. U., C. 1862, 63, 64, 67, 68, 69. 

Albemarle. (See Keppel.) 

Alcock, Sir Rutherford, k.c.b., C. 1872 ; V.-P. 1873, 74, 75 ; P. 1876, 78 ; 

V.-P. 1878, 79, 80. 
Althorp, The Right Hon. Lord, C. 1830. 
*Arrowsmith, John, C. 1851, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 

66, 67, 68. 
Ashbubton, Lord, P. 1860, 61 ; V.-P. 1862, 63. 
Ayrton, Frederick, C. 1849, 50. 

Bach, A, C. 1832. 
*Back, Admiral Sir George, C. 1838, 39, 40; V.-P. 1844, 45; C. 1846, 47; 

V.-P. 1848 ; C. 1849 ; V.-P. 1850, 51, 52 ; C. 1853 ; V.-P. 1854-58 ; 

C. 1859-64 ; V.-P. 1865-69 ; C. 1870, 72, 73 ; V.-P. 1874, 75 ; C. 1876. 
Backhouse, John, C, 1836, 37, 38, 40, 41. 
Baily, F., C. 1830, 31 ; Trustee, 1836-44. 
*Baker, Sir Samuel, C. 1866, 67, 68, 74. 

Balfour, Lieut.-Gen. Sir George, k.c.b., C. 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68. 
Ball, John ; For. Sec. 1871-74 ; C. 1875, 76, 77, 79, 80. 
Bandinel, James, C. 1844, 45, 46. 
Barkly, Sir Henry, g.c.m.g., k.c.b., V.-P. 1879, 80. 
Babbow, Sir John, Bart., V.-P. 1830, 31 ; P. 1835, 36 ; V.-P. 1837, 38, 

39, 40 ; C. 1841, 42, 43, 44 ; V. P. 1845-47. 
Beaufort, Admiral Sir Francis, k.c.b., C. 1830, 31, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 

43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55. 
Beckford, Francis, C. 1841, 47, 49. 
Beechey, Rear- Admiral, C. 1854 ; P. 1855. 
Berens, Joseph, C. 1840. 

Biddulph, John, Treas. 1830-44 ; Trustee, 1839. 
Biddulph, Robert, Treas. 1845-64. 
Blaauw, W. H., C. 1847. 

Blackwood, Captain Francis P., b.n., C. 1841, 47 ; Sec. 1853 
Borradaile. Abraham. C. 1836 
Bowles, Admiral, C. 1836, 37, 38, 42, 43, 45, 46, 53, 54. 


Members of Council. 

Brandreth, Major, R.E., C. 1847. 

Britton, J., C. 1830, 31. 

Brockedon, William, C. 1830, 31, 36, 37, 38, 42, 43, 44. 

Brodie, Sir Benjamin, Bart., C. 1859, 60. 

Brodrick, The Hon. George, C. 1869, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 79. 

Brooke, Sir Arthur de Capell, Bart., C. 1830, 31. 

Brooking, Thomas, C. 1855, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68. 

Broughton, The Right Hon. Lord, C. 1830, 31, 39, 57, 58. 

Brown, Robert, C. 1830, 31, 38. 

Butter, Captain Wentworth,.R.N.., C. 1839. 

Bunbury, Edward H., C. 1846, 47. 

Burlington, Earl of, C. 1841 (now Duke of Devonshire). 

Buxton, Sir T. Fowell, Bart, C. 1871, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80. 

Calthorpe, The Hon. F. H. W., C. 1859, 60. 
Campbell, Sir George, k.c.s.i., C. 1870, 74, 75, 76. 
Cardwell, The Right Hon. Edward, C. 1856, 57. 
Carnarvon, The 3rd Earl of, C. 1842, 43 (d. 1849). 
Chapman, Captain, r.a., C. 1841. 
Charters, Major, R.A., C. 1840. 
Cltatterton, Sir William, Bart., C. 1843, 46, 47. 
*Chesney, General Francis Rawdon, C. 1839, 40, 41, 42. 
Churchill, Lord Alfred, C. 1861, 62, 63, 64. 
Clerke, Major Shadwell, C. 1845, 46 ; -Sec. 1847. 
Cockburn, Admiral The Right Hon. Sir George, g.c.b., C. 1837. 
Cocks, Reginald, Treas. 1864-81. 
Colchester, Admiral The Right Hon. Lord, C. 1839, 40; V.-P. 1841, 42, 

43; C. 1844; P. 1845, 47; V.-P. 1847, 48, 49; C. 1850, 51, 52; V.-P. 

1853, 54 ; C. 1855, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66. 
*Collinson, Admiral Sir Richard, k.c.b., C. 1857; V.-P. 1858, 59, 60, 61, 62, 

63, 64; C. 1865, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73; V.-P. 1874, 75. 
Colquhoun, Lieut.-Colonel, r.a., C. 1844, 45, 46, 47. 
Cottesloe, The Right Hon. Lord, C. 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 74 ; 

V.-P. 1875, 76, 77, 79. 
Craufurd, W. P., C. 1832, 43, 44. 
Crawford, R. W., C. 1865, 66. 

Crawfurd, John, C. 1857, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 ; V.-P. 1864, 65, 66 ; C. 1867. 
Curzon, The Hon. Robert, C. 1866. 
Cust, Robert, C. 1877, 78, 79, 80. 

Darwin, Charles, C. 1840. 

De Grey and Ripon, The Earl of, P. 1859; V.-P. 1860; C. 1861 (now 

Marquis of Ripon). 
Be la Beche, Sir Henry, C. 1844, 45, 51. 
De Mauley, Lord, C. 1851. 
Denison, Sir William, k.c.b., C. 1866. 
Denman, Captain The Hon. J., r.n., C. 1859. 

Derby, The Earl of, C. 1871 ; V.-P. 1872, 73. (See Stanley, Lord.) 
Devonshire, The Duke of. (See Burlington, Earl of.) 
Dickson, Colonel Sir A., k.c.b., C. 1836, 37, 38, 39. 
Dodd, George, C. 1843, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49. 
Donoughmore, The Earl of, C. 1864, 65. 
Douglas, General Sir Howard, C. 1845. 
Dude, The Earl of, C. 1862, 73. 
Duckett, Sir George, Bart., Trust. 1832 to 1836. 
Dufferin, The Earl of, k.p., k.c.b., C. 1858, 67 ; P. 1878. 

Members of Council. 135 

Dundas, The Right Hon. Sir David, 1853, 54, 64, 65. 

Eastnor, Viscount, C. 1846 (now Earl Somers). 

Ellesmebe, The Earl of, e.g.. C. 1851, 52 ; jf. 1853-55 ; V.-P. 1855, 56. 

Elliot, Rear-Admiral The Hon. George, C. 1837. 

Ellis, Sir Barrow, k.c.s.i., C. 1876, 77, 78, 79 ; V.-P 1880. 

Elphinstone, The Hon. Mountstuart, C. 1830, 31, 36, 37 ; V.-P. 1838-9, 40 ; 

C. 1841. 
Ewlerby, Charles, C. 1836, 37, 38, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47. 
Ennukitten, The Earl of, 0. 1840. 
Extcourt, Thomas Gorviston Bucknell, C. 1843. 
Evans, Captain, k.n., c.b., 1874, 75, 76, 77, 78; V.-P. 1879, 80. 
Everest, Colonel Sir George, C. 1853, 55, 56 ; V.-P. 1857, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63. 

Fanshawe, Colonel, V.-P. 1836, 37 ; C. 1838. 

Fellowes, Sir Charles, C. 1841, 42, 43, 44, 45, 49, 50, 51, 52 ; V.-P. 1853, 54 ; 

C. 1855, 56. 
Fergusson, James, C. 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 

77 78 79 80 
Findlay, A. G., C. 1857, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74. 
*FitzRoy, Captain, r.n., C. 1837, 51, 52, 53, 56. 
Forsyth, Sir Douglas, k.c.s.i., c.b., C. 1877, 78, 79, 80. 
Fox, Lieut-General, C. 1838, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 49, 50, 56, 57, 58, 

60, 61, 64. 
* Franklin, Captain Sir John, b.n., V.-P. 1830, 44, 45. 
Eraser, Colonel Sir Augustus, k.c.b., C. 1830, 31. 
Eraser, J. Baillie, C. 1838, 39. 
Fremantle. (See Cottesloe.) 

Frere, Bartle, C. 1836, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49. 
Fbebe, The Right Hon. Sir H. Bartle, Bart., o.c.b., g.cs.i., C. 1868, 69 ; 

V.-P. 1870, 71, 72, 74 ; P. 1873 ; C. 1875 ; V.-P. 1876. 
Freshfield, Douglas, C. 1879, 80. 

Qalton, Captain Douglas, c.b., C. 1876. 
*Galton, Francis, C. 1854, 55, 56 ; Sec. 1857-63 ; C. 1863, 64 ; For. S(C 1865, 

66 ; V.-P. 1866, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72 ; C. 1873, 75, 76, 77 ; V.-P. 1879, 

Gibbs, H. H., C. 1872. 

Godebich, Viscount, P. 1830, 31, 32, 33. As Earl of Ripon, C. 1836, 37. 
Godwin-Austen, Colonel, C. 1879, 80. 

Goldsmid, Major-General Sir Frederic, k.c.s.1., c.b., C. 1873, 74, 75, 76. 
Goodenough, Dr. (See Wells, Dean of.) 

Graham, Cyril, c.m.g., C. 1862, 63, 64, 65 ; For. Sec. 1866-71. 
"Grant, Lieut-Colonel, c.b., c.s.i., C. 1869, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79. 
Grant Duff, The Right Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, C. 1869, 70, 74, 75. 
Green, Major-General Sir Henry, k.c.s.i., c.b., C. 1876, 77, 78, 79. 
Gbeenough, George Bellas, V.-P. 1830, 31; C. 1836; V.-P. 1837, 38; 

P. 1839-41 ; V.-P. 1841, 42, 43 ; C. 1844, 45, 46, 47, 49 ; C. 1350, 51, 

52, 53, 54. 
Grey, R. W., C. 1852. 
Grey, Sir George, k.c.b., C. 1869. 

Halford, Rev. Thomas, C. 1842. 
Hall, Captain Basil, r.n., C. 1830, 31. 

Hall, Admiral W. H., k.cb., C. 1860, 61, 62, 63, 64, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76. 
Hallam, Henry, C. 1836. 

Hamilton, William R., C. 1830 ; V.-P. 1831 ; C. 1836 ; P. 1837-39 ; V.-P. 
1839, 40; P. 1841-43 ; V.-P. 1843, 44; Trust. 1846-57. 

136 Members of Council. 

♦Hamilton, William J., C. 1838, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45 ; V.-P. 1846 ; P. 1847, 
49 ; V.-P. 1849, 50 ; C. 1851, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 
65, 66. 
Barrowby, The Earl of, C. 1847, 56. 

Bay, The Right Hon. Admiral Sir John D., Bart., c.b., C. 1865, 66. 
Bay, R. W., C. 1830, 31 ; V.-P. 1832 ; C. 1836. 
Bay, Lord William, C. 1865 (now Marquis of Tweeddale). 
Bobhouse, John Cam., C. 1830-31. (See Broughton.) 

Bodgkin, Dr. Thomas, C. 1850 ; Sec. 1851-62 ; For. Sec. 1862-64 ; C. 1865. 
Hogg, John, Sec. 1849, 50; C. 1851. 
Holland, Sir Henry, Bart., C. 1853, 54. 
Hope, A. J. Beresford, C. 1860. 
Borsburgh, Captain, C. 1830. 

Boughton, Lord, C. 1854, 55, 56, 57 ; Trust. 1857-81. 
Hume, Joseph, C. 1854. 
Buxley, Professor, C. 1870. 

•Inglefield, Vice-Admiral Sir E. A., c.b., 1868, 69, 70. 

Jackson, Colonel, C. 1838, 39, 40; Sec. 1841, 47. 
James, Colonel Sir Henry, C. 1858, 59. 
Jervis, Colonel, C. 1837, 38. 
Jones, Colonel Sir G. T., Bart, C. 1830, 31, 32. 
Jones, Captain Felix, i.n., 1865, 66, 67, 68, 69. 
Jones-Lloyd, Samuel (Lord Overstone), C. 1845. 

] Kennaway, Sir John, Bart, 1877. 
Keppel, Major the Hon. George, C. 1831, 1847 (now Earl of Albemarle). 
Kirk, Dr. John, c.m.g., C. 1865. 

i Laughton, J. K., r.n., C. 1880. 
Layard, Sir Austen H., g.c.b., C. 1860, 61. 
Lee, John, C. 1850, 51. 
Lee, Thomas, 1847, 49, 50. 

Leake, Colonel, V.-P. 1830, 31 ; C. 1836, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42. 
Lefroy, General Sir Henry, k.c.m.g., c.b., C. 1855, 56, 57, 58, 61, 62, 79, 80. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., C. 1844. 
Lloyd, Lieut.-Colonel J. A., C. 1851. 
Londesborough, Lord, C. 1851. 
Long, George, C. 1831, 36, 37, 38, 39 ; V.-P. 1840, 41, 42 ; C. 1843, 44, 45, 

46 ; Sec. 1847 ; C. 1849, 50, 51. 
Long, Henry, C. 1843. 
Lome, The Marquis of, C. 1874. 
Lubbock, Sir John, Bart, Trust 1878-81. 

*M'Clintock, Vice- Admiral Sir F. Leopold, C. 1869, 70, 71, 77. 
Mackinnon, William, C. 1877. 
McNeill, The Right Hon. Sir John, g.c.b., C. 1840." 
Major, K. H., Sec. 1866-81. 
Malcolm, Admiral Sir Charles, C. 1840 ; V.-P. 1841, 42 ; C. 1843, 44, 45, 46, 

47, 49 ; V.-P. 1850, 51. 
Manchester, The Bishop of, C. 1850. 
Manchester, The Duke of, C. 1875. 
Mangles, Captain, r.n., C. 1830. 

Markham, Clements Robert, c.b., C. 1862 ; Sec. 1863-81. 
Maxwell, Sir W. Stirling, Bart, C. 1867. 
Meek, Sir James, C. 1839-40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49. 

Members of Council. 137 

Merewether, Colonel Sir William L., k.c.s.i., c.b., C. 1879, 80. 
Merivale, Herman, C. 1850, 66, 67, 68. 

Milne, Admiral Sir Alexander, Bart., g.c.b. ; V.-P. 1876, 77, 78, 79, 80. 
Milnes, R. Monckton. (See Houghton.) 
Monteith, General, C. 1831, 46. 
Morier, James, C. 1836, 37, 38, 39. 
*Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, Bart., k.c.b., C. 1833 ; V.-P. 1836 ; 

C. 1837, 38, 39, 40, 41 ; V.-P. 1842 ; P. 1843, 45 ; V.-P. 1845, 46 ; C. 

1847 ; V.-P. 1849, 50 ; P. 1851, 52 ; V.-P. 1853, 54, 55 ; P. 1856, 57, 

58; V.-P. 1859, 60, 61; P. 1862-70; V.-P. 1871. , 
Murchison, Kenneth, C. 1871, 72. 
Murdoch, Thomas, C. 1830, 31 ; V.-P. 1836 ; C. 1837. 
Murray, General, The Right Hon. Sir George, g.c.b., C. 1830, 31 ; P. 1833, 

Murray, James, C. 1849, 50, 51, 52. 
Murray, John, C. 1850, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77. 
Murray, Rear-Admiral The Hon. H. A., r.n., C. 1858, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63. 

*Nares, Captain Sir George, R.N., k.c.b., C. 1880. 
Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart, C. 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 

74, 75. 
Northbrook, The Earl of, g.c.s.t., P. 1879-80. 
Northumberland, The Duke of. (See Prudhoe.) 
Norwich, The Bishop of (Dr. Stanley), C. 1845. 

O' Gorman, George, C. 1846, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52. 

Oliphant, Laurence, C. 1859, 60 ; See. 1864, 65 ; C. 1866, 67. 

Ommanney, Admiral Sir Erasmus, c.b., C. 1872, 73, 74, 75, 79, 80. 

Oskorn, Rear-Admiral Sherard, c.b., C. 1867, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75. 

Oswell, William Cotton, C. 1855. 

Overslone, Lord, 1855. (See Jones-Lloyd.) 

Owen, Captain W. P. W., r.n., C. 1832. 

Oxford, Bishop of (Dr. Wilberforce), C. 1857, 58. 

Parish, Sir Woodbine, V.-P. 1836, 37; C. 1839, 40, 42, 43, 49, 50; V.-P. 

1851, 52 ; C. 1853. 
Parkyns, Mansfield, C. 1854. 
Pelly, J. H, C. 1847. 

Pelly, Colonel Sir Lewis, k.c.b., k.c.s.i., C. 1879, 80. 
Phayre, Lieut.- Gen. Sir Arthur, c.b., k.c.s.j., C. 1879. 
Pollington, Viscount, C. 1842 (now Earl of Mexborough). 
Pollock, General Sir George, g.c.b., C. 1854-56, 57. 
Portlock, Colonel, C. 1849, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60 ; V.-P. 1861, 62. 
Prince Lee, Dr. (See Manchester, Bishop of.) 
Prudhoe, Captain Lord, r.n., C. 1830, 31, 36, 37, 39, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51, 

52. (Afterwards Duke of Northumberland.) 

*Rae, John, C. 1862, 70, 71, 72. 

* Paper, Lieut. Henry, R.N., C. 1846, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57. 
*Rawlinson, Major-General Sir Heury C. k.c.b., C. 1850, 51, 57, 58, 61, 62, 
63 ; V.-P. 1864, 65, 66, 67 ; C. 1868 ; V.-P. 1869, 70 ; P. 1871, 72, 73 ; 
P. 74, 76 ; V.-P. 76, 77, 78, 79, 80. 

Rawson, Sir W. Rawson, k.c.m.g., c.b., C. 1841, 42, 76, 77, 78, 79. 

Reay, Lord, C. 1880. 

Rennie, George, C. 1836. 

Rennie, Sir John, C. 1840, 41, 42 ; V.-P. 1843, 44 ; C. 1847. 

Renouard, Rev. George Cecil, For. Sec. 1830-46; C. 1847, 49, 50, 51, 52. 

138 Members of Council. 

Richards, Vice-Admiral Sir George, c.b., C. 1867, 68, 69, 70; V.-P. 71, 72, 

73 ; 0. 1875, 76, 77. 
Richardson, Dr. Sir John, r.n., c.b., C. 1832. 
Rigby, General, C. 1868, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80. 
Rifon, The Earl of. (See Ooderirh.) 
Eipon, The Marquis of. (See De Grey.) 
Rodd, Rear-Admiral Sir John Tremaine, c.b., C. 1837. 
Rosse, The Earl of, 0. 1845. 

Russell, Lord Arthur, C. 1869, 70, 71, 72 ; For. Sec. 1876-81. 
Ryder, Admiral Alfred Phillipps, C. 1863. 

Sabine, General Sir Edward, k.c.b., C. 1852, 53, 57, 58, 59. 
St. Asaph, Bishop of (Dr. Vowler Short), C. 1851, F>2, 53. 
Seymour, Henry Danby, 0. 1856, 57, 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 74, 75, 76, 77. 
Sheffield, The Earl of, C. 1852, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 63, 64. 
Sheil, Sir Justin, k.c.b., C. 1861. 
Short, Dr. Vowler. (See St. Asaph, Bishop of.) 
Silver, S. W., 0. 1870-81. 
Smith, E. Osborne, C. 1846-63. 

*Smyth, Admiral W. H., c.b., C. 1830, 31, 44 ; V.-P. 1845, 46, 47 ; P. 1849, 
51 ; V.-P. 1851, 52; C. 1853 ; V.-P. 1855. 
Smyth, Warington, C. 1871, 72, 73, 74. 
Somers, Earl, C. 1855. (See Eastnor.) 

Spottiswoode, William, 0. 1860, 61 ; Sec. 1862, 63 ; C. 1864, 65, 66. 
Stanley, 0. 1854, 55. (See Derby, Earl of.) 
Stanley, Dr. (See Norwich, Bishop of.) 
Staunton, Sir Ueorge, Bart., Trust. 1832-60. 
Staveley, Thomas, C. 1853, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59. 
Steele, Colonel Thomas, c.b., 0. 1858. 
Stephenson, B. C, C. 1871, 72. 
Stephenson, Robert, C. 1858. 
Stokes, Admiral J. L., 0. 1856, 57. 

Strachey, Lieut.-Gen. Richard, c.s.i., C. 1872, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80. 
Strangford, Viscount, C. 1860, 61, 62 ; V.-P. 1863, 64, 65 ; C. 1866, 67. 
Stratford de Redcliffe, Viscount, k.g., C. 1870. 

Strzelecki, Count Sir Paul, k.c.m.g., c.b., C. 1855, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62. 
Sykes, Colonel, C. 1852, 55 ; V.-P. 1856, 57, 58, 59 ; C. 1860, 61. 

Temple, Sir Richard, Bart., g.c.s.1., C. 1880. 
* Thomson, Dr. Thomas, C. 1866, 67, 68, 69. 
Thuillier, Lieut.-Gen. Sir Henry, c.s.i., C. 1879, 80. 
Trevelyan, Sir Walter, Bart., C. 1843, 52, 53 ; Sec. 1854, 55, 56 ; V.-P. 1857 ; 

Trust. 1860-78. 
Trithen, Francis H., Sec. 1849, 50. 

Vaughan, The Right Hon. Sir Charles, C. 1839. 

Verney, Sir Harry, Bart., C. 1842, 57, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76 ; V.-P. 1877, 

78 ; C. 1879, 80. 
Vetch, Captain, R.E., C. 1836. 

Walker, John, C. 1862, 63, 64. 
Ward, H. G., C. 1830. 
Ward, John, C. 1832. 
Warre, J. A., C. 1859, 60. 

Washington, Rear-Admiral, Sec. 1836-41 ; C. 1841, 42, 43, 44, 47, 49. 
*Wau(fh, Lieut.-Gen. Sir Andrew Scott, C. 1861, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66; V.-P. 
1867 68, 69, 70 ; C. 1871. 

Members of Council. 


Wellington, The Duke of, e.g., C. 1869, 70. 

Wells, The Dean of (Dr. Goodenough), C. 1831. 

Wharncliffe, 3rd Lord, C. 1868. (See Wortley.) 

Whewell,'~Dr.,G. 1853,54. 

White, Charles, 1869, 70, 71. 

Wilber/orce, Dr. (See Oxford, Bishop of.) 

Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, C. 1841, 52, 53, 54, 55. 

Wilmot, Captain A. P. Eadley, b.n., C. 1867. 

Wilson, Lieut.-Colonel, c.b., C. 1872, 73, 74, 75. 

Wortley, The Hon. J. Stuart (afterwards 2nd Lord Wharncliffe), C. 1836, 37. 

Yorke, Colonel Philip, C. 1847-49; Sec. 1851, 52; V.-P. 1853. 
•Yule, Colonel Henry, o.b., C. 1863, 76, 77. 


Obituary Notices. 





{New Series). 

*»* The first number refers to the Volume of the ' Journal,' the second number 

to the page. 

Abbott, K. E. xliv.-cxlvi. 
Aberdeen, Earl of. xxi.-cxii. 
Aoosta, Gen. Joaquim. xxiii.-lxvi. 
Adam, Sir Charles. » . _ lxxix 
Adam, Sir Frederick.) 
Adamson, J. xxvi.-clxxii. 
Addington, Eight Hon. H. U. xl.- 

Alexander, J. xix.-xli. 
Allen, Capt. David, r.n. xii.- 

Allen, Capt. W., r.n. xxxiv.-cxxii. 
Anderson, R. xxvii.-cxiii. 
Ansted, Professor. Proceed. (N.S.) 

ii. 382. 
Anstey, Chisholm. xliv.-cl. 
Arrow, Sir Frederick, xlvi.-clii. 
Ashbdrton, Lord, xxxiv.-cx. 
Arrowsmith, John, xliii.-clxi. 
Atkinson, T. W. xxxii.-cv. 
Ayrton, Fred, xliv.-cl. 

Back, Admiral Sir George. Proceed- 
ings (N.S.) i. 70. 

Baikie, Dr. xxxv.-cxxiii. 

Baily, F. xv.-xlii. 

Baines, Thomas, xlvi.-cxli. 

Baker, Col. G. xxx.-c. 

Barclay, A. K. xl.-cxlv. 

Barclay, Charles, xxvi.-clxxiii. 

Barnard, Sir Andrew, xxv.-lxxx. 

Barrett, Lucas, xxxiii.-cxxiii. 

Barrow, Sir John, Bart, xix.-xxxiv. 

Barth, Dr. Henry, c.b. xxxvi.- 

Basevi, Captain, xlii.-clxiii. 
Bates, Joshua, xxxv.-cxxv. 
Beardmore, N. xliii.-clxix. 
Beaufort, Admiral Sir Francis, 

k.c.b. xxviii.-cxxiii. 
Beatjtemps-Beatjpre. xxv.-xciii. 
Beecroft, Captain John, xxv.- 

Beke, Dr. xlv.-cxlvii. 
Belcher, Admiral Sir E. xlvii.- 

Bellot, Lieut. J. R. xxiv.-lxxxvi. 
Berbrugget, Adrien. xl.-cxlii. 
Bexley, Lord, xxi.-lvii. 
Birch, J. W. W. xlvi.-cliii. 
Bird, W. Wilberforce. xxviii.- 

Briscoe, J., r.n. xix.-xl. 
Blackwood, Capt. Price. xxiv.- 

Blumenbach, Professor J. F. xl.- 

Boileau, Sir John D., Bart, xxxix- 

Bollaert, William. xlvii.-cxlviii. 
Botfield, Beriah, m.p. xxxiv.- 

Bowles, Admiral Sir Wm., k.c.b. 

Brand, George. xxxi.-cxT. 
Brandreth, Col. xviii.-xxxiii. 
Brant, James, c.e. xxxii.-cvi. 
Brassey, Thomas, xli.-oliv. 
Breadalbane, Marquis of. xxxiii.- 


Obituary Notices. 


Brett, J. W. xxxiv.-cxxvii. 
Brisbane, Sir J. Makdougall. xxx.- 

Brockedon, W. xxxv.-lxxxiv. 
Brodie, Sir Benjamin, Bart, xxxiii.- 

Broke, Sir Arthur de Capell. xxix.- 

Broke, Sir Philip, xxv ,-lxxxv. 
Brondsted, Chevalier, xiii.-xliv. 
Brooke, Sir James, Bart, k.c.b. 

Brooking, T. H. xxxix.-cxlvi. 
Broughton, Lord, g.c.b. xl.- 

Brown, John, xxxi.-cxvi. 
Brown, Robert, xxix.-cxv. 
Brunel, Isambard K. xxx.-cvi. 
Buckingham, James Silk, xxvi.- 

Buckland, Dr.W., d.d. xxvii.-ciii. 
Buist, Dr. xxxi.-cxvii. 
Bullock, Admiral, xliv.-cl. 
Burchell, Wm. John. xxxiii.- 

Bubgoyne, Captain, r.n. xli.-cli. 
Burnes, Sir Alexander, xii.-xxxvi. 
Burnett, J. C. xxv.-lxxxv. 
Burhey, Archdeacon, xxxv.-cxxvi. 
Butler, Rev. Pierce. xxxviii.- 

Byron, Hon. Frederick, xxxi.-cxviii. 

Cameron, Capt. Duncan. xli.-cliii. 
Campbell, Lieut.-Col. Neil, xxvii.- 

Cabbuccia, General, xxv.-xciii. 
Carnarvon, Earl of. xx.-xxxvi. 
Carb, Commander Washington. 

Carrasco, Admiral Don Edouardo. 

Cabtwright, Samuel, xxxv.-cxxvi. 
Chambers, Mr., of Adelaide, xxxiii.- 

Chapman, James, xlii.-clxxi. 
Chatterton, Sir W. xxvi.-clxxiv. 
Chesney, Colonel, xlii.-clix. 
Christie, Henry, xxxv.-cxxviii. 
Christopher, Lieut., i.n. xix.-xli. 
Clarendon, Earl of. xli.-cxlvii. 
Clark, Sir James, xli.-cl. 
Clarke, Gen., of Missouri, xxii.- 

Clerk, Right Hon. Sir George. 


Clerke, Major Shadwell. xix.- 

Clive, Hon. R. xxiv.-lxxxii. 

Colby, Major-General. xxiii.-lxviii. 

Colchester, Admiral Lord, xxxviii.- 

Colquhoun, Col. J. Nisbet, xxiv.- 

Colquhoun, Chevalier James de. 

Colquhoun, Sir Robert, k.c.b. xli.- 

Constable, Captain (i.n.). Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) i. 457. 

Conybeare, Dean, xxviii.-oxlvii. 

Cope, Walter. xlii.-clxxi. 

Cracroft, Commodore. xxxvi.- 

Crawfurd, John, f.r.s. xxxviii.- 

Cubitt, Sir William, ce. xxxii.-cvi. 

Cubitt, William, m.p. xxxiv.- 

Cunabd, Sir Edward, Bart, xxxix.- 

Cunningham, Allan. xl.-xliv. 

Cunnincham, G. G. xxxi.-cxviii. 

Dalton, General. Proceedings (N.S.) 
iii. 109. 

Daniell, Rev. E. T. xiii.-xlii. 

Daniell, Dr. W. F. xxxvi.-cxlvii. 

Dabtmouth, Earl of. xxv.-lxxxvi. 

Daussy, Pierre, xxxi.-cxix. 

D'Avezac, M. xlv.-cxxxiv. 

Davis, Capt. J. E., r.n. xlvii.-cxlvii. 

De Angelis, Don Pedro, xxxi.-cxx. 

De Blaquiere, Lord. xli.-cxlix. 

De Compeigne, Marquis, xlvii.-cli. 

De la Beche, Sir Henry, xxv.-lxxxi. 

De La Marmora, General, xxxiv.- 

De la Roquette, M. xxxix.-cxli. 

De Mauley, Lord, xxv.-xcii. 

De Meyendorf, Baron G. xxxv.- 

Denison, Sir William, k.c.b. xli.-cl. 

De Ros, Rear-Admiral the Hon. 

Derby, Earl of. xxii.-lxvi. 

Derby, Earl of, k.g. xl.-cxliii. 

De Urcullu, Don Jose, xxvi.- 

Dickinson, John, xxxix.-cxlvi. 

Dickson, Lieut.- General Sir Alex- 
ander, xl.-xliv. 


References to 

Dilke, Sir C. Wentworth, Bart. 

Dixon, Hepworth. Proceed. (N.S.) 

ii. 132. 
Dodd, George, xxxv.-cxxviii. 
Dollond, George, xxiii.-lxxiii. 
Donaldson, Rev. J. W., D.D. xxxi.- 

Donaldson, Sir Stuart, xxxvii.- 

DoNorjGHMORB, Earl of. xxxvi.- 

Drake, C. F. Tyrwhitt. xlv.-cxlvi. 
Drummond, Capt. Thomas, b.e. 

Dubois de Montpereux. xxi.-lxi. 
Duchett, Sir George. xxviii.- 

Dufour, General. xlvi.-cxxxvii. 
Dukinfield, Rev. Sir Henry, Bart. 

Dundas, The Eight Hon. Sir David. 

Dundas, Admiral the Hon. Sir R. 

S., K.C.B. xxxii.-cvii. 
Duperry, Capt. Louis Isidore. 


Elgin and Kincardine, Earl of. 

Ellenborough, Earl of. xlii.-clxx. 
Ellesmere, Earl of. xxvii.-xcvii. 
Ellesmere, Earl of. xxxiii.-cxxiii. 
Elliott, Charles, xxvii.-cxiv. 
Elphlnstone, Hon. Mountstuart. 

Elsey, J. R. xxviii.-cxxxvi. 
Elton, Captain J. E. xlviii.- 

Enderby, Charles. xlvii.-cliii. 
Estcourt, T. Bucknall. xxiv.- 

Estcourt, Major-General J. B. 

Everest, Sir George, xxxvii.-cxvi. 
Everett, Edward, xxxv.-cxx. 
Ewer, Walter, xxxiii.-cxxvi. 

Fairbairn, Sir Wm. xlv.-cliii. 
Falconer, Dr. Hugh, xxxv.-cxv. 
Fellows, Sir Charles, xxxi.-cxxii. 
Findlay, A. G. xlv.-cxxxii. 
Fitzjames, Captairi, r.n. xxv.- 

FitzRoy, Captain Robt., r.n., c.b. 


FrrzwiLLiAM, Earl, xxviii.-cxxxiii. 
Forchhammer, John G. xxxvi.- 

Forbes, Commander C. S., b. n. 

Forbes, Commander F. E., b. n. 

Forrester, Baron de. xxxi.-cxxiii. 
Fortescue, Earl, k.g. xxxii.-cviii. 
Fowleb, Rear - Admiral. xxxiv.- 

Fox, General C. xliii.-clxiv. 
Fbanklin, Admiral Sir John, xxv.- 

Fbaser, James Baillie. xxvi.-clxxv. 
Fbere, Bartholomew, xxii.-lxv. 
Friederichstal, E. R. xiii.-xliv. 
Freycinet, M. xiii.-xliv. 

Gabriel, Edmund, xxxiii.-cxxxv. 
Gage, Admiral Sir W. Hall., g.c.b. 

Galitzin, Prince Emanuel, xxiv.- 

Gabnier, Lieut. F. xliv.-cxxx. 
Gawler, Colonel George, k.h. xL- 

Gifford, Earl of. xxxiii.-cxxii. 
Gisborne, Lionel, xxxi.-cxxiv. 
Goodenough, Dr. E. (Dean of Wells). 

Goodenough, Commodore, c.b., c.m.g. 

Gordon, Rev. G. M. Proceedings 

(N.S.) ii. 705. 
Gould, John. Proceedings (N.S.) 

iii. 181. 
Gowen, James Robert. xxxiii.- 

Grant, Captain Walter Colquhoun. 

Graves, Captain, r.n. xxvii.-cviii. 
Gray, Dr. xlv.-clL 
Greenough, George Bellas, xxv.- 

Grey, Ralph William, xl.-cxliv. 
Grinnell, Cornelius. xl.-cxlvi. 
Grinnell, Henry, xlv.-cxxxvi. 
Grote, George. xlii.-clxix. 
Gurney, Hudson, xxxv.-cxxiv. 

Haddington, Earl of. xxix.-cxxix. 
Halford, Rev. T. xxvii.-cxi. 
Hall, Captain Basil, r.n. xv.-xlii. 
Hall, Admiral Sir W. H. Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) i. 214. 

Obituary Notices. 


Hall, Dr. G. xxvi.-clxxvi. 
U ai.lam. Henry. xxix.-cxx. 
Hamel, Dr. xxxiii.-cxvi. 
Hamilton, William E. xxx.-cix. 
Hamilton, William J. xxxviii.- 

Hammee-Pubgstall, Baron, xxvii.- 

Hammond, W. xxvi.-clxxvii. 
Hansteen, Professor, xliv.-cxxxiii. 
Habcoubt, Bear Adml. Octavius 

Vernon, xxxiv.-cxxii. 
Habris, Capt. Fortescue W. xxvi.- 

Havildab, the. Proceedings (N.S.) 

i. 600. 
Hawtbey, Rev. Dr. xxxii.-cviii. 
Hat, Robert Wm. xxxii.-cix. 
Hazelius, J. A. xlii.-clvi. 
Heddle, Dr. (Bombay G. S.) xii.- 

Hebbebt, Admiral Sir Thomas, 

K.C.B. xxxii.-cix. 
Hill, Samuel S. xl.-cxlv. 
Hodgkin, Dr. Thomas, xxxvi.-cxlvi. 
Hogg, John, xl.-cxliv. 
Holland, Sir Henry, xliv.-cxli. 
Holman, Lieut. J. Baptiste. xxviii.- 

Holmes, John, xxiv.-lxxxiii. 
Home, Capt. Sir J. Everard. xxiv.- 

Hookeb, Sir William J. xxxvi- 

Hoopeb, Lieut. W. H. xxiv.-lxxxiv. 
Hopkins, D. Proceedings (N.S.) 

i. 726. 
Hobneb, Pere. Proceedings (N.S.) 

ii. 514. 
Hobsbubgh, Captain, vii.-vi. 
Hotham, Admiral Sir W. xx.- 

Hume, Joseph, m.p. xxv.-xc. 
Hume, Hamilton, xliv.-cxlviii. 
Humboldt, Alexander von. xxix.-cii. 

Inghibami, Padre. xxii.-lxx. 
Inglis, Sir Robert H. xxv.-xci. 
Ingbam, Herbert, m.p. xxxi.-cxxvi. 
Ibving, Dr. E. G. xxvi.-clxxvii. 

Jackson, Colonel, xxiii.-lxxi. 
Jameson, Professor, xxiv.-lxxxiv. 
Jamieson, Robert, xxxi.-cxxvi. 
Jejeebhoy, Sir Jamsetjee. xlviii.- 

Jenkyn, Rev. Dr. xxix.-cxxxiv. 

Jebvis, Lieut. Col. T. B. xxvii.-cx. 

John of Austria, Archduke, xxix.- 

Johnston, Keith. xlii.-clxi. 

Johnston, A. Keith (Jun.). Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) i. 598. 

Johnston, Sir John, Bart, xxxix.- 

Jomabd, M. xxxiii.-cxiv. 

Kane, Dr. Elisha Kent. xxvii.- 

Kaye, Sir John, k.c.s.i. xlvii.- 

Keate, R. W. xliii.-clxix. 
Kellett, Admiral Sir Henry, k.c.b. 

Kenyon, Dr. xxvii.-cxvii. 
King, Rear -Admiral P. P. xxvi.- 

King, Rev. S. W. xxxix.-cxlvii. 
Klint, Swedish Admiral. xl.-xliv. 
Knight, H. Gaily. " xvi.-xl. 
Kupffeb, Professor, xxxvi.-cxliv. 

Laibd, Macgregor. xxxi.-cxxvi. 
Lansdowne, Marquis of. xxxiii.- 
Laubence, Abbot, xxvi.-clxxx. 
Laurie, John Mivet. xxxviii.-cxliii. 
Laubie, Richard Holmes. xxix.- 

Leake, Colonel W. Martin, xxx.- 

Leabed, Dr. Proceedings (N.S.) 

i. 802. 
Lee, Dr. John. xxxvi.-cxlv. 
Lefboy, Charles Edward, xxxii.- 

Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart, xxxviii.- 

Lewis, Right Hon. Sir George Corne- 

wall. xxxiii.-cxviii. 
Livingstone, Dr. xliv.-cxiii. 
Livingstone, Charles, xliv.-cxxviii. 
Lloyd, Lieut.-Col. J. A. xxv.-xci. 
Loch, Capt. Granville, b.n. xxiii.- 

Loch, James, xxvi.-clxxx. 
Locee, Joseph, xxxi.-cxxviii. 
Loftus, W. Kennett. xxix.-cxxxvii. 
Logan, Sir W. xlvi.-cli. 
Long, Georgo. Proceedings (N.S.) 

i. 674. 
Longman, W. xlviii.-clvi. 


References to 

Loed, Dr. xii.-xxxviii. 

Lucas, L. A. xlvii.-cxliv. 

Lyell, Sir Charles, Bart, xlv.- 

Lynch, Capt. H. B., e.n. xliii.- 


McLeod, Sir Donald, xliii.-clxvi. 
Macleod, General. Proceedings 

(N.S.) ii. 379. 
McClube, Sir Robert, c.b. xliv.- 

Maceenzie, Right Hon. Holt, xlvi.- 

Maconochie, Capt., e.n. xxxi.- 

Macqueen, James. xl.-cxlvii. 
MacWilliam, James Ormiston. 

Maguire, Corporal, xxviii.-cxlii. 
Majendie, Ashurst. xxxviii.-cxliii. 
Malcolm, Adm. Sir Charles, xxii.- 

Mandeville, John Henry, xxxi.- 

Mangles, Capt., b.n. xxxviii.-cxliii. 
Margary, A. R. xlv.-cxl. 
Markham, John, xlii.-clxviii. 
Marsden, William. vii.-v. 
Marshman, Mr. xlviii.-clx. 
Maury, Capt. xliii.-clvii. 
Mawbey, General, xxi.-lviii. 
Maxwell, Sir W. Stirling, Bart. 

Mayers, W. S. F. xlviii.-cliv. 
Mecham, Commander, r.n. xxix.- 

Meek, Sir James, xxvii.-cxi. 
Melville, Van Carnbee, Baron. 

Melville, Viscount. xxii.-lxvi. 
Merewether, Col. Sir William, 

K.C.S.I., c.b. Proceedings (N.S.) 

ii. 704. 
Merivale, Herman, xliv.-cxlix. 
Meyer, Gerold. xxix.-cxiv. 
Michelot, A. xxv.-xciv. 
Milton, Vi.scount. xlvii.-cxlii. 
Mitchell, Sir J. xxvi.-clxxx. 
Molesworth, Sir W. xxvi.-clxxxi. 
Montagu, Major H. Seymour, xxix.- 

Monteagle, Lord, xxxvi.-cxlv. 
Montgomerie, Lieut.-Col. T. G. 

Moorsom, Capt. W. xxx.-cxix. 

Morier, James, xix.-xxxviii. 
Morrison, M. C. xli.-clii. 
Morritt, Mr. xiv.-xlvii. 
Mullens, Rev. J. Proceedings 

(N.S.) i. 673. 
Munzinger, Werner, xlvi.-cxxxi. 
Murchison, Sir Roderick, Bart. 

k.c.b. xlii.-cl. 
Mueeay, Rear-Adml. the Hon. H. A. 

Mueeay, Hugh, xvi.-xl. 
Murray, James, xlviii.-clix. 
Musters, Comm., r.n. Proceedings 

(N.S.) i. 397. 

Nardi, Monsignor. xlvii.-clii. 

Neeld, Joseph, xxvi.-clxxxi. 

New, Rev. C. xlv.-cxxxvii. 

Newcastle, Duke of. xxxv.-cxviii. 

Nordenskiold, Nils. xxxvi.- 


Northampton, Marquis of. xxi.- 

Northumbedland, Duke of. xxxv.- 

Norwich, Bishop of. (See Stanley.) 

Nugent, Lord, xxi.-lviii. 

Oates, F. xlv.-clii. 

Oersted, xxii.-lxix. 

Ogle, Sir Charles. xxix.-cxxxii. 

O'Gorman. xxiv.-lxxxiv. 

Osborn, Admiral Sherard, c.b. xlv.- 

Ouseley, Sir Gore, xv.-xliii. 
Ouselby, Sir William, xii.-xliv. 
Outram, Sir Benj. xxvi.-clxxxi. 
Owen, Adml. Sir E. xx.-xxxiv. 

Paget, Arthur, xxxiv.-cxxvii. 

Palmerston, Viscount, xxxvi.-cxix. 

Pareer, J. W. xxxi.-cxxx. 

Parry, Adm. Sir W. Edwd. xxvi.- 

Pasley, Gen. Sir Charles W., k.c.b. 

Paulson, Commr. xxix.-cxxxiv. 

Peabody, George. xl.-cxlix. 

Pechell, Admiral, xx.-xxxv. 

Peel, Sir Robert, Bart, xxi.-lvii. 

Peel, Capt. Sir William r.n., k.c.b. 

Pepys, W. H. xxvii.-cxiv. 

Perry, Sir William, xlv.-cliv. 

Petermann, Dr. Augustus. Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) i. 133. 

Obituary Notices. 


Petersen, Carl. Proceedings (N.S.) 

ii. 514. 
Phillimore, Dr. J. xxvi.-clxxxv. 
Phillimore, John G-eorge. xxxv.- 

Phipson-Wybrants, Capt. Proceed- 
ings (N.S.) iii. 238. 
Pollock, Sir George, g.c.b. xliii.- 

Portlock, Major-Gen. J. E. xxxiv.- 

Power, John, xlii.-clxxi. 
Price, Rear-Admiral D. xxv.-xcii. 
Prichard, Dr. xix.-xxxvi. 
Prinsep, James, xl.-xliv. 
Puller, C. G. xxxiv.-cxxvii. 
Pusey, Philip, xxvi.-clxxxv. 

Radstock, Admiral Lord, xxvii.- 

Ramsay, Sir James, xxix.-cxxxiv. 
Ranuzzi, Count, xlvi.-cxxxvi. 
Paper, Lieut. Henry, xxix.-cxxvi. 
Raymond, Archdeacon, xxx.-cxix. 
Reid, Sir William, xxix.-cxxxi. 
Rendel, J. M. xxvii.-cxi. 
Rennie, George, xxvi.-cxlvi. 
Rennie, Sir John, xlv.-clii. 
Renouard, Rev. G. C. xxxvii.- 

Richardson, Sir John, c.b. xxxvi.- 

Ripon, Earl of. xxix.-cxxi. 
Ritter, Karl, xxx.-cxx. 
Robe, Lieut.-Colonel. xix.-xxxix. 
Rochet D'Hericourt. xxv.-xciii. 
Roe, Captain, J. S., r.n. Proceed- 
ings (N.S.) i. 277. 
Rogers, Professor Henry, xxxvii.- 

Roget, Peter Mark, f.r.s. xl.- 

Ross, Admiral Sir John, c.b. xxviii.- 

Ross, Sir Patrick, xxi.-lviii. 
Rosse, Earl of. xxxviii.-cxxxvii. 
Rous, Admiral, xlviii.-clix. 
Roussin, Admiral, xxv.-xciii. 
Ruxton, Lieut. xix.-xl. 

Sa de Bandeira, Marquis, xlvi.- 

St. David's, Bishop of. (See Thirl- 

St. Leger, Anthony, xxxiii.-cxxvi. 
Santarem, Viscount, xxvi.-clxxxv. 

SCHLAGINTWEIT, Adolf. xxix.- 

Schomburgk, Sir Rohert. xxxv.- 

Schouw, Professor, xxii.-lxviii. 
Scoresby, Rev. Dr. xxviii.-cxxxviii. 
Sedgwick, Rev. A. xliii.-clx. 
Seemann, Berthold. xlii.-clxvii. 
Seymour, Henry Danby. xlviii.-cl. 
Shadwell, Sir Lancelot, xxi.-lix. 
Shaw, Robert B. Proceedings (N.S.) 

i. 523. 
Shaw, Dr. Norton. xxxix.-cxlvii. 
Shedden, R. xx.-xxxiv. 
Sheffield, The Earl of. xlvi.-cxlvi. 
Sheil, Sir Justin, xli.-cli. 
Shuttleworth, Sir J. Kay. xlviii.- 

Silliman, Benjamin, xxxv.-cxxvi. 
Simpson, Sir George, xxxi.-cxxxi. 
Simpson, Dr. John, xxx.-cxxi. 
Slater, Commander, r.n. xii.- 

Smith, Sir Charles Felix, xxix.- 

Smith, Abel. xxix.-cxxxv. 
Smith, E. Osborne, xxxiv.-cxxvi 
Smyth, Admiral, W.H., c.b. xxxvi.- 

Smyth, Admiral, W. xlviiL-cxlix. 
Sotheby, Samuel Leigh, xxxii.-cv. 
Speke, Captain John Hanning. 

Spencer, Earl, xxviii.-cxxxvi. 
Stanhope, Earl, xlvi.-cxlviii. 
Stanley, Lord, of Alderlev. xxi.- 
Stanley, Dr. (Bishop of Norwich). 

Stanley, Captain Owen, r.n. xxi.- 

Stirling, Admiral Sir James. 

Stannus, Sir E. G. xxi.-lix. 
Staunton, Sir George, xxx.-cxxiv. 
Stephenson, Robert, xxx.-cxxi. 
Stokes, Charles. xxix.-lxxxiv. 
Strange, Colonel, xlvi.-oxlvi. 
Strangford, Viscount xxxix.- 

Strickland, Hugh E. xxiv.-lxxxv. 
Strong, F. K. xlv.-cliv. 
Struve, Professor, xxxv.-cxix. 
Strzelecki, Sir Paul, k.c.m.g., c.b. 

Sturt, Captain Charles, xl.-cxxxiii. 


Obituary Notices. 

Sussex, H. R. H. the Duke of. xiii.- 

Swart, Jacob, xxxvi.-cxlii. 
Swinhoe, Robert, xlviii.-cliii. 
Sykes, Colonel, xliii.-clxvi. 
Symonds, Captain, W. C. xii.- 


Taylor, Richard, xxix-cxxxv. 

Tennant, James. Proceedings (N.S.) 
iii. 240. 

Thirlwall, Dr. (Bishop of St. 
David's), xlvi.-cxlvii. 

Thomson, Dr.Thomas. xlviii.-cxxxi v. 

Thornton, Richard, xxxiv.-cxxiii. 

Tindal, Commr. C. xxx.-cxxvi. 

Tonna, Lewis H. xxvii.-cxiv. 

Towson, J. T. Proceedings (N.S.) 
iii. 108. 

Trevelyan, Sir Walter, Bart. Pro- 
ceedings (N. S.) i. 236. 

Trithen, F. H. xxv.-xciii. 

Trotter, Rear- Admiral H. D. xxx.- 

Uzielli, Matthew, xxxi.-cxxxii. 

Vattier de Bouville. xxv.-xciv. 

Vaughan, Sir C. xx.-xxxiii. 

Visconti, Marquis, xlvi.-cxl. 

Vogel, Dr. xxviii.-cxli. 

Von Baer. xlvii.-cl. 

Von Buch, Leopold, xxiv.-lxiii. 

Von der Decken, Baron, xxxvi.- 

Von Haidinger, Wilhelm. xli- 

Von Hugel, Baron, xli.-cxlix. 
Von Martius, Charles F. P. 

Von Reden, Baron. xxviii.-cxl. 
Von Sydow. xliv.-cxxxi. 
Vulliamy, B. L. xxiv.-lxxxv. 

Wahlberg, J. F. xxvii.-cxvi. 
Wahlenberg, Professor, xxi.-lxi. 
Walckenaar, Baron, xxii.-lxvii. 

Walker, James, f.r.s. xxxiii.- 

Wallin, Dr. xxiv.-lxxxiv. 

Warburton, Henry, xxix.-cxxiii. 

Warre, John Ashley, xxxi.-cxxxiii. 

Washington, Rear-Admiral John, 
c.b. xxxiv.-cxii. 

Waugh, Sir Andrew, xlviii.-cxliii. 

Weir, William, xxix.-cxxviii. 

Wellsted, Lieut., i.n. xiii.-xliii. 

Westminster, Marquis of. xl.- 

Wharncliffe, Lord. xxvi.-clxxxvii. 

Wheelwright, William. xliv.- 

Whewell, Dr. xxxvi.-cxxii. 

White, Charles. xliii.-clxviii. 

Widdrington, Captain S. xxvi.- 

Wielhorski, Count, xxvi.-clxxxviii. 

Wilberforce, Dr. (Bishop of Win- 
chester), xliv.-cxliii. 

Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, xlvi.-cl. 

Williams, Bev. D. xxx.-cxxvii. 

Williams, Dr. C. Proceedings 
(N.S.) i. 525. 

Willis, Capt. W. A., r.n. xxxiv.- 

Wilson, Sir Bedford F. xxix.- 

Winchester. (See Dr. Wilberforce.) 

Wolfe, Commr. J. xx.-xxxvi. 

Wolff, Dr. Joseph, xxxii.-cx. 

Wood, Major Herbert. Proceedings 
(N.S.) ii. 132. 

Wood, Commander James, xxx.- 

Wood, Captain John, i.n. xlii- 

WYBRANTs(£ee Phipson-Wybrants). 

Wylie, J. W. S. xl-cxlii. 

Yates, J. Brook, xxvi.-clxxxviii. 
Young, Thomas, xxxv.-cxxvii. 

Zahrtmann, Admiral, xxiii.-lxvi. 
Ziwolka, Pilot. xl.-xliv. 

Honorary Awards. 147 









1834. Captain Sir John Ross, b.n., c.b {Royal Award) 

1836. Captain Sir George Back, b.n {Royal Award) 

1839. Mr. George Simpson (Founder 's Medal) 

1846. Professor Middendorf {Founder'' s Medal) 

1852. Dr. John Rae (Founder's Medal) 

1853. Captain Inglefield, b.n., c.b {Patron's Medal) 

1854. Captain Sir Robert M'Clure, b.n., c.b {Patron's Medal) 

1856. Dr. Elisha Kent Kane (Founder's Medal) 

1858. Captain Collinson, b.n., c.b {Founder's Medal) 

1860. Lady Franklin (Founder's Medal) 

1860. Captain Sir Leopold M'Clintock, b.n {Patron's Medal) 

1867. Dr. Hayes (Patron's Medal) 

1869. Professor Nordenskiold (Founder's Medal) 

1873. Captain Carlsen (Gold Watch) 

1875. Lieut. Weyprecht (Founder's Medal) 

1875. Lieut. Julius Payer (Patron's Medal) 

1877. Captain Sir George Nares, k.c.b (Founder's Medal) 

1877. Captain A. H. Markham, b.n (Gold Watch) 

1880. Captain Palander (Founder's Medal) 

1881. Mr. B. Leigh Smith (Patron's Medal) 


1833. Mr. John Biscoe, b.n (Royal Award) 

1842. Captain Sir James C. Ross, b.n (Founder's Medal) 

1848. Captain Charles Wilkes, U.8.N (Patron's Medal) 


1832. Mr. Richard Lander (Royal Award) 

1839. Dr. Edward Riippell {Patron's Medal) 

1845. Dr. Beke (Founder's Medal) 

1853. Mr. Francis Galton (Founder's Medal) 

1855. Rev. David Livingstone (Patron's Medal) 

1855. Mr. Charles J. Anderssen (Instruments) 

L 2 

148 Honorary Awards. 

1856. Dr. Heinrich Barth, c.B (Patron's Medal) 

1856. CorporalJ. F. Church (Watch & Chain) 

1859. Captain Eichard F. Burton (Founder's Medal) 

1861. Captain John Banning Speke (Founder's Medal) 

1864. Captain J. A. Grant, c.B (Patron's Medal) 

1864. Baron C. von der Decken (Founder's Medal) 

1865. Sir Samuel Baker (Patron's Medal) 

1866. M. P. B. du Chaillu (100 Guineas) 

1868. M. Gerhard Rohlfe (Patron's Medal) 

1872. Herr Karl Mauch (Sum of £20) 

1873. Mr. H. M. Stanley (Patron's Medal) 

1873. Mr. '1 homas Baines (Gold Watch) 

1874. Dr. Georg Schweinfurth (^Founder's Medal) 

1876. Commander V. L. Cameron, B.N., c.B (Founder's Medal) 

1880. Bishop Crowther (Gold Watch) 

1881. Major Serpa Pinto (Founder's Medal) 


1835. Sir Alexander Burnes (Royal Award) 

1838. Colonel Chesney, b.e (Royal Award) 

1840. Major-Gen. Sir Henry Eawlinson, k.c.b (Pounder's Medal) 

1841. Lieut. John Wood, i.n (Patron's Medal) 

1843. Lieut. J. F. A. Symonds, b.e (Patron's Medal) 

1844. Mr. W.J. Hamilton (Founder's Medal) 

1849. Austen H. Layard (Founder's Medal) 

1849. Baron Htigel (Patron's Medal) 

1851. Dr. George Wallin (25 Guineas) 

1852. Captain Henry Strachey (Patron's Medal) 

1857. Lieut.-General Sir Andrew Scott Waugh .. .. (Patron's Medal) 

1862. Captain Thomas Blakiston (Patron's Medal) 

1864. Mr. W. Gifford Palgrave (25 Guineas) 

1865. Colonel T. G. Moutgomerie, B. E {Founder's Medal) 

1865. Dr. Arminius Vambery (40 Guineas) 

1866. Dr. Thomas Thomson, m.d (Founder's Medal) 

1866. Moola Abdul Medjid (Gold Watch) 

1867. Admiral Alexis Boutakoff (Founder's Medal) 

1870. Lieut. Francis Gamier, f.i.n (Patron's Medal) 

1870. Mr. George W. Hay ward ► .. (Founder's Medal) 

1872. Mr. Robert Berkeley Shaw (Patron's Medal) 

1873. Mr. NeyElias (Founder's Medal) 

1875. Mr. W. H. Johnson (Gold Watch) 

1877. The Pundit Nain Singh (Patron's Medal) 

1878. Baron F. von Richthofen (Founder's Medal) 

1878. Captain Henry Trotter, b.e (Patron's Medal) 

1878. Colonel N. Prejevalsky (Patron's Medal) 

1879. Captain W. J. Gill, b.e (Founder's Medal) 


1848. Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak (Founder's Medal) 


1843. Mr. Edward John Eyre . . . . (Founder's Medal) 

1846. Sir Paul Strzelecki, k.c.m.g., c.B (Founder's Medal) 

1847. Captain Charles Sturt (Founder's Medal) 

Honorary Awards. 


1847. Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt (Patron's Medal) 

1851. Mr. Thomas Brunner (25 Guineas) 

1857. Mr. Augustus C. Gregory {Founder's Medal) 

1861. Mr. Johu Macdouall Stuart (Patron's Medal) 

1862. Mr. Robert O'Hara Burke (Founder's Medal) 

1862. Mr. John King (Gold Watch) 

1863. Mr. Frank T. Gregory (Founder's Medal) 

1863. Mr. William Landsborough (Gold Watch) 

1863. Mr. John M'Kinlay (Gold Watch) 

1X63. Mr. Frederick Walker (Gold Watch) 

1874. Colonel P. Egerton Warburton (Patron's Medal) 

1876. Mr. John Forrest (Patron's Medal) 

1880. Mr. Ernest Giles (Patron's Medal) 


1850. General John C. Fremont (Patron's Medal) 

1858. Professor Alexander D. Bache (Patron's Medal) 

1859. Captain John Palliser (Patron's Medal) 


1840. Sir Robert Schomburgk (Patron's Medal) 

1866. Mr. William Chandless (Patron' s Medal) 

1872. Commander G. C. Musters, e.n (Gold Watch) 


1837. Captain Robert FitzRoy, b.n., c.b (Royal Award) 

1854. Admiral W. H. Smyth, c.b (Founder's Medal) 


1841. Lieut. Raper, r.n. (Founder's Medal) 

1842. Rev. Dr. E. Robinson (Patron's Medal) 

1844. Professor Adolph Erman (Patron's Medal) 

1845. Herr Karl Ritter (Patron's Medal) 

1863. Mr. John Arrowsmith (Patron's Medal) 

1868. Dr. Augustus Petermann (Founder's Medal) 

1869. Mrs. Mary Somerville (Patron's Medal) 

1871. Mr. A. Keith Johnston, ll.d (Patron's Medal) 

1871. Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., k.c.b (Founder's Medal) 

1872. Colonel Henry Yule, c.b (Founder's Medal) 

1880. Mr. E. H. Bunbury (Letter of Thanks) 


For Asia . . 



. 72 

„ Africa . . 


Germans . 

. 16 

„ Arctic . 


Civilians . . . 


Americans . 

. 7 

„ Australasia 


Sailors . 


Russians . 

. 3 

Geographers . 


Soldiers . 


Swedes . . 

. 3 

Antarctic . 




French . 


N. America 


Doctors . 




S. America 




Norwegian . 


Marine Surveyors 


Women . 




Indian Archipelag 

y 1 

Natives of Indi 
Negro . . 

a . 2 
. 1 


al.. 109 

150 Grants in Aid. 



£ *. d. 

1832. Captain Back's Arctic Land Expedition 50 

„ Instruments for travellers 11 14 

1834. Delagoa Bay Expedition 170 16 4 

„ Schomburgk's Guiana Expedition 50 

1835. „ „ „ 175 

1836. „ „ „ 490 

„ Alexander's S. Africa Expedition 356 12 

1837. Schomburgk's Guiana Expedition 156 4 

1838. „ „ n 5 5 

„ Alexander's S. Africa Expedition 223 

„ Ainsworth's Kurdistan Expedition 298 

1839. Schomburgk's Guiana Expedition 100 

„ Ainsworth's Kurdistan Expedition 685 8 6 

„ White Nile Expedition 50 

„ New Zealand Expedition 9 9 

1840. Ainsworth's Kurdistan Expedition 556 13 

1841. „ „ , 313 12 9 

„ Instruments for travellers 11 

1842. Dr. Beke (Abyssinia) 100 

„ Instruments for travellers 12 

1843. Instruments for travellers 15 8 5 

1844. Instruments for travellers 6 12 

1861. Instruments for Consul Petherick. 

„ „ „ Dr. Bae. 

„ Consul Petherick for relief of Speke 100 

(£1200 subscribed by Fellows.) 

1863. Instruments for Dr. D. Walker (N. America). 
„ „ „ Captain Bedford Pirn, e.n. 

„ „ „ M. Jules Gerard. 

1864. Grant to M. Gerhard Eohlfs (N. Africa) 50 

1865. Second Grant to „ „ „ 50 

„ Grant to Mr. E. B. N. Walker (Ogowe) 100 

„ Instruments for „ „ 43 

„ Grant to Dr. Livingstone (Central Eq. Africa) .. .. 500 

„ „ Captain Wilson, e.e. (Dead Sea) 107 7 9 

„ „ Captains Wilson and Palmer (Sinai). 

1866. Leichhardt Search Expedition 200 

1867. Instruments for Mr. Whym per (Greenland) 22 1 6 

,. „ „ Mr. Whitely (S. America) 13 

1868. Grant to Mr. Young, r.n. (Lake Nyassa) 160 

„ Instruments for Bev. F. W. Holland (Sinai) 34 17 6 

1869. „ „ Mr. Hayward (E. Turkistan) 14 8 6 

„ Grant to „ „ 300 

Grants in Aid. 151 

£ «. d. 

1870. Grant to Mr. St. Vincent Erskine (Limpopo) 100 

„ Instruments for „ „ „ 18 

„ Second Grant to Mr. Hay ward (E. Turkistan) .. .. 300 

„ Instruments for Sir Samuel Baker 114 6 C 

Mr. Palmer 4 1 C 

1871. ", ", Mr! R. B. Shaw(E. Turkistan) .. ."." 23 4 

„ Rev. T. Wakefield (Mombas) 35 5 

„ „ „ C. Tyrwhitt Drake (Syria) 6 3 6 

1872. „ „ Mr. St. Vincent Erskine (Limpopo) .. 18 2 
„ Livingstone Search and Relief Fund 696 4 9 

i an 17 ii 

1873. Instruments, outfit, &c, Lieutenant V. L. Cameron, b.n. \»\a n a 

„ „ „ Lieutenant Grandy, b.n 123 11 4 

„ Outfit, Dr. Dillon, b.n. 100 

„ Meteorological Instruments, Consulate, Zanzibar .. .. 10 10 

„ Livingstone Search and Relief Expedition 416 8 

„ Instruments, Capt. A. H. Markham, b.n. (Whaling Cruise) 13 5 6 

1874. „ Dr. Beke (Midian) 30 1 6 

„ „ Mr. Ney Elias 8 10 

„ „ Mr. Hegan (Bolivia) 21 17 6 

„ Livingstone Search and Relief Fund 1778 16 5 

1875. Cameron Expedition 500 

t cq ii a 

„ Instruments, Colonel Gordon J99 5 

„ „ Captain Allen Young 13 

„ „ Arctic Expedition 10 

1876. „ Mr. Watts (Iceland) 14 

„ „ Captain Allen Young | 29 Q Q 

„ Mr. Cotterill (S. Africa) 24 

„ „ Mr. J. A. Skertchly (W. Africa). 

Rev. Q. W. Thomson 5 

„ „ Lieutenant Congreve (Paraguay) .. .. 15 

„ Cameron Expedition Fund 1000 

1877. Instruments, Rev. F. W. Holland (Sinai) 27 

„ African Exploration Fund 500 

„ Instruments for Mr. Keith Johnston 170 

„ „ „ Mr. Young, b.n 95 17 6 

„ Cameron Expedition Fund * 1012 2 6 

1878. African Exploration Fund 500 

„ Instruments for Mr. Keith Johnston (E. Africa) .. .. 170 

1879. „ „ Mr. Forbes (Celebes) 9 

„ „ „ Mr. Simons (Sta. Martha) 15 

„ „ „ Rev. T. J. Comber (Congo) 57 

„ „ „ Rev. J. Mullens 10 

„ „ „ Captain A. H. Markham 5 18 

1880. African Exploration Fund. Two Grants 1000 

„ Instalments for Rev. W. P. Johnston (E. Africa) .. .. 35 5 

„ „ „ Mr. Delmar Morgan (Kuldja) .. .. 15 15 

„ „ „ Dr. Aitchison (Afghanistan) 24 11 

„ Mr. A. MOall (Congo) 33 3 

41 The total cost of the Cameron Expedition was 11,1012. 13*. 3d., of which 
30002. was contributed by the Government. 

152 Treasury Grants. 

£ s. d. 

1880. Instruments for Captain Phipson-Wy brants 109 15 

„ Dr. W. K. Peden (Shire") 30 13 

1881. Palestine Exploration Fund 100 


1836. For Guiana and South African Expeditions 1000 

1856. For Captain Burton's Expedition 1000 

1860. For Captain Speke's Expedition 2500 

1873. For Dr. Livingstone's Funeral 500 19 1 

1876. For Lieutenant Cameron's Expedition 3000 

Arctic Papers. 153 






America, North, Evidence for the discovery of, by the Scandinavians in the 

10th century, viii. 114. 

Arctic shores of. (See Simpson and Rae.) 

Anderson, Mr. Journey to Montreal Island, xxvi. 18 ; xxvii. 321. 
Animal Life in the Arctic Regions, by P. L. Simmonds. (Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 53.) (See Petermann.) 
" Arctic," whaler voyage of. C. R. Markham. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 12.) 
Arctic Expeditions, Notes on the late, by S. Osborn. (Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 104.) 
Arctic Expedition, On the progress of and voyage of the " Valorous." By 

C. R. Markham. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 55.) 
of 1875-76. Results of. By C. R. Markham. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xxi. 536.) 
Arctic Expeditions of 1878, by C. R. Markham. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. i. 16.) 
Arctic Exploration by Sherard Osborn. xxxvi. 279. (Proceedings, Vol. 

ix. 42 ; Vol. xii. 92 ; Vol. xvi. 227.) (See North Polar Exploration.) 

Sir Roderick Murchison's speech on. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 87.) 

Austro-Hungarian Expedition of 1872-74. By Julius Payer, xlv. 1. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xix. 17.) 
Scientific work of the second, 1872-74. By Lieut. Weyprecht. 

xlv. 19. 

Back, Sir Geo. Search for Capt. Ross. Account of his land expedition, 
ii. 336 ; iii. 64 ; v. 405 ; vi. i. Voyage of the " Terror," vii. 457, 460. 

Baer, Professor. (See Siberia.) 

Barent's Sea, Campaign of 1879, in. By Capt. A. H. Markham. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 1. ) 

Behring Strait to Cambridge Bay, the proceedings of H.M.S. " Enterprise " 
from. By Capt. R. Collinson, r.n. xxv. 194. 

Circumpolar Explorations. A. Petermann. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 90.) 
Circumpolak Regions. Recent elevations of land. By H. H. Howorth. 
xliii. 240. 

154 Arctic Papers, 

Circumpolab Sea, on the. By Capt. G. S. Nares. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 96.) 

(See Nabes.) 
Collinson, Capt. Voyage of the " Enterprise." xxv. 194. 
Currents, On ocean. By Gen. Hauslah. xlv. 34. (See Greenland.) 

Dutch Navigators in Arctic Seas, by Commodore Jansen. (Proceedings, 

Vol. ix. 163.) 
Arctic Expedition. (Proceedings, (N.S.) i. 26.) 

Findlay, A. G. On route of Franklin, xxvi. 26. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 21.) 
Franklin, Sir John. Sea of Spitzbergen, and Whale-fisheries in the Arctic 

Regions. By Au^. Petermann. xxiii. 129. 
Narrative of the expedition in search of. By Sir F. L. 

McClintock, r.n. xxxi. i. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 2.) 

Arctic Explorations, with information respecting missing 

Party of. By Dr. John Rae. xxv. 246. 

Eeport of the expedition in search of, during 53-55 ; chart 

showing Arctic discoveries. By E. Kent Kane. xxvi. 1. 

On the probable course pursued by the expedition of. By 

A. G. Findlay. xxvi. 26. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 21.) 

(search for.) Letter from Jas. Anderson to Sir Geo. Simpson. 

xxvi. 18. 

Extracts from Jas. Anderson's Arctic Journal, xxvii. 321. 

Memorial for continuance of search for. (Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 95.) 
Franz Josef Land. Discoveries by the Austro-Hungarian Expedition, xlv. 1 ; 

xlv. 19. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 17.) 
Discoveries along coast of, by B. Leigh Smith. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. iii. 129.) 
Frobisher. On the voyages of, by Commander Becher, r.n. xii. 1. 
Fbobisher Strait. C. F. Hall. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 99.) 
Frozen Soil of British N. America. Observations on the. Communicated 

by Dr. Richardson, ix. 117. 

German Arctic Expedition, Return of. Sir L. McClintock. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xv. 102.) 
Greenland, the site of the lost colony of, determined. By R. H. Major. 

xliii. 156. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 312.) 

On the large Continental Ice of, and origin of icebergs in the Arctic 

seas. By Dr. H. Rink, xxiii. 145. 

The Arctic Current round coast of. By Capt. E. Irminger. xxvi. 36. 

(Proceedings, Vol. i. 61.) 

On the supposed discovery by Dr. E. K. Kane of the North Coast of. 

By Henry Rink, xxviii. 272. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 195.) 

Greenland Esquimaux, On the origin and migrations of the. By C. R. Mark- 
ham, xxxv. 87. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 88.) 

Greenland, Discharge of water from glaciers in. Dr. Rink. (Proceedings, 
Vol. vii. 76.) 

Greenland, Fiords and Glaciebs, On. By J. W. Tayler. xl. 228. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. v. 90 ; Vol. xiv. 156.) 

Ground Ice. (See Siberia.) 

Hall, Captain. Arctic Expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 382.) (See Fbo- 
bisher St. " Polaris.") 

Arctic Papers. 155 

Hobsburgh, Cape, Land in vicinity of, by E. P. Philpots. (Proceedings, 
Vol. xiii. 372.) 

Inglefeld, Capt. Voyage of the " Isabel." xxiii. 136. 

Ibmikger, Admiral. (See Greenland.) (See Icelandic Currents (Europe). 

Kane, Dr., Expedition of. (See Franklin, search for.) xxvi. 1. 
Kennedy, Mr. Voyage of the " Prince Albert." xxiii. 122. 
King William Land. Expedition of Lieut. F. Schwatka. By C. R. Markham. 
(Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 657.) 

LABRADOR,Visit toN.E. coast of, during 1867, by H.M.S. " Gannet," Cornm.W. 
Chimmo. xxxviii. 258. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 195.) 

Peninsula, Exploration up the Moisie River, to the edge of the Table- 
land of the. By H. Y. Hind, xxxiv. 82. 

Portion of coast of, by Capt. R. V. Hamilton, r.n. (Proceedings, 

Vol. ix. 131.) 

Light experienced in northern latitudes during the absence of the sun, Remarks 
on. By Capt. S. Osborn. xxviii. 371. 

McClintock, Sir Leopold. Expedition in search of Franklin, xxxi. 1. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. iv. 2.) 
McClure, Sir Robert. Discovery of N.W. passage, xxiv. 240. 
Mackenzie River district, by R. Macfarlane. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 125.) 
Montreal Island. (See Anderson, M'Clintock.) 

Nares, Capt. G. S., On the circumpolar sea. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 96.) 
Neva, congelation of the, at St. Petersburg, and temperature of its waters when 

covered with ice. By CoL J. R. Jackson, v. i. 
Nordenskiold, Professor. Voyage of 1868 to Spitzbergen. xxxix. 131. 
North Polar Expedition op 1868, Account of the Swedish. By A. E. 

Nordenskiold (commanding), xxxix. 131. 
North Polar Exploration. By A. Petermann. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 

90, 114.) 

Best route for, by C. R. Markham. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 138.) 

Letter on, by Lady Franklin. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 148.) (See 

Arctic Exploration.) 
North Polar Region, On the exploration of the. By Capt. S. Osborn, r.n. 

xxxvi. 279. 
North Pole, On the climate of the, and on circumpolar exploration. By W. 

E. Hickson. xxxv. 129. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 137.) 

By Hopkins. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 100.) 

Table of voyages towards the. Compiled by C. R. Markham. 

xxxvi. 295. 

On best route for reaching. (See Wrangell.) 

On route to. By Admiral Richards. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 

North- West Passage, and further survey of Northern Coast of America, 

communications on a, vi. 34. 

Discovery of the. By Comm. R. M'Clure, r.n. xxiv. 240. 

Northern Circumpolar Regions, Recent elevations of the earth's surface in 

the. By H. H. Howorth, xliii. 240. 

156 Arctic Papers. 

Northumberland Inlet, Journal of a whaling voyage. By Mr. Wareham, 
xii. 21. 

Novaia Zemlia, On the recent, Russian Expeditions to. By Professor K. E. 
von Baer, viii. 411. (See Barents Sea.) 

Osborn, Admiral S., On Arctic exploration, xxxvi. 279. (See Arctic Ex- 
ploration, Light, North Polar Region.) 

Open Water in the Polar Basin, by R. V. Hamilton. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 

Petermann, Dr., On distribution of animal life in the Arctic Regions, xxii. 

118. (See Franklin.) 

On the proposed Polar Expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 90, 114.) 

Polar Basin, Remarks on open sea in. By Robert White. (Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 27.) 
" Polaris," Discoveries of. By C. R. Markham. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 12.) 
Pole. (See North Pole.) 

Rae, Dr., Information of missing expedition, xxv. 246. Victoria Land, 

xxii. 82. Wollaston Land, xxii. 73. 
Rink, Dr. (See Greenland.) 
Ross, Capt., Search for. (See Back.) 
Ross, expedition to ascertain fate of, ii. 336. (See Back.) 

Schwatha, Lieut. (See King William Island.) 

Siberia, On the frozen ground in. By Prof. K. E. von Baer, viii. 210. 

Sibebian Rivebs, Ground ice in the. By Colonel Jackson, vi. 416. 

Sledge Tbavelling, On. By Capt. A. H. Markham. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xxi. 110). 

By Sir L. M'Clintock. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 464.) 

Simpson and Dease, Account of recent Arctic Discoveries, viii. 213 ; ix. 325 ; 

x. 268. 

Smith Sound, Discoveries of the " Polaris." By C. R. Markham. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xviii. 12.) 

Expedition of Dr. Kane. xxvi. 1. 

Southampton Island, On the N.E. shore of. By Capt. Back, b.n., vii. 460. 
(See " Terror.") 

Spitzbergen, On discoveries East of. By C. R. Markham, xliii. 83. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xvii. 97.) (See Nordenskiold.) 

Stephenson, Capt. H. F. On the winter quarters of the Discovery. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxi. 106.) 

Swedish, N. Polar Expedition, by Nordenskiold and von Otter. (Proceedings, 
Vol. xiii. 151.) 

" Terror," H.M.S., Account of the late voyage of, vii. 457, 460. 
Thermometrical Observations, made at Sir Edw. Parry's several wintering 
places. By Dr. Richardson, ix. 331. 

Unknown Lands within the Arctic Circle. Probable existence of. By Capt. 
S. Osborn. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 227.) 

Papers on Europe. 157 

Victoria Land. (See Rae, Dr.) 

Wollaston Land. (See Rae, Dr.) 

Wkangell, Admiral von, On reaching the Pole, xviii. 19-24. 

Zeni, Voyages of. By Capt. Zahrtmann, v. 102. 

Frislanda is Iceland and not the Faeroes. By Admiral Irminger. 

xlix. 398. 

is not Iceland, hut the Fseroes ; an answer to Admiral Irminger. 

By R. H. Major, xlix. 412. 


Antarctic Discovery, On, and its connection with the Transit of Venus in 
1882. By J. E.Davis, xxxix. 91. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 114.) 

Antarctic Ocean, Recent discoveries in the. By John Biscoe, r.n. iii. 

Discoveries in the, hy Balleny, in February 1839. ix. 517. 

Deception Island, Account of, from private journal of Lieut. Kendal, r.n. 
i. 62. 

Iceberg. Note on a rock seen on an, in 61° S., hy C. Darwin, ix. 528. 

Morell's Antarctic Voyage. Remarks on, by Capt. R. V. Hamilton, r.n. 
(Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 145.) 

Sabrina Land. C. Enderby. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 171.) 
Southern Circumpolar Region, Recent changes in the. By H. H. Howorth. 
xliv. 252. 


Aitkins Rock. On the Vigia so called. By Captain Vidal, r.n. i. 51. 
Albania. Geographical Account of, from MS. of Count Karaczay. xii. 45 
Alps. Notes on the passage of Hannibal. By Professor Paul Chaix. xxv. 

European. On the origin of the flora of. By John Ball. (Proceedings, 

(N.S.) Vol. i. 564. 
Arta. Observations on the Gulf of, made in 1830. By Lieut. J. Wolfe, r.n. 

iii. 77. 
Arve. Hydrography of the valley of. By Professor Paul Chaix. xxvii. 224. 
Athos, Mount, and its Monasteries, with notes of route from Constantinople 

to Salonica, in June 1836. By Lieut. Webber Smith, vii. 61. 

Remarks on the Isthmus of. By Lieut. Spratt, r.n. xvii. 145. 

Azores. (See under Oceania.) 

Azov, On the Sea of, the Putrid Sea, and adjacent coasts of. By Capt. 

Sherard Osborn. xxvii. 133. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 305.) 

158 Papers on Europe. 

Balkan, or Mount Haemus. Notes on a journey in 1847. By Lieut. -General 

A. Jochmus. xxiv. 36. 
Baltic, On the level of the. vi. 440. 
Black Sea, memoir of the voyage of H.M.S. "Blonde." By the Rev. 

Edmund Goodenough, D.D., F.R.S. i. 101. 

and Caspian. Difference of level by Baron von Humboldt, viii. 135. 

and Caspian. Expedition to determine difference of level, vi. 

426. (See Caspian.) 

Caucasus, On the, by Capt. Duncan Cameron. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 5.) 

Journey in. D. W. Freshfield. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 66.) 

Columbbetes (volcanic rocks), near coast of Valencia, in Spain, by Capt. 

Smyth, b.n. i. 58. 
Commentaries on ancient military operations in Greece, by Jochmus. xxvii. 

1. (See Mabathon.) 
Cbete. Extract of a letter from Capt. Spratt, b.n. xxiv. 238. 
Cyfbus. Journey through, by J. Thomson. (Proceedings (N. S.) Vol. i. 97.) 

Rough Notes on Prehistoric, by Sir Henry Rawlinson. (Proceedings 

(N. S.) Vol. i. 106.) 

Danube. Route between Kustenje, by the Kara-su and Yeni-Keui valleys, 

by Capt. Spratt. xxvi. 203. 
Dniepeb, On the lower course of the. By Prof. H. Maiden, xv. 351. 
Don, On the valley of the. By C. R. Markham. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 675.) 

Epibus, remarkable localities on the coast of. By Mr. Jas. H. Skene, xviii. 

Description of the ruins of the Acropolis of Cassope. By Lieut.-Colonel 

Collinson, b.e. xxxii. 68. 

On the Physical Geography and natural resources of. By Major R. 

Stuart, xxxix. 276. 

Ebne (Lough) Account of. v. 392. 

Gipsies in Moldavia, by Samuel Gardner ; and speech by Sir H. Rawlinson. 

(Proceedings, Vol. i. 37.) 
Gbeece. Memoir on the Northern frontier. By Lieut.-Col. Baker, vii. 81. 

Eastern, geographical positions of the principal points of. By M. 

Peytier. viii. 423. 

Iceland, Dr. Rae's Report on. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 80.) 

Journey across the Vatna Jokull. By W. L. Watts, xlvi. 1. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xx. 21.) 

Icelandic Currents. By Admiral Irminger. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 225.) 

Ladoga Lake, Survey of. A. Andreyeff. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 375.) 
Lissa and Pelagosa, A visit to. By R. F. Burton, xlix. 151. 

Marathon, Notes on battle of, and of Sellasia and Thermus. By General 
Jochmus. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 481.) 

Papers on Asia. 159 

Mediterranean Sea, Geography of the bed of. By Sherard Osborn. xii. 46. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xv. 28.) 
Milo, On the volcanic group of. By Lieut. Leycester, e.n., f.r.g.s. xxii. 


Neva, Congelation of. By Colonel Jackson, v. 1. 

Norway and Lapland, Voyage on the Coasts of. By Lieut. G. T. Temple, 
b.n. (Proceedings (N S.) Vol. ii. 273.) 

Rhone and Geneva, Geographical and Statistical notes on the. By Prof. 
Chaix. xiv. 322. 

SANTORrN or Thera, Account of the volcanic group of. By Lieut. E. M. 

Leycester, r.n. xx. 1. 

Volcanic Eruptions. Dr. Schmidt. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 118.) 

Visit of Capt. Lindesay Brine to. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 317.) 

Sellasia, Battle of. (See Marathon.) 

Serpent Island (Black Sea), Remarks on. By Capt. T. Spratt, b.n., 

c.b. xxvii. 220. 
Skyrob, On the Isle of. By Capt. T. Graves, r.n. xix. 152. 
Spain, Heights of various points in. By Don F. Bouza. ii. 269. 
Switzerland, Summary of the last Census of. By Prof. Paul Chaix. xxiv 


Thermus, Battle of. (See Marathon.) 

Turkey, European, Mt. Caucasus, and Asia Minor, Astronomical posi- 
tions in, fixed by F. G. W. Struve. viii. 406. 

Wick, Observations on the water of. By John Cleghorn. xxvii. 230. 


Abila District, near Mount Lebanon. By John Hogg. xx. 38. 
Aden, Report on the Country around. By Capt. G. J. Stevens, xliii. 295. 
Afghanistan, Comparative Geography of, and extract of a letter from 
Major Bawlinson. xii. 112. 

See Bamian, Kurram, Kandahar, Kabul, Helmund. 

Afghan Geography. By C. R. Markham. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 241.) 

Campaign, Geographical results of. By Capt. T. H. Holdich. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. iii. 65.) 

Frontier. On Mountain Passes. By C. R. Markham. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. i. 38.) 

Ala-tu Mountains. By Atkinson. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 127.) 

Alai. See PAMfR. 

Al Hadhb, Ruins of. By Baron Von Hammer, xii. 261. 

Amu-Daria, or Oxus, The Delta and Mouths of the. By Adm. Boutakoff, of 

Russian Navy, xxxvii. 152. 
Notes on the Lower, and Lake Aral. By Major H. Wood. 

xlv. 367. See Oxus. 
Amu Derya (Oxus), Journey to the sources of ; with observations on 

R. Indus. By Lieut. Wood, i.n. x. 530. 

160 Asiatic Papers. 

Amur, Notes on the River and its surroundings. By MM. Peschurof, Permikin, 

&c. xxviii. 376. (Proceedings, "Vol. ii. 153 ; Vol. iii. 92.) 
Anatolia, N.E., Tour in. By W. G. Palgrave. (Proceedings, xvi. 223.) 
Andaman Islands, Narrative of an expedition to the, in 1857. By F. J. 

Mouat, m.d., f.b.g.s. xxxii. 109. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 41.) 
Angoba, Journey from (by Kaisariyah), to Bir or Birehjik. By W. Ainsworth. 

x. 275. 
Anti-Libanus, Notes of a Reconnaissance of the. By R. F. Bui'ton. xlii. 408. 
Antioch, on the Bay of, and the Ruins of Seleucia Pieria. By Lieut.-Col. 

Chesney, b.a. viii. 228. 
Ababia, Observations on the Coast of, between Ras Mohammed and Jiddah. 

By Lieut. R. Wellsted, i.n. vi. 51. 

Remarks on manners of the inhabitants of Southern Arabia, and on 

ancient and modern geography of that part, and on desert route from 
Kosir to Keneh. By Jas. Bird, Esq. iv. 192. 

Observations made in Central, Eastern, and Southern, during a journey 

in 1862 and 1863. By W. G. Palgrave. xxxiv. 111. 

South Coast of. Journey from Tower of Ba'-l-haff to Ruins of Nakab 

el Hajar. By Lieut. Wellsted, vii. 20. 

Visit to Jebel Shammar, New routes through Northern and Central. 

By W. S. Blunt, (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 81.) 

Memoir from the entrance of the Red Sea to Misenat, in 50° 43' 25" e. 

By Capt. Haines, i.n. ix. 125 ; xv. 104. 

Proceedings of brig " Palinurus " whilst examining Coast between Ras 

Morbat and Ras Seger, &c. By Commander J. P. Saunders, xvi. 169. 

Notes taken on a journey through a part of Northern Arabia. By 

Dr. Geo. A. Wallin. xx. 293. 

Interior of, by W. Gifford Palgrave. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 63.) 

Visit to Wahabee capital. By Col. Pelly. xxxv. 169. (Proceedings, 

Vol. ix. 293.) 

Account of a journey into interior of South. By W. Munzinger and 

Capt. Miles, xli. 210. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 319.) 

Southeen, Geography of. By Baron von Maltzan. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xvi. 115.) 

Abacan, Extracts from a Journal up the Koladyne River. By Capt. S. R. 
Tickell, Bengal Native Infantry, xxiv. 86. 

Hill trip on borders of, by Lieut. Lewin. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 52.) 

Abal, Survey of the Sea of. By Commander Alexis Butakoff, Imperial 

Russian Navy, xxiii. 93. 
Abaeat, Ascent of Mount, in 1856. By Major R. Stuart. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xxi. 77.) 
Abmenia and Asia Minoe, Journey through a part of, in 1835. By Jas. 

Brant, Consul at Erz-Rum. vi. 187. 

Notes of a tour, in 1851. By K. E. Abbott, xii. 207. 

Kuedistan, and Uppeb Mesopotamia, Journal of a tour in, with 

Notes of Researches in the Deyrsim Dagh, in 1866. By J. G. Taylor, 
xxxviii. 281. 

and Mount Abaeat. By James Bryce. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 169.) 

Abbacan, General remarks on Coast. Transmitted by Capt. Laws, b.n. 

i. 175. 
Ashtaeoth, On the Site of. By Capt. Newbold, h.e.i.m.s. xvi. 331. 

Asiatic Papers. 1C1 

Asia, On the Ethnography of High Asia. By Jas. Cowles Prichard, m.d., 

f.r.s. ix. 192. 
Asia Minor, Extracts from Notes made on a journey in 1836. By W. J. 

Hamilton, Esq. vii. 34. 

Notes of a journey in 1837. By W. J. Hamilton, Esq. viii. 137. 

Narrative of a survey of South Coast, and of a tour into Lycia* 

By R. Hoskyn. xii. 143. 

Remarks on Mr. Hoskyn's paper. By Col. W. Martin Leake. 

xii. 162. 

Proposed communication between Lake of Sabanja and Gulf of 

Nicomedia. By General Jochmus. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 301.) 
Azerbijan and the shores of the Caspian, Journal of a tour through. By 

Col. Monteith, e.i.c.8. iii. 1. 
Azov, Sea of, On geography of. By Capt. Sherard Osborn. (Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 305.) 

Badakshan. By Sir H. Rawlinson. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 108.) 
Baghdad, Notes on two journeys from, to the Ruins of Al-Hadhr, in Meso- 
potamia, in 1836 and 1837. By John Ross. ix. 443. 

Journal of a steam voyage to the North of, in 1846. By Lieut Felix * 

Jones, xviii. 1. 

Journey from, to Busrah. By Wm. K. Loftus. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 45.) 

to Busrah, Notes of journey, with descriptions of Chaldaean remains. 

By W. Kennett Loftus, Esq. xxvi. 131. 

Bakhtiyari Mountains, Ancient sites among the, with remarks on the rivers 

of Susiana and the site of Susa. By Professor Long. xii. 102. 
Extracts from a journal kept travelling through the country of 

the Mamaseni and Khogilu. By Baron C. A. de Bode. xiii. 75. 
Bangkok, Siam, Boat excursion from, to the Pechaburri, on Western Shore of 

Gulf of Siam. By Sir Robert Schomburgk. xxxi. 302. See Siam. 
Bamian, On mountain passes leading to valley of. By Lieut.-Gen. Kaye, c.b. 

(Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 244.) 
Bashan, Explorations in the Desert east of the Hauran, and in the ancient 

land of. By Cyril Graham, f.r.g.s., &c. xxviii. 226. 
Batum, Notes on an excursion from, to Artvin. By M. F. Guarracino. 

xv. 296. 
Beloochistan, On the subterranean supply of water in, and the hill districts 

of Western Sind. By J. W. Barns, xxxvii. 338. (See Persia.) 
Belors, The, and their country. By M. Veniukof. xxxvi. 265. 
Bhawdlpore State, Notes on Physical Geography of. By J. W. Barns. 

xlii. 390. 
Bore, or Rushing Tide in the Gulf of Cambay, On the. By Lieut. Ethersey, 

LH. viii. 196. 
Brahmaputra, or Tsanpu, Course of. By J. J. Cooper. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xiii. 392.) 
Bunder Marayah, On the neighbourhood of. By Capt. S. B. Miles, xlii. 61. 
Burma and its Tributary States, On the Geography of. By Capt. H. Yule. 

xxvii. 54. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 269.) 
Burma. Communication between China and. By Capt. Sprye. (Proceedings, 
VoL v. 45.) 

* In the headings of the paper the name is erroneously given /. T. Jones. 


162 Asiatic Papers. 

Burma. British and Western China, Trade routes between. By J. Coryton. 

xlv. 229. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 264.) 
Bushib to Shiraz, Notes on the routes from, &c. By Lieut.-Gen. Wm. Mon- 

teith. xxvii. 108. 
Bushire and Teheran, On the elevation of the country between. By Major 

St. John, xxxviii. 411. 
Bussora to Aleppo, Diary of a journey with Sir Eyre Coote. xxx. 198. 
Bustar Dependency in British India, On tbe Mardian Hills and tbe Lower 

Indravati in. By Capt. Holdich. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 372.) 

Cabul. (See Kabul.) 

Cambay, Tides in the Gulf of. By Capt. J. B. Jervis. viii. 202. 
Cambodia, Notes on the Antiquities, Natural History, &c, of. By Jas. 
Campbell, Surgeon, b.n. xxx. 182. 

A visit to the ruined cities and buildings of. By Dr. A. Bastian. 

xxxv. 74. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 85.) 

Travels in. By D. 0. King. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 365.) 

The Lao country, &c, Notes on. By M. Henri Mouhot. xxxii. 142. 

(Proceedings, Vol. vi. 80.) 

Southern Laos and. By H. G. Kennedy xxxvii. 298. 

Candahab. (See Kandahar.) 

Canton to Hankow, Sketch of the journey. By Albert S. Bickmore, m.a. 
xxxviii. 50. 

Boat journey to west of. By Lieut. Oliver. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 85.) 

Cashmere. (See Kashmir.) 

Caspian and Black Seas, Bemarks on Country between the. By Prof. 

Hermann Abich. xxi. 1. (See Black Sea.) 
Cathay, Notes on. By Col. Yule. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 270.) 
Caucasus, Journey in the, and ascent of Kasbek and Elbruz. By Douglas W. 

Freshfield. xxxix. 50. 
Central Asia, Note to Arrowsmith's Map of. xlv. 420. 

The watershed of. By Col. Gordon, xlvi. 381. 

. In 1872. By Mr. K. B. Shaw. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 395.) 

Ceylon, Papers concerning communication with India. Minute on the subject. 

By Governor of Madras, iv. 1. 
Chaab Arabs, Notes on. By Sir H. Eawlinson. xxvii. 185. (Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 351.) 
China, On Chinese and European Maps of. By Wm. Huttmann. xiv. 117. 

On the frontiers of, toward Birmah. By Dr. Gutzlaff. xix. 85. 

Report on Russian caravan trade with. By H. Parkes, Esq. xxiv. 306. 

S.W. Exploration to, by way of the Irawadi and Bhamo. By Major 

Sladen. xli. 257. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 343.) 

A journey outside the Great Wall of. By S. W. Bushell. xliv. 73. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 149.) 

Journey from Hankow to Ta-li-Fu. By A. R. Margary. xlvi. 172. 

Visit to the Valley of the Shueli, in Western Yunnan. By Ney Elias. 

xlvi. 198. 

Col. Sosnoffsky's expedition to, in 1874-75. xlvii. 150. 

Western, Travels in and on Eastern borders of Tibet. By Capt. Gill. 

xlviii. 57. (Proceodings, Vol. xxii. 255.) 

Asiatic Papers. 163 

China, South-Western, Approximate determination of positions in. By G. 0. 
Baber. xlix. 421. 

Memoir on East Coast of, Canton, &c. By Sir John Davis. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. i. 330.) 

Interior of. By A. S. Bickmore. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 51.) 

Journey from Hankow to Talifu. By Mr. Margary. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xx. 184.) 

Journey from Ningpo to Shanghai By C. J. Gardner. (Proceedings. 

Vol. xiii. 170.) 

Journey through Shantung. By J. Markham. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 


Travels in Western, and Eastern Tibet. By J. J. Cooper. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xiv. 335.) 

March across, from Chin Kiang to Bhamo. By J. McCarthy. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.)Vol. i. 489.) 

Journeys in the interior of. By G. J. Morrison. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. ii. 145.) 

Chinese geographical names, On the transliteration of. By F. P. Smith. 
(Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 580.) 

Taetaby, Notes on. By Capt. S. Osborn. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 162.) 

Chitbal, Munful Mir Munshi on (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 130) Havildar's 

journey through, xiii. 180. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 253.) 
Chusan, with a survey map of the Island. By Sir J. F. Davis, xxiii. 242. 
Cilician and Syeian Gates, Notes on the comparative geography of. By 

W. Ainsworth. viii. 185. 
Cochin. On its natural advantages as a place of trade. By F. C. Brown. 

iii. 268. 
Cochin -Chinese Empire, Geography of the. By Dr. Gutzlaff. xix. 85. ' 
Constantinople to Mosul, Notes taken on the journey in 1839-40. By W. 

Ainsworth. x. 489. 
Coobg, Effects of Forest Destruction in. By Geo. Bidie, m. b., &c. xxxix. 77. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 74.) 
Coeea, On the. By Capt. Allen Young. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 296.) 
Cossyahs, Account of the, and of their convalescent Depot. By Lieut. 

Murphy, b.e. ii. 93. 
Curia Mubia Isles, near the South-Eastern Coast of Arabia, Account of the. 

By late Dr. Hulton, i.n. xi. 156. 

By Dr. Buist. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 50.) 

Cutch, Runn of. By Sir H. Bartle Frere. xl. 181. (Proceedings, Vol. 
xiv. 120.) 

Daghestan, in the Caucasus. By Baron de Bode. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 91.) 
Damascus, Hauean, and the Lebanon Mountains. Memoir on Rev. J. L. 
Porter's map of. xxvi. 43. 

The volcanic region East of, Notes on the exploration of. By Capt. 

R. F. Burton, xiii. 49. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 104.) 

Dead Sea, An account of the levelling from the Mediterranean to the. By 

Col. Sir H. James, xxxvi. 201. 
and Jobdan Valley, On the depression of the. By Dr. Edward 

Robinson, xviii. 77. 
Explanation of sudden and violent drainage on sides of the basin 

of the. By Captain W. Allen, b.n. xxiii. 163. 

M 2 

164 Asiatic Papers. 

Dead Sea, and part of Syria, On the. vii. 456. 

Exploration by Henry Poole. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 221.) 

Demavend, Mount near Tehran, An account of the ascent of, in 1837. By 
W. T. Thomson, viii. 109. 

Ascent by T. Thomson and Lord S. Kerr. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 2.) 
Ascent by Watson. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 103.) 
Diarbekr, Description of. By R. J. Garden, xxxvii. 182. (Proceedings, 
Vol. xi. 159.) 

Route from Erzeroum to. By J. G. Taylor. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 302.) 

Djungaria and the Celestial Mountains. By M. P. P. Semenof. 

xxxv. 213. 

Eastern Turkistan. Account of an exploring expedition from Fort Vernoye 

to West Shore of Issik-Kul Lake. By P. Semenoff. Translated by 

E. Delmar Morgan, xxxix. 311. 
Ecbatana Atropatenian, Memoir on the site of. By Major Rawlinson. 

x. 65. 
El Balad, the Ruins of. By H. J. Carter, xvi. 187. 

Erzerum, Earthquake of. June 1859. By Robert A. 0. Dalyell. xxxiii. 234. 
Erz-Rum to Trebizond, Notes on a journey in October, 1838. By Henry 

Suter. x. 434. 

Notes on a journey from, to Aleppo in June, 1838. By Viscount 

Pollington. x. 445. 

Euljeus of the Greek Historians, On the determination of the River. By 
Wm. Kennett Loftus. xxvii. 120. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 219.) See 

Euphrates, Report on the navigation of the. By Col. Chesney, r.a. 

Expedition, Statement of labours and proceedings of, under Col. 

Chesney. vii. 411. 

Everest, Mount. Papers relating to. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 345 ; Vol. ii. 102.) 

Faizabad, A Havildar's journey through Chitral to, in 1870. By Major 
T. G. Montgomerie. xlii. 180. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 253.) 

Ferghana. (See Pamir.) 

Formosa, Observations on coal in the n.e. of the Island. By Lieut. Gordon, 
r.n. xix. 22. 

Notes on the Island of. By R. Swinhoe. xxxiv. 6. (Proceedings, 

Vol. viii. 23.) 

Southern, Notes of a journey in. By J. Thomson, xliii. 97. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xvii. 144.) 

Journey through. By H. J. Allen. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 258.) 

■ Trip into interior of. By T. L. Bullock. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 266.) 

By A. Corner. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 515.) 

Rivers in Northern. By G. H. Kopsch. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 79.) 

Ganges and Hoogly, Communication between the. By J. H. Johnson, 

r.n. ii. 316. 
Gaeo Hills, On the. By God win- Austen, xliii. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xvii. 36.) 
Ghats of India, On the effects of the destruction of forests in the, on the 

Water Supply. By C. R. Markham. xxxvi. 180. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 


Asiatic Papers. . 165 

Ghilan, Province of, in Persia, Mr. Abbott on. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 390.) 
Gilgit and Yassin, Letters from Mr. Haywood on exploration of. xli. 1. 

and Chitral, Munful Mir Munshi on. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 130.) 

Gobi, Buried Cities in the Desert of. By Sir D. Forsyth, xlvii. 1. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxi. 27.) 

Great Tibet, Travels in, and trade between, and Bengal. By C. E. Mark- 
ham, xlv. 299. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 327.) 

Exploration of the Namcho. By Col. T. G. Montgomerie. xlv. 315. 

Memorandum on the results of the exploration. By Col. T. G. Mont- 
gomerie. xlv. 325. 

Hadramaut, Excursion in. By A. Baron von Wrede. xiv. 107. 

Hankow. (See China.) 

Haran, in Padan Aram, Notes on an excursion to, and thence to Shechem. 

By C. T. Beke. xxxii. 76. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 195.) 
Hauran, On. By C. Graham. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 173.) 

On. By F. A. Eaton. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 29.) 

Helmtjnd, The basin of. By C. B. Markham. (Proceedings (N.S.) i. 191.) 
Heraclea, from Constantinople by, to Angora, Notes of a journey, in 1838. 

By Wm. Ainsworth, Esq. ix. 216. 
Hermon, The, and the physical features of Syria and Northern Palestine. By 

John Wortabet, m.d. xxxii. 100. 
Himalayan Valleys. Kulu, Lahul, and Spiti. By A. F. P. Harcourt. xli. 245. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xv. 336.) 
Himalaya, Papers relating to the. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 345.) 
Himma-leh Mountains, Journey through the, to the sources of the Jumna, 

and thence to confines of Chinese Tartary, in 1827. By Capt. C. Johnson. 

iv. 41. 
and Valley of Cashmir, Notice of a visit to, in 1835. By Baron Charles 

Hiigel. vi. 343. 
Himyaritio Alphabet, The, and inscriptions, xi. 118. 
Hong-Kong, Note on the Island of. By A. R. Johnston, Esq. xiv. 112. 

Ili, Valley of the. By Ashton Dilke. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 246.) (See 

Ilchi. (See Khotan.) 
Iliyats, or wandering tribes of Persia, some account of. By Jas. Morier, 

Esq. vii. 230. 
India and China, On Communication between, by the Burhampooter and 

Yang-tsze. By Gen. Sir Arthur Cotton, r.e. xxxvii. 231. 

By Dr. McCosh. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 47.) 

India, Descriptive papers of the countries on the North West frontier of. 

By Lieut. Burnes. iv. 88. 
On the maritime communications of, as carried on by natives. By 

Lieut. Burnes. vi. 23. 
Observations on the ancient intercourse with, suggested by remarks 

of Lieut. Burnes. By Lieut Dickinson, vi. 113. 

On the progress and present state of survey in. By Capt. Thos. Best 

Jervis. vii. 127. 

Routes in the Nizam's territory ; from the journals of Capt. J. R. 

Wilson, xiii. 118. 

166 Asiatic Papers. 

India, Overland telegraph route to. By Sir H. Rawlinson. (Proceedings, 

Vol. v. 219.) 
— — Destruction of forests, and effect on water supply. By C. R. Markham. 

xxxvi. 180. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 266.) 

Effects of forest destruction in Coorg. By Dr. Bidie. xxxix. 77. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 74.) 

Geography and climate as regards site for a capital. Sir G. Campbell. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xi. 54.) 

River communication between China and. Sir A. Cotton, xxxvii. 231. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xi. 255.) 

On the Highland Region adjacent to the Trans-Indus frontier of. By 

Major James Walker, xxxii. 303. 

Indian Surveys for the year 1878-9. (Proceedings (N.S.) vol. ii. 422.) 

Seapobts. Duncan Macpherson. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 95.) 

Indbavati RrvEB. (See Bustab.) 

Indus Riveb, Notes on the lower portion of the. By Col. W. Tremenheere. 

xxxvii. 68. (Proceedings, Vol, xi. 22.) 
Substance of a geographical memoir on the. By Lieut. A Burnes. 

iii. 113. 
Memoir to accompany the survey of the Delta of the, in 1837. 

By Lieut. T. G. Carless, i. n. viii. 328. 

On the construction of the map of the. By Lieut. A. Burnes. iii. 287. 

Ibawady, The, and its sources. By Dr. J. Anderson, xl. 286. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xiv. 346. T. T. Cooper on. (Proceedings, VoL xiii. 392.) 
Issyk-kul Expedition, Brief sketch of results of the. By Capt. A. Golubef. 

xxxi. 366. 
. , Notes on the Lake of, and the River Koshkar. By W. Veniukof. 

xxxii. 560. 
Expedition to. By P. Semenoff. xxxix. 311. 

Japan, Narrative of a journey in the interior of; ascent of Fusiyama, and 
visit to sulphur-baths at Atami in 1860. By Sir Rutherford Alcock, 
C.B., F.B.G.S. xxxi. 321. 

Journey in Island of Yezo in 1873 ; and on Progress of geography in 

Japan. By R. G. Watson, xliv. 132. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 226.) 

Narrative of a journey through the interior of, from Nagazaki to Yeddo 

in 1861. By Sir R. Alcock. xxxii. 280. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 196.) 

Report on the silk districts of. By Mr. F. O. Adams, xl. 339. 

Island of Tsusima near. L. Oliphant. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 61.) 

Extract of a letter from Commander Mathison of H.M.S. Mariner in 

1849. xx. 136. 

A tour through parts of the Provinces of Echigo, Echiu, Kaga, and 

Noto. By J. Troup. 1871. xiii. 425. 

Journey from Kioto to Yeddo. By C. W. Lawrence, xliii. 54. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xvii. 80.) 

Ascent of Fuji-Yama. By. J. H. Gubbins. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 78.) 

— — Ascent of Fuji-Yama in the snow. By A. J. Jeffreys. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xix. 169. 

Ascent of Fusi-Yama. By Sir R. Alcock. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 132.) 

■ Island of Yesso. Pemberton Hodgson. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 113.) 

Asiatic Papers. 167 

Jaxabtes or Syr Dabia, The, from Russian sources. By Robert MichelL. 

xxxviii. 429. 
Jerusalem, by Hebron, the Dead Sea, &c, to 'Akabah, Note of journey 

from, and back by Petra, in 1838. By Count de Berton. ix. 277. 

Terra Santa, Mount Sinai, and Egypt, Account of a pilgrimage to. By 

Bernard de Breitenbach, Dean of Mentz. ix. 311. 

via. Mount Sinai, narrative of a journey from Cairo to. By the late 

Dr. Geo. A. Wallin. xxv. 260. 

Jordan, On the fall of the, &c. By Mr. Augustus Petermann. xviii. 89. 

Expedition to the, and the Dead Sea. By Lieut. Molyneux, R.H. 

xviii. 104. 

Kabul to Kashgar. Major Montgomerie's account of the Mirza's journey 
xli. 132. 

River. On the Upper Basin of the. By C. R. Markham. (Proceedinga 

(N.S.) Vol. i. 110.) 

- Route through. By G. J. Vigne. ix. 512. 

Kach'hi Gandava, Routes through, and account of tribes, xiv. 193. 

Kaisariyah, Notes of a journey from, to Bir, in 1839. By W. Ainsworth, 
Esq. x. 311. 

Kalgan, Trip to. By R. Swinhoe. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 83.) 

Kamschatka, Note on a new map of. Letter from Prof. Adolph Erman. 
ix. 508. 

Kandahar, The highway from the Indus to. By Sir R. Temple. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 529.) 

Notes on the country between, and Girishk. By Capt. R. Beavan. 

(Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 548.) 

and India, Routes between. By Gen. Sir M. Biddulph. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. ii. 212.) 

Karakorum Pass, successful journey to the. By Thomas Thomson, m.d. 
xix. 29. 

Karategin, Principality of. By Gen. Abramof. xli. 338. 

Karen-ni, A tour to, to open a trading-road to the Shan traders. By Edward 
O'Riley, Esq. xxxii. 164. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 83.) 

Karun and Dizful Rivers and the Ab-i-gargar Canal to Shuster. By 
Lieut. W. B. Selby, i.n. xiv. 219. 

Kashgar, Geographical results of Mission to, under Sir T. D. Forsyth. By 
Capt. H. Trotter, xlviii. 173. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 287.) 

Remarks on Sir D. Forsyth's mission to. By Sir H. Rawlinson. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xviii. 414.) 

Journey of Mr. Hay ward to. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 40.) 

Report on the Mirza's journey from Kabul to. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 181.) 

— — A Prince of, on the geography of Turkistan. R. B. Shaw. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xx. 482.) 

Kashmir, Notes on the vallay of. By Capt. H. H. Godwin- Austen, xxxi. 30. 

Route through. By G. J. Vigne. ix. 512. 

Natural productions and agriculture of. From MS. of Wm. Moorcroft. 

ii. 253. 

- On the survey and physical configuration of the Valley of. By Wm. 
Purdon. xxxi. 14. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 30.) (See Cashmih.) 

168 Asiatic Papers. 

Khiva. By Sir H. Rawlinson. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 162.) 

Khobasan, Northern, notes on a portion of. By Jas. Baillie Fraser. viii. 308. 

Routes in, during 1831 and 1832. By Sarg. Gibbons, xi. 136. 

Route from Turbat Haideri to the river Heri-Rud on the borders of 

Sistan. Extracted from Dr. Forbes' Journal, xiv. 145. 

— — Diary of a tour in, and notes on the Eastern Alburz tract. By Capt. 
Napier, xlvi. 62. 

Notes on the Yomut Tribe. By Kazi Syud Ahmad, xlvi. 142. 

Tables of routes in the Eastern Alburz tract, xlvi. 145. 

Khotan, Report on journey to Ilchi, capital of. By W. H. Johnson. 

xxxvii. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 6.) 

Journey to, of the Brothers Schlagintweit. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 273.) 

Khczist an, Description of the province of. By A. H. Layard, Esq. xvi. 1. 
Kiachta, Route from Tientsin to. By W. A. Whyte. (Proceedings, xiv. 

Kibman, Jebal, and Khobasan, Routes in, during 1831 and 1832. By 

Sarg. Gibbons, xi. 136. 
Kokand, A journey to, in 1873. By E. Schuyler. (Proceedings, VoL xviii. 

Kobea. (See Cobea.) 

Kbaw, Isthmus of. Route across. By Capts. Fraser and Furlong. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. vii. 58.) 
Kos and Symi, Notice of the Gulfs of. By Lieuts. Graves and Brock, b.n. 

viii. 428. 
in Anatolia, Notice of the gulfs of. By Lieut. Saumarez Brock, 

b.n. ix. 507. 
Kuldja. By Major F. C. H. Clarke. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 489.) 

By Ash ton Dilke. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 246.) 

By Delmar Morgan. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. iii. 150.) 

Kumaon and Gabhwal, in the Himalaya Mountains, On the physical 
geography of, and of the adjoining parts of Tibet. By Capt. Strachey. 
xxi. 57. 

Kumaon, Altitude of places in. By Capt. W. S. Webb. iv. 376. 

Kubdistan, Notes of a journey through, in 1838. By Jas. Brant, x. 341. 

Travels in, with notices of Eastern and Western Tigris and ancient 

ruins. By J. G. Taylor, xxxv. 21. (See Abmenia.) 

Visit to the Chaldeans of Central, and ascent of Peak of Rowandiz. 

By Wm. Ainsworth. xi. 21. 

Kubia Mubia Isles. (See Cubia Mubia.) 

Ktjbbam Valley, Survey operations in. By Capt. Gerald Martin. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 617.) 

" Kuweik Riveb," The, an aqueduct. By D. J. Macgowan. xxxii. 74. 

Ladakh, Notes on the Pangong Lake district of, made during survey in 1863. 

By Godwin Austen, xxxvii. 343. 
Lakebadeevh Abchipelago, Extract from Lieut. Wood's private journal of 

the. vi. 29. 
Laos, On the Country of the free. By Dr. Gutzlaff. xix. 33. 

Southebn, and Cambodia. By H. D. Kennedy, xxxvii. 298. 

Leh to Yabkand and Kashgab, Journey from, and exploration of the 

sources of the Yarkand. By G. W. Hay ward. xl. 33. 

Asiatic Papers. 169 

Lhasa, Nepal to. Route surveys. By Col. Montgomerie. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xii. 146.) 
Lingah, Kishm, and Bundee Abbass, Visit to. By Lieut.-Col. Lewis Pelly. 

xxxiv. 251. 
Lob Nob, On position of. R. B. Shaw. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 242.) 
Lushai Expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 42.) 
Lycus, in Kurdistan, Sources and course of. By J. E. Taylor. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xi. 97.) 

Maghian, Notes on M. Fedchenko's Map of. By R. Michell. xliii. 263. 

Mahanuddy, On the basin of the river. A geographical abstract of a report 
by Mr. R. Temple, xxxv. 70. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 81.) 

Malay States, Geography of Perak and Salangore. By W. B. D' Almeida. 
xlvi. 357. 

Maldiva Islands, Some geographical remarks on, and the navigable channels 
between the Atolls. By J. Horsburgh. ii. 72. 

On the. By Capt. Owen, b.n. ii. 81. 

Mabdian Hills. (See Bustab.) 

Manchubia, Notes on. By Rev. A. Williamson, b.a. xxxix. 1. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xiii. 26.) 

Palladius's Journey through. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 204.) 

Notes on the Russian harbours on the coast of. By Rev. W. V. 

Lloyd, b.n. xxxvii. 212. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 253.) 

— — An expedition through, from Pekin to Blagovestchensk. By Palladius. 

xlii. 142. 
Mangi, Notes on Southern. By Geo. Phillips, xliv. 97. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xviii. 168.) 
Mazandeban, Memoranda to accompany part of a sketch of, &c, in April, 

1836. By Major E. D'Arcy Todd. viii. 101. 
Medina and Mecca, Journey from Cairo via Suez, &c, to, in 1845. By 

Dr. G. A. Wallin. xxiv. 115. 
— — — — Journey to, with route from Yambu. By Lieut. Burton. 

xxiv. 208. 

- Journey from, to Mecca, down the Darb-el-sharki, or Eastern 

Road, in Sept. 1853. By Lieut. Burton, xxv. 121. 

Mekban, Mission into, for political and survey purposes, in Dec. 1861. By 
Major Goldsmid. xxxiii. 181. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 91.) 

Coast, Journey from Gwadur to Karachi. By Capt. S. B. Miles. 

xliv. 163. 

Route from Jask to Bampur. By E. A. Floyer. xlvii. 188. 

Journey through. By Major E. C. Ross. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 139 

and 219.) 

Mebv, The road to. By Sir H. Rawlinson. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. 

i. 161.) 
Mesopotamia, On part of, contained between Sheriat-el-Beytha, on the Tigris, 

and Tel Ibrahim. By Lieut. Bewsher. xxxvii. 160. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xi. 155.) 

Notes of an excursion to Ealah Sherkat, the Ur of the Persians, and to 

the Ruins of Al Hadhr. By Wm. Ainsworth. xi. 1. 

A journey from Baghdad to the ruins of Opis and the Median wall. 

By John Ross, m.d. xi. 121. 

170 Asiatic Papers. 

Midian, Memoir explaining the new map of, made by the Egyptian Staff- 
officers. By R. F. Burton, xlix. I. 

Minicoy, Account of Island of. By Capt. J. Basevi. xlii. 368. 

Minoa and Nis-aiA, Kemarks on the supposed situation of. By Mr. T. Spratt, 
e.n. viii. 205. 

Mohamrah, and the vicinity, Notes on the ancient geography of. By Col. 
Sir H. Rawlinson. xxvii. 185. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 351.) 

Mokha to Sana, Narrative of journey from, in July and August 1836. By 
Mr. Chas. Cruttenden, i.n. viii. 267. 

Mongolia, Western, A journey through. By Ney Elias. xliii. 108. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xvii. 184.) 

■ Route by, from Peking to St. Petersburg. By C. M. Grant, xxxiii. 167. 
(Proceedings, Vol. vii. 27.) 

North-Western, Pevtsofs Expedition in. By E. D. Morgan. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 701.) 

Mosul, Notes taken on a journey to, from Constantinople, in 1839 and 1840. 
By Ainsworth. x. 489. 

Moukden, Manchuria, Narrative of journey from Tientsin to, in July 1861. 
By A. Michie, Esq. xxxiii. 153. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 25.) 

Mustakh Range, On the glaciers of the. By Capt. Godwin-Austen, f.r.g.b. 
xxxiv. 19. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 34.) 

Nagasaki to Yeddo. Journey of Sir R. Alcock. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 

196, 200.) 
Nepal to Lhasa, thence to the source of the Brahmaputra. Report of a 

route-survey made by the Pundit. By Capt. G. T. Montgomerie, R.E. 

xxxviii. 129. 
Nepaul, On the Northern frontier of, from a member of the Nepaulese 

Embassy in London, xx. 252. 
Nor-Zaisan, The (Lake), and its vicinity. By GenL Abramof. xxxv. 58. 

Oman, Narrative of a journey into the interior of, in 1835. By Lieut. Well- 

sted, vii. 102. 
Orenburgh, orographical survey of the country, from the Russian MSS. of 

M. J. Khanikoff. xiii. 278. 
Orontes, River (in Syria), Notes made on a journey to the sources of the. 

By W. Burckhardt Barker, Esq. vii. 95. 
Oxus, Lower, The old channels of. By E. D. Morgan, xlviii. 301. 
Oxus, Papers connected with the Upper. By Colonel H. Yule. xlii. 438. 
Monograph on. By Sir Henry Rawlinson. xlii. 482. 

Mouths of. By Adml. Boutakoff. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 113.) (See Amu 


Palestine, &c, Extracts from a journey of travels in, in 1838, undertaken 
for the illustration of Biblical Geography. By Rev. E. Robinson, ix. 

- Notes on its physical geography, extracted from the letters of Col. von 
Wildenbruch. xx. 227. 

Note on. By Mr. A. Petermann. xx. 232. 

Outlines of a journey in, in 1852. By Dr. E. Robinson, E. Smith, &c. 

xxiv. 1. 

Asiatic Papers. 171 

Palestine. Report of a journey in. By Mr. Henry Poole, xxvi. 55. 

Eecent surveys. By Major Wilson. (Proceedings, xvii. 326.) 

Pamir, The, and the sources of the Amu-Daria. By M. Veniukof. xxxvi. 


Russian expedition to the Alai and. By R. Michell. xlvii. 17. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 122.) 

M. Severtsof s journey in Ferghana and the. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 

— — Pamir Region. By Sir Henry Rawlinson. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 134.) 
Pangong Lake. By Capt. Godwin- Austen. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 32.) 
Patkoi Range, Notes of a trip across. By H. L. Jenkins, xli. 342. 
Pecheli Gulf, and the Peiho. By Sherard Oshorn. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 55.) 
Peking, journey from, to St; Petersburg, across the Desert of Gobi. By 

C. M. Grant, xxxiii. 167. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 27.) 

Notes of a journey in the N.W. neighbourhood of. By Jones Lamprey, 

Esq., M.B., 67th Regt., f.b.g.s. xxxvii. 239. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 

Notes on, and its neighbourhood. By W. Lockhart, Esq. xxxvi. 128. 

(Proceedings, Vol. x. 154.) 

Pebbia, Khobassan and Afghanistan, Notes in. By Capt. Claude Clerk, 

F.B.G.S. xxxi. 37. 
Notes. Shahrud to Astrabad. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 193.) 

Notes on Eastern and Western Beluchistan. By Col. F. J. Golds- 
mid, c.b., f.b.g.s. xxxvii. 269. (Proceedings, xvii. 86.) 

■» ■■ Geographical notes taken during a journey in, in 1849 and 1850. By 
Keith E. Abbott, h.b.m. xxv. 1. 

Southebn, Observations on geography of. By Sir Henry Rawlinson. 

(Proceedings, Vol. i. 280.) 

Pebsian Gulf. Notes made on a survey along the eastern shores, in 1828. 

By Lieut. Kempthorne, e.i.c. Marine, v. 263. 

Concerning the pearl fisheries in the. By Col. D. Wilson, iii. 283. 

— — As an area of trade. By Coh L. Pelly. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 

Descriptive sketch of the Islands and Coasts at the entrance. 

By Lieut. Whitelock, I.N. viii. 170. 
Pebsian Tbavel, Notes on recent. By Major-Gen. F. Goldsmid. xliv. 183. 
Pebso-Kelat frontier, Survey of. By Major B. Lovett. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xvi. 219.) 
Peteb-Botte Mt. (Mauritius), account of the ascent of, Sept. 7th, 1832. 

By Lieut. Taylor, b.a. iii. 99. 
Petba, Extract from Baron Roller's Itinerary of his tour to, describing an 

overland route from Mount Sinai to Akabah. xii. 75. 
Pishin Vallev. By Gen. Sir M. A. Biddulph. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. 

ii. 212.) 
Punjab, Kabul, Kashmib and Little Thibet, Boute through, in 1834-38. 

By G. T. Vigne. ix. 512. 

Rageby Hills, Madbas, Account of the. By Col. Monteith. v. 404. 
Red Sea, On the physical geography of the. By Dr. Buist, of Bombay, 
f.b.g.8. xxiv. ^27. 

172 Asiatic Papers. 

Ruad, On the Island of, North Syria. By Capt. W. Allen, r.n., f.r.g.8. 

xxiii. 154. 
Runn of Cotch, Notes on the, and neighbouring region. By Sir Bartle 

Frere, k.c.b. xl. 181. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 120.) 

Saghalin, On the Island of. By Col. Veniukof. xlii. 373. 

Samarkand. Notes on ruins of. By Fedchenko. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 392.) 

Sedasheghub and seaports of India. By Duncan Macpherson. (Proceedings, 

Vol. vii. 95.) 
Seleucia, in Piebia, the ancient harbour of. By Capt. W. AlleD, b.n., 

f.b.s., f.b.g.s. xxiii. 157. 
Semipalatinsk. By N. Abramof, member of the Imperial Russian Geogra- 
phical Society, xxxii. 555. 
Shan States, Journey to. By C. O'Reily. xxxii. 164. (Proceedings, Vol. 

vi. 83.) 
Shantung, Notes on a journey through. By J. Markham, H.M. Consul at 

Chefoo. xl. 207. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 137.) 
Shibaz to Bam, Surveys on the road from. By Major B. Lovett. xlii. 202. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 261.) 
Shibaz to Fezza and Dabbab, thence westward to Kazerun, Notes taken on 

a journey from, in 1850. By Consul Keith E. Abbott, xxvii. 149. 
Siam, Extracts from the ' Journal of a Residence in, and voyage along coast 

of China to Mantchou, 1832.' By Rev. Chas. Gutzlaff. iii. 291. 

Trade of. Journey from Bangkok to Pecha-buri. By Sir R. Schom- 

burgk. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 211.) 

Through, to Moulmein. By Sir R. Schomburgk. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 

118.) See Bangkok. 

Geographical notes on, with new map of the lower part of the Menam 

River. By Harry Parkes, Esq., f.b.g.s. xxvi. 71. 

Geographical Notes on. By H. Parkes. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 13.) 

and Cambodia, travels in. By D. 0. King, Esq. xxx. 177. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. iii. 365.) 

Sibebia, Northern, narrative of M. Middendorfs journey in. Communicated 

by Admiral von Krusenstern. xiv. 247. 
Sinai, Notes on the map of the Peninsula of. By Rev. F. W. Holland. 

xxxix. 342. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 158 ; xii. 190.) 

On the Peninsula of. By Rev. F. W. Holland, xxxviii. 237. (Pro- 
ceedings, xiii. 204.) 

and Palestine, Recent surveys in. By Major C. W. Wilson, xliii. 206. 

Sind. By Capt. A. Burnes, vii. 11. 

Singaptje, Journal of an excursion from, to Malacca and Pinang. By J. R. 

Lagan, xvi. 304. 
Sinjab Hills, a visit to the, in 1838, with some account of the sect of 

Yezidis, &c. By F. Forbes, Esq., m.a. ix. 409. 
Sistan, Journey from Bandar Abbas to Mash-had, via. By F. J. Goldsmid. 

xliii. 65. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 86.) 

Visit to the Kuh-i-Khwajah. By Major B. Lovett. xliv. 145. 

Notes on. By Sir H. Rawlinson. xliii. 272. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xvii. 92.) 

Socotba, Memoir on the island of. By Lieut. J. R. Wellsted, e.i.c. Marine. 
v. 129. 

Asiatic Papers. 173 

Southern Laos and Cambodia, Notes of an expedition to, in 1866. By 

H. G. Kennedy, xxxvii. 298. 
Susa, On the site of. By George Long. iii. 257. See Eul^us River. 
Symi, Sketch of the island and gulf of, on the S.W. coast of Anatolia, in 1837. 

By Jas. Brooke, viii. 129. 
Syria, On parts of, and Dead Sea. vii. 456. 

Tabriz, Itinerary from, to Tehran, in 1837. By Major E. D'Arcy Todd. viii. 29. 

Notes of a journey from, through Kurdistan, to Suleimaniyeh in 1836. 

By Lieut.-Col. J. Shiel. viii. 54. 

Notes of a journey from, through Persian Kurdistan to the ruins of 

Takhti-Soleiman, thence to Gflan in 1838 ; with memoir on site of 
Atropatenian Ecbatana. By H. C. Rawlinson. x. 1. 

Tadum, Journey from Kumaon to, and back along the Kali Gandak to 

British Territory. By Major T. G. Montgomerie. xlv. 350. 
Tal — Cho'tia'li Field Force, Account of the country traversed by the second 

column of the. By Lieut. R. C. Temple, xlix. 190. 
Talifu. See China. 
Tanghi Daria, a branch of the Jaxartes. On the desiccation of. By M. 

Khanikoff. xiv. 333. 
Tavtum, Observations on the position of. By W. J. Hamilton, Esq. vii. 74. 
Tehama, Notes on a collection of plants from the. By John Lindley, f.r.s. 

v. 296. 
Tehran to Alamut and Khurrem-Abad, Itinerary from, in May 1837. 

By Lieut.-Col. Justin Shiel. viii. 430. 
Theches, Mount (of Xenophon), Identification of the. By M. P. Rorit. 

xl. 463. 
Thibet. See Tibet. 
Tian-Shan Celestial Range, A journey to the western portion of the, from 

western limits of the Trans-Hi Region to Tashkend. By N. Severtsof. 

xL 343. 

First ascent of the, and visit to upper course of the Jaxartes or Syr- 

Daria, in 1857. By P. P. Semenof. xxxi. 356. 

Tibet and See an. By Dr. Chas. Gutzlaff. xx. 191. 

Physical Geography of Western. By Capt. Henry Strachey, Bengal 

Army, xxiii. 1. 

Journey to Shigatze. By T. G. Montgomerie. xlv. 330. 

A fourth Excursion to the passes into Tibet by the Donkiah Lah. 

By Dr. J. D. Hooker, xx. 49. 

Visit to Daba in. By Capt. Bennet. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 165.) 

Great, Travels in, and trade with Bengal. By C. R. Markham. 

xlv. 299. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 327.) 

Account of the Pundit's journey in. By Capt. H. Trotter. 

xlvii. 86. 

Western. Exploration by Parties of the Indian Survey. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. i. 444.) 

The Pundit's journey from Leh to Lhasa and return to India via 

Assam. By Capt. H. Trotter. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 325.) 

Attempt of Native Envoy to reach Missionaries in. By Capt. Gregory. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 214.) See Great Tibet. 

T. T. Cooper on. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 392.) 

174 Asiatic Papers. 

Tigris, Note accompanying a survey of the, between Ctesiphon and Mosul. 
By Lieut. H. Blosse Lynch, i.n. ix. 441. 

Note on a part of the, between Baghdad and Samarrah. By Lieut. 

H. B. Lynch, i.n. ix. 471. 

Sources of. By J. G. Taylor. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 36.) 

Trans-Himalayan Explorations, Eeport of the, during 1867. By Capt. 

T. G. Montgomerie, r.e. xxxix. 146. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 183; 
xiv. 207.) 

Trans-Indus Frontier of British India, Notes on the highland region 
adjacent to the. By Major James "Walker, xxxii. 303. 

Trans-Indus Territories, etc. Notes on the Flora of the country passed 
through by Brigadier-Gen. Chamberlain's force in 1860. By Dr. J. L. 
Stuart, xxxii. 316. 

Trans-Naryn Country, Expedition to, in 1867. By Baron P. E. Osten- 
Sacken. xl. 250. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 221.) 

Travancore, On the inland navigation of; an account of the Alipee Mud- 
bank and the Wurkallay Barrier. By C. B. Markham, f.s.a. xxxvi. 195. 
(Proceedings, Vol. xi. 78.) 

Troy, Observations on the Topography of. By Dr. P. W. Forchhammer. 
xii. 28. 

Tsai-san Lake. By General Abramof. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 40.) 

Tsusima, Japan, A visit to the Island of. By Laurence Oliphant, f.r.g.s. 
xxxiii. 178. 

Turcoman frontier of Persia. Capt. the Hon. G. Napier's Journey. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xx. 166.) 

Turkistan. Progress of Russian exploration. By E. D. Morgan. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xiv. 229.) 

Astronomical Points fixed by Struve in, from 1865 to 1868. xxxix. 338. 

Eastern, A Prince of Kashgar on the geography of. By B. B. Shaw. 

xlvi. 277. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 482 ; xvii. 195.) 
■ Account of an Expedition to west shore of Issikul Lake. By P. 

Semenoff. xxxix. 311. 
Trade between, and India. By Sir Henry Eawlinson. (Proceedings, 

xiii. 10.) 

Transit of tea from N.W. India to. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 198.) 

Turkomania, Col. Stebnitzky's Report on his journey, in 1872, in Central 

and Southern, xliv. 217. 
Tyre, Extract from a notice on the site of Ancient. By Count de Berton. 

ix. 286. 

Ural Mountains, Observations on the, to accompany a new map of the 
southern portion of that chain. By Sir E. I. Murchison. xiii. 269. 

Extract from the reports of M. Hoffman, Chief of an expedition 

to the North Ural. xix. 31. 

Uxian City, besieged by Alexander the Great; on its probable site. By 
the Baron C. A. de Bode. xiii. 108. 

Wadi-el-Araba, On the Watershed of. By Capt. W". Allen, r.n. xxiii. 166. 
"Wakhan. By Sir H. Eawlinson. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 108.) 

Yang-tsze-Kiang, Notes on the, &c. By Dr. Alfred Barton, f.h.g.s. 
xxxii. 26. 

Asiatic Papers. 175 

Yang-tsze-Kiang, Notes on the, from Han-kow to Pingshau. By Lieut-Col. 
H. A. Sarel. xxxii. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 2.) 

Special mission up the. By K. Swinhoe. xl. 268. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xiv. 235.) 

On the. By the Bight Hon. Lord Colchester and Capt. Collinson, e.n. 

xvii. 130. 

On the inundations of the. By E. L. Oxenham. xlv. 170. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xix. 244. 

Yangtsze-kiang, the, and the Hwang-Ho or Yellow Biver. By Wm. 
Lockhart. xxviii. 288. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 201.) 

or Takiang, from Wusung to Hankow, Notes of a voyage up. By 

Laurence Oliphant, Esq. f.b.g.s. With Chart of the river by Capt. 
Sherard Osborn, e.n. xxx. 75. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 162.) 

Yangtse-keang, Ascent of the. By William Blackney, e.n. xxx. 93. 
Yaekand, On the geographical' position of, and other places in Central Asia. 
By Capt. T. G. Montgomerie, e.e. xxxvi. 157. 

Visit to, and Kashgar. By B. B. Shaw. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 124.) 

Mr. Shaw's observation for longitude. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 180.) 

Ibrahim Khan. Boute from Kashmir to. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 387.) 

Besults of observations taken during expedition to. By Mr. Shaw. 

xli. 373. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 162.) 

Boute of Mahomed Amir from Jelalabad to. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 122.) 

Journey of Mr. Hayward to Kashgar and. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 41.) 

Yellow Biveb, Notes of a journey to the new course of the, in 1868. By 

Ney Elias, Esq., f.e.g.8. xl. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 20.) 
Yemen, Notes of a journey in. By C. Millingen. xliv. 118. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xviii. 194.) 
Yenisei, Visit to the Valley of. By H. Seebohm. xlviii. 1. (Proceedings, 

xxii. 101.) 
Yesso, Japan, The western shores of Volcano Bay. By Comm. Forbes, e.n. 

xxxvi. 173. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 169.) 

A journey in. By Capt. T. Blakiston. xlii. 77. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xvi. 188.) 

Notes on East, North-East, and West Coasts of. By Comm. St. John. 

xlii. 343. 

Yunnan, W. Visit of Ney Elias to valley of Shueli in. (Proceedings, 
Vol xx. 234.) 

T. T. Cooper on. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 163.) 

Zabafshan Valley, Topographical sketch of the. By Mr. A. Fedchenko. 

Zayton, Notes on the identity of. By Bev. C. Douglas, xliv. 112. 
Zohab, at the foot of Zagros, Notes on a march from, to Khuzistan (Susiana), 

thence to Kirmanshah. By Major Bawlinson. ix. 26. 


Abbeokuta. By Capt. B. F. Burton. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 49, 64.) 
Abyssinia, Boutes in, and the neighbouring countries. By Dr. Beke. x. 580. 

176 African Papers. 

Abyssinia. On a map of the Route from Tajurrah to Ankober. By Dr. 
Beke. xiii. 182. 

Prom Metemma to Damot, along the Western shores of the Tana 

Sea. By H. Blanc, m.d., f.b.c.s.e. xxxix. 36. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xiii. 39. 

Danakil Tribes, Notes on the. xii. 268. 

Journey to, in 1862. By S. W. Baker, xxxiii. 237. 

The Portuguese expeditions to, in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. 

By C. R. Markham, Secretary, b.g.s. xxxviii. 1. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xii. 11.) 

Memorandum on. Communicated from the Foreign Office, xxv. 215. 

— — Communications respecting the geography of Southern. By Dr. C. 

Tilstone Beke. xii. 84. 
■ Report on the route from Tajurra to Ankobar. By Asst. Surgeon Kirk, 

xii. 221. 

On the route from Ankobar to Dima. By Dr. Beke. xii. 245. 

On the countries South of. By Dr. Beke. xiii. 254. 

Continuation of routes in. By Dr. Beke. xiv. 1. 

Note by Dr. Beke on Mr. Ayrton's Paper, xx. 289. 

Nile Tributaries in. By S. Baker. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 279.) 

Abyssinian Expedition, Geographical results of the. By C. R. Markham. 

xxxviii. 12. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 113. 298.) 
Narrative of captivity in, and journey from Metemma to Damot. 

By Dr. Blanc. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 39.) 
Afab Countby, Narrative of a journey through the. By W. Munzinger. 

xxxix. 188. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 219.) (See Danakil.) 
Afbica, Physical Geogbaphy of Inner. By Sir Roderick Murchison. (Pro- 
ceedings, viii. 151.) 

Letter from John Duncan to the Librarian of the Society, xv. 346. 

Notes on African Geography. By Macqueen. xv. 371. 

Notes taken during travels in. By Baron J. W. von Miiller, xx. 275. 

Notes on the present state of the geography of some parts of. By Jas. 

M'Queen, Esq. xx. 235. 

Major Serpa Pinto's march across. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 481.) 

Akem, On the district of. By Capt. J. S. Hay. xlvi. 299. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xx. 475.) 
Albebt Nyanza, Account of the discovery of the second great lake of the 

Nile. By S. W. Baker, xxxvi. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 6.) 

Journey towards. By Lieut. Chippendale. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 67.) 

On the circumnavigation of. By R. Gessi. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xxi. 50 ; Vol. xx. 470.) 
Alexandeb, Capt., Latest intelligence from. vii. 439. 
Ankobeb, Extracts of a journal kept at, from 7th June to 2nd Oct. 1839. 

By Rev. J. L. Krapf. x. 469. 
Abguin, Account of the Island off the "West Coast of Africa. By Capt. 

Grover, f.b.s. xvi. 162. 
Ascension, Communications on the Island of. By Capt. Brandreth, b.e., 

and Mrs. Col. Power, v. 243. 
Atbaba and its tributaries. By S. Baker. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 21.) 
Atlas Mountains, Ascent of. By Sir J. Hooker. (Proceedings, Vol. xv 212.) 

African Papers. 177 

Bamangwato Country. By Capt. E. K. Patterson. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 

Batonga Country, Elephant Mountains in. K. F. Burton. (Proceedings, 

Vol. vii. 104.) 
Benguela to Ibo and Mozambique, journeys of Silva Porto with the Arabs 

from, through Africa, from 1852 to 1854. By Jas. Macqueen. xxx. 

136. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 75.) 
Bahr el Ghazal. Mme. Tinne'. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 12.) 
Benin and the Upper Course of the Quorra or Niger. By Capt Becroft. 

xi. 184. 
Benzerta, Lakes of, in the Regency of Tunis. By Lieut. Spratt. b.n. 

xvi. 251. 
Berenice, Notice on the ruins of. By Lieut. Wellsted, i.n. vi. 96. 
Bida, in Nupe, to Kano, in Haussa, Notes of a journey from, in 1862. By 

Dr. Baikie, r.n. xxxvii. 92. 
Binue River, Ascent of, in 1879, with remarks on the systems of the Shary 

and Binue. By E. Hutchinson. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 289.) 
Bulama Island, west coast of Africa. Visit of Governor O'Conor to. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. i. 42.) 
Bushman Land. By Dr. Moffatt. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 77.) 

Cairo to I'fat, Abstract of journal kept by Rev. Messrs. Isenberg and 

Krapf on the journey in 1839. Communicated by Church Missionary 

Society, x. 455. 
Cameron, Commander, r.n. Journey to Ujiji. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 136.) 

Surveyof Tanganyika. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 246.) 

Journey across Africa. Letter from. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 118, 304.) 

Cameroons, Excursion up the river of, to the Bay of Amboises. By Capt. 

Allen, r.n. xiii. 1. 
Mount, Excursion Inland from. By Rev. T. J. Comber. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 225.) Burton's ascent of. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 

Canary Islands, Survey of some of the, and of part of W. Coast of Africa in 

1835. By Lieut. Arlett, r.n. vi. 285. 
Ethnographical remarks on the original language of their inhabi- 
tants. By Don. J. J. da Costa de Macedo. xi. 171. 
Cape Colony, On the roads and Kloofs in the. By Major Michell, r.e. 

vi. 168. 
On steam communication with Australia and the Cape. By Capt. 

J. L. Stokes, r.n. xxvi. 183. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 79.) 
■ Discovery of diamonds. Professor Tennant. (Proceedings. Vol. xii. 

Cape Coast, Note of a journey from, to Whyddah on W. coast of Africa. 

By Mr. John Duncan, xvi. 143. 
Cape Palmas, and the Mena or Kroomen. Communicated by Dr. Francis 

Bacon, xii. 196. 
Caravan Journey from E. to W. coast of Africa. Notice of communication 

by Vice-Consul Brand, through the Foreign Office, with Remarks by 

W. D. Cooley. xxiv. 266. 
Central Africa, Geographical notes of the Khedive's expedition to. By 

Lieut. Julian A. Baker, r.n. xliv. 37. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 

50, 131.) 


178 African Papers. 

Centbal Africa, Discoveries by H. M. Stanley. Speech by the Prince of 

Wales. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 165.) 
Centbal South Afbica, Journey through, from the Diamond fields to the 

Upper Zambesi. By Dr. E. Holub. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 166.) 
Notes on the Chobe River. By Dr. Bradshaw. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. iii. p. 208.) 
Centbal Afbica. Report of explorers under Dr. A. Smith, vi. 394. 
Failure in exploring interior of, from original documents in the 

office of the R.G.S. ii. 305. 
Centbal Afbican, New route and new mode of travelling into. By J. 

Mullens. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 233.) 
Central Afbican Expedition of Livingstone. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 19.) 
Centbal Afbica, Mission to. Progress of the Misson, consisting of 

Messrs. Richardson, Barth, and Overweg. xxi. 130. 

Nobth. By Dr. Barth. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 217.) 

Letters from Vogel's expedition, xxiv. 276. (Proceedings, 

Vol. ii. 30.) 

Letter from Dr. Barth to Dr. Beke, from Timbuctoo. xxiv. 283. 

Letters from Vogel. xxv. 237. 

— — Notes on geography of. By James Macqueen. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 

12 ; Vol. iii. 362.) 

Expeditions by the Furanys. xxiii. 120. 

Letters from Ladislaus Magyar, xxiv. 271. 

Notes on geography of. By Macqueen. xxvi. 109. (Proceedings, 

Vol. iii. 208.) 

Historical Description. By Barth. xxx. 112. 

Chad Lake, Journey to, and vicinity. By Dr. Nachtigal. xlvi. 396. 
Chobe Riveb. By Dr. Bradshaw. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. iii. 208.) 
Cinnamomifeba (Regio) of the Ancients. By D. Cooley. xix. 166. 
Colesbeeg to Steinkopf, Journey in 1854-55. By R. Moffatt. xxviii. 153. 
Congo, Dr. Behm, on Livingstone's exploration of the Upper. (Proceedings, 
Vol. xvii. 21.) 

Ascent by Comm. Hunt, b.n. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 374.) 

On. By Capt. Bedingfield. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 66.) 

Proceedings of Lieut. Grandy. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 78.) 

Account of recent journeys in the interior of. By Rev. T. J. Comber. 

(Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. iii. 20.) 

Note on Lieut. Grandy's map of his journey from Ambriz to San 

Salvador and the. By W. J. Turner, xlvi. 428. 

Journey through to Makuta. By Rev. T. J. Comber. (Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 225, N.S.) 

Geographical sketch of basin of, and Nile. By H. M. Stanley. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xxii. 382.) 

Cunene Riveb, Green, Hahn, and Rath. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 350.) 

Damaba Land, Notes to accompany Andersen's map of. By Thos. Baines. 

xxxvi. 247. 
Damabas of South Afbica, Capt. Alexander's intended visit to the. vi. 443. 
Dab es Salaam, Routes from, towards Lake Nyassa. By Keith Johnston. 

(Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 417.) 

African Papers. 179 

Dab es Salaam, Country between, and Kilwa. By Capt. Elton. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xix. 110.) 

DanAkil Tribes, Notes on. xii. 268. 

Davidson, Mr., Letter from, dated Wednoon. vi. 429. 

Notices of. vii. 144. 

Delagoa Bay, On the civilisation of the Tribes inhabiting the Highlands 
near. By W. D. Cooley. iii. 310. 

Journey from Natal to, thence to gold-fields near Leydenberg. 

By Percy Hope. xliv. 203. 

East Africa, exploration in. By Count C. von Krockow. xxxvi. 198. 

On the coast country of, South of Zanzibar. By Capt. Elton. 

xliv. 227. 

Routes of native caravans from coast to interior. By J. Wake- 

field, xl. 303 

Extract from a journal by Lieut. Christopher, on the coast of. 

xiv. 76. 

On. By Lieut. Barker, xviii. 130. 

On. By Lieut. Cruttenden, (i.n.). xviii. 136. 

Expedition of Burton and Speke. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 348.) 

Expedition of Speke and Grant. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 11-127 ; 

Vol. vi. 17 ; Vol. vii. 20.) Special reception of Speke and Grant. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. vii. 213-217.) 

English captives in. By General Rigby. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 113.) 

Notes on Wakefield's map of. By Keith Johnston. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xvi. 125.) 

Native routes in. By Keith Johnston. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. i. 417.) 

Remarks on coast of. By Sir Bartle Frere. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xvii. 343.) 
East African Expedition,- Discoveries of, under Capt. Speke. xxxiii. 334. 

(Proceedings, Vol. ii. 52.) 
A coasting voyage from Mombasa to the Pangani River ; visit to 

Sultan Kimwere. By Capt. Burton and J. H. Speke. xxviii. 188. 

The lake regions of Central equatorial Africa, with notices of 

lunar mountains, and sources of " White Nile." By Capt. Burton, xxix. 
Of the R.G.S. Notes on the route taken. By J. Thomson. (Pro- 

ceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 102.) 

Progress of, Thomson's Report on journey from Lake Nyassa to 

Lake Tanganyika. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 209.) 

Progress of the Society's; journey along Western side of Lake 

Tanganyika. By J. Thomson. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 306.) 

Journey of the Society's. By J. Thomson. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. ii. 721.) 
Egypt, Some account of the Natron Lakes of. From Sir Gardner Wilkinson. 

xiii. 113. 
Equatorial Africa, Lake region of. By Col. Grant, xlii. 243. 
■ Khedive's Expedition to Lake Districts of. By Col. C. K 

Gordon. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 56.) 

Geographical and scientific results of the. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xxi. 63.) 

N 2 

180 African Papers. 

Equatorial Africa, East, Snowy Mountains of. By Baron von Decken. 

(Proceedings, Vol. viii. 5.) 
Equatorial Western Africa. By Du Chaillu. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 108.) 

Fernando Noronha, A visit to. By A. Rattray, xlii. 431. 

Gambia and Carsamanza Rivers, Supposed junction, on W. Coast of Africa. 
By R. W. Hay. iii. 72. 

Mohammed Sisei, a Mandingo of Nyani-Maru on the. By Capt. 

Washington, viii. 448. 

« River, Abridged account of an expedition of about 200 miles up the. 

By Governor Ingram, xvii. 150. 

Gaza Land, Two journeys in. By St. Vincent Erskine. xlviii. 25. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxii. 127.) (See Mozambique.) 

Ghadamas, Journey from Tripoli to. By Vice-Consul C. H. Dickson, xxii. 

Account of. By Dickson, xxx. 255. 

Ghat, Route from to Tawat, through the middle of the " Sahara." Com- 
municated by Mr. Richardson, xvi. 258. 

Gold Region. (See Limpopo.) 

Gordon, Colonel. Expedition. On the progress of. By Sir H. Rawlinson. 
(Proceedings, Vol. xx. 50 ; Vol. xxi. 56 ; Vol. xxi. 63.) xlvi. 381. 

Harar, A trip to. By Lieut. Burton, xxv. 136. 

Its probable position, with information relative to tribes in its vicinity. 
By Lieut. Barker, xjr. xii. 238. 

Ijebu Country, Journey to Ode in. By Capt. Bedingfield. (Proceedings, 

Vol. vii. 105.) 
Ivory Trade. By Dr. Vogel. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 215.) 

Jamoor River, On its mouths. By Rev. John Clark, xvi. 255. 

Jimma Country (s.w. of Berbera), Account of the. Communicated by Sir 

J. Gardner Wilkinson, xxv. 206. 
Juba River, Death of Baron Von der Decken on the. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 


Kilimanjaro and the White Nile. By Macqueen. xxx. 128. 

Mountain. Thornton. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 47. ; Vol. ix. 15.) 

Ascent of, by Revs. New and Bushell. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 167.) 

Kingani River, East Africa. By F. Holmwood. xlvii. 253. 
Kordofan, Notes of a journey to. By Holroyd. ix. 163. 

and Darfur, Astronomical observations in. By Major H. G. Prout. 

xlix. 392. 

Kostantinah, Heights obtained during the Campaign of September, 1837. 

viii. 226. 
Kroomen. (-See Cape Palmas.) 
Kubbababish Arabs, On the, between Dongola and Kordofan. By M. Par- 

kyns xx. 254. 
Kwora and CHADDA,Expbring trip up the rivers. By Dr. Baikie. xxv. 108. 

African Papers. 181 

Limpopo, The, its origin, course, and tributaries. By Thos. Baines. xxiv. 288, 

Exploration to the mouth of. By St.Vincent W. Erskine. xxxix. 233, 

(Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 320.) 

Exploration of. By Capt. F. Elton, xlii. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 89.) 

and Zambesi, Account of gold-bearing region between. By Baines. xli. 

100. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 147.) 
Livingstone, Festival. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 116.) 

Progress of. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 175. ; Vol. xv. 115 — 335.) 

Letters respecting. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 8 to 16.) 

Seabch Expedition, Report of the. By Young, xxxviii. 111. 

Dr., Reports on death of. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 221.) 

Letters from. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 255.) 

Government aid to. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 334.) 

Proposed search expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 124.) 

C. R. Markham on a search and relief expedition for. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xvi. 158.) 

Search Expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 102, 145, 184, 203, 225, 

241.) (See South Afbica, Ngami, Nyassa, Zambesi.) 

Lufiji, River Delta. Examination by Dr. Kirk. (Proceedings, xviii. 74.) 

Madagascab. (See Indian Ocean.) 

Mandingo. (See Gambia.) 

Mabocco Geographical notice of the Empire of. By Lieut. Washington. 
i. 123. 

Vocabulary of the names of places in. By Count Graberg. vii. 243. 

(See Atlas.) 

Masasi. (See Rovuma.) 

MA8SOMEDES to Caemdo, Journey of Joao, in 1841. By Macqueen. xxx. 

Matabeli Land, Notes on. By Capt. R. R. Patterson. (Proceedings (N.S.) 
VoL i. 509.) 

Mayotta and the Comobo Islands. By T. S. Leigh, xix. 7. 

Mohammedu-Sisei, a Mandingo of Nyani-Maru on the Gambia. By Capt. 
Washington, b.n. viii. 448. 

Mombas and neighbouring coast. By Lieut. Emery, b.n. iii. 280. 

Mombasa, Journey from the Pangani to. By Chas. New. xiv. 414. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xix. 317.) 

Moselekatse, King of the Matebele, a visit to. By Rev. R. Moffatt. xxvi. 

Mozambique, Third and fourth journeys in Gaza or Southern. By St. Vin- 
cent Erskine. xlviii. 25. (Proceedings, xxii. 127.) 

Namaquas, Great, Boschmans, and Hill Damaras. Expedition through. By 
Capt. Alexander, viii. 1. 

By Moffat. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 77-158.) 

Natal, The physical geography, and climate of. By R. J. Mann., xxxvii. 
48. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 18.) 

■ , Cotton plantations in, Letter from Capt. Stokes, b.n. xix. 33. 

Ngami, Second visit to Lake. By Rev. D. Livingstone, xxi. 18. 

182 African Papers. 

Niger, Expedition to determine the course and termination of, from Yaaori to 

the Sea. By E. and J. Lauder, i. 179. 
Delta, Notes accompanying a Chart of a portion of the. By R. D. Boler. 

xlvi. 411. 
Voyage up, from Lagos to Bida. By Rev. J. Milum. (Proceedings, 

(N.S.) Vol. iii. 26. 

Notes on. F. V. Rohins. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 116.) 

Notes on the River, by Bishop Crowther. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 481.) 

Expedition. By Dr. Baikie. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 83 ; vi. 22 ; vii. 66 ; 

xi. 49.) 

Nile, White. On sources of. By A. W. Twyford. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 503.) 

Land journey westward, by J. Petherick. xxxv. 289. 

Notes to accompany a survey of the, from Lardo to Nyamyungo. 

By Col. Gordon, xlvi. 431. 
Notes to accompany a Survey of, from Khartum to Rigaf. By 

Lieut. C. Watson, xlvi. 412. 

Petherick on the. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 39.) 

Petherick on Sources. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 223.) 

Petherick (Proceedings, Vol. v. 27, 40, 41; vi. 18; vii. 20; 

viii. 122, 145.) 
Lieut. Watson's astronomical observations at positions on the 

Nile. xlvi. 417. 

Peney, expedition from Gondokoro. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 18.) 

Letter on exploration of Sir Samuel Baker. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xv. 92.) 
Report on the calculations of heights from Watson's observations 

on the. By R. Strachan. xlvi. 421. 
Meteorological Observations taken on the White Nile, between 

Khartum and Rigaf. By Lieut. Watson, xlvi. 424. 

Above Gondokoro. By J. Kemp. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 324.) 

Nile, Livingstone's last journey to, and the probable ultimate sources of the. 

By Findlay. xxxvii. 193. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 232.) 
— — Upper Basin of, by inspection and information. By Capt. Speke. 

xxxiii. 322. 

On the, and on the present and former levels of Egypt. By Sir J. G. 

Wilkinson, ix. 431. 

and its Tributaries. By C. Beke. xvii. 1. 

Comments on M. d'Abbadie's discovery of the sources of the White 

Nile. By F. Ayrton. xviii. 48. 

Observations on, between Dufli and Magungo. By Col. Gordon. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxi. 48.) 

Notes on the Victoria Nile, between Magungo and Foweira. By Col. 

Gordon. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 49.) 

*■ Geographical notes on. By Prof. Paul Chaix. xix. 143. 

H. M. Stanley's Geographical sketch of basin of, and that of Congo. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 382.) 
North Africa, routes in. By John Bekr es Seddik. vi. 100. 
Nunez River, Report on its trade and resources. Bv Lieut. Comm. Lysaght. 

xix. 29. 
Nyam Ntam Country. By Dr. Junker. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. iii. 301.) 

African Papers. 183 

Nyassa, Livingstone's expedition to Lake, in 1861-63. xxxiii. 250. Pro- 
ceedings, iv. 87 ; vii. 18. 

Explorations to W. of Lake in 1863. By Livingstone, xxxiv. 245. 

Lake Mission. By E. D. Young. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 451.) 

second circumnavigation of. By Dr. Jas. Stewart. (Proceedings, 

(N.S.) Vol. i. 289.) 

Report of expedition of Mr. Young. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 79.) 

Journey along part of W. side of. By Dr. Laws. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. i. 305.) 

Routes towards, by Keith Johnston. (Proceedings (N. S.) Vol. i. 417.) 

On the, and journey to Zanzibar. By H. B. Cotterill. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xxii. 233.) 

Observations on W. side of, and on the country between, and Tangan- 
yika. By G. James Stewart. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 428.) 

On a recent sojourn at Lake. By E. D. Young. (Proceedings, Vol 

xxi. 225.) 

Lake, and the water route to the lake region of Africa. By J. Stewart, c-e. 

(Proceedings (N.S.) iii. 257.) 

N'ya8SI, or the Great lake of S. Africa, its geography investigated. By 
Cooley. xv. 185. 

Further explanations in geography of. By Cooley. xvi. 138. 

Old Calabar, Ascent of, in 1836. By Oldfield. vii. 195. 

Is it a branch of the river Quorra ? By Capt. Allen, r.n. vii. 198. 

Old Calabar River, Explorations of, in 1841 and 1842. By Capt. Becroft 

and King. xiv. 260. 

By Capt. J. B. Walker. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 1 35.) 

Ogowe River, Journey of R. B. Walker up. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 354.) 
Orange, or 'Gariep River, South Africa, Water Supply in the Basin of the. 

By Jas. Fox Wilson, xxxv. 106. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 106.) 
Orange River, Journey from Little Namaqua-Land eastward, in Aug., 1856. 

By Robert Moffatt. xxviii. 174. 
Free State, and country of Transvaal Boers ; a trading trip into. 

By John Sanderson, xxx. 233. 

Palmas. (See Cape Palmas.) 
Petherick. (See Nile.) 

Pigafetta's Map of. By R. H. Major. (Proceedings, Vol. xi. 246.) 
Prince's Island and Anno Bom, In the Bight of Biafra ; memoir descriptive 
of. By Capt. Boteler, r.n. ii. 274. 

Quanza, On the River. By Carl Alexanderson. xlvi. 428. 
Quilimane River, Note on. By Capt. Hyde Parker. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 312.) 
Quorra, is it the same river as the Niger of the Ancients ? By W. Martin 
Leake, ii. 1. 

Letter from J. Becroft. vi. 424. (See Niger.) (See Kwora.) 

Rkd Sea, Notes on Bruce's Chart of Coasts of. By Lieut. J. R. Wellsted. v. 286. 

■ Notes on names of places on shores of. By A. Thompson 

D'Abbadie. ix. 317. 
Physical geography of. (See under Asia.) xxiv. 227. 

184 African Papers. 

Regio Cinnamomifera of the Ancients. By D. Cooley. xix. 166. 
Rovuma and Masasi, District. By Rev. C. Maples. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. ii. 337.) 
Rovuma River East Africa, Notes of expeditions up the. By John Kirk. 

xxxv. 154. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 284.) 

Dr. Livingstone on the. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 20.) 

D. J. May, E.N., on the. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 36.) 

Rufiji River, Survey of lower course of. By Capt. G. L. Sulivan, r.n. 

xlv. 364. 

Sahara, Letter from Davidson, dated at Wednoon, near. vi. 429. 

Sennar, Lord Prudhoe's journey from Cairo to, in 1829 ; describing the Penin- 
sula of Sennar. v. 38. 

Sierra Leone, Mr. W. C. Thomson's journey from, to Timbo, capital of 
Futah Jallo, in W. Africa, xvi. 106. 

Somali Coast, Memoir on the Edoor Tribes. By Lieut. C. J. Cruttenden, i.n. 
xix. 49. 

Country. By Capt. Miles. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 149.) 

Land, Visit. By Dr. Kirk. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 340.) 

Soudan, Expedition from Suakin to the. By F. Parry, xliv. 152. 

South Africa, Notes on. By H. Gassiott. xxii. 136. 

Expeditions into interior of. iv. 362. 

Expedition to interior of (S.W. Africa). By Francis Galton. 

xxii. 140. 

Explorations in. By Messrs. Livingstone & Oswell. xxii. 163. 

Extracts of letters from Eev. D. Livingstone, dated from 

Kolobeng. xx. 138. 

Extract of a letter from W. C. Oswell, regarding the interior 

lake of. xx. 143. 

Explorations into interior of. By Dr. David Livingstone. Letter 

from Maclear on Livingstone's observations, xxiv. 291. 

Explorations in ; route from Walfisch Bay to Lake Ngami, and 

ascent of the Tioge River. By Chas. J. Anderssen. xxv. 79. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. iv. 63.) 

Notes on. By Chapman. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 16.) 

Explorations into interior of. By Rev. D. Livingstone. Journey 

to Loanda. xxv. 218. 

The general features of the Interior, between Barkly and Gubulu- 

wayo. By Alex. Bailie, xlviii. 287. 

Gold country of. By J. R. Wilkinson. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 134.) 

Explorations into interior of. By Dr. David Livingstone. Astro- 

nomical observations, xxvi. 78. 

On temperate. By Sir Bartle Frere. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. 

iii. 1.) 

Sand-bars at mouths of rivers of. By Dr. Mann. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xvi. 138.) 
South Central Africa, Explorations into interior of. By Dr. David 

Livingstone — The Zambesi, xxvii. 349. 

Journal. By F. C. Selous. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. iii. 169.) 

Speke, Capt. (See East Africa.) 

African Papers. 185 

Suez Canal and its pilotage. By Capt. G. S. Nares. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xiv. 75.) 

Opening of. By Lord Houghton. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 88.) 

Beport of Capt. Bichards and Col. Clarke. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xiv. 259.) 

Tanganyika, On Lake, Ptolemy's Western-Lake Beservoir of " Nile." By 
Bichard F. Burton, xxix. 231. xxxv. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. Ill; 
Vol. ix. 6.) 

On the Southern half of. By Lieut. Cameron, xiv. 184. 

Lieut. Cameron's Diary, xiv. 197. 

Timbuktu, Trade route from Gambia to. By H. Cooper. (Proceedings, 

xx. 78.) 
Tbansvaal, Geographical and economic features of. By F. B. Fynney. 

xlviii. 16. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 114.) 
Notes on physical and geological features of, to accompany his new 

map of. By F. Jeppe. xlvii. 217. 
< From the gold region in, to Delagoa Bay. By Capt. C. Warren. 

xlviii. 283. (-See Obange Fbee State.) 
Tbipoli, An account of. By Col. G. H. Warrington, xiv. 104. 

Uganda. See Victobia. 

Ukebewe Lake, On. By Capt. B. F. Burton. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 129.) 

Umzila's, South East Africa, journey to in 1871-72. By Mr. St. Vincent 
Erskine. xiv. 45. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 110.) 

Unyamwezi, Description of. By P. Broyon Mirambo. (Proceedings, Vol. 
xxii. 28.) 

Uppeb Egypt, Notes on part of Eastern Desert of. By J. Wilkinson, ii. 28. 

Usambaba Countby in East Africa. By Bev. J. P. Farler. (Proceedings 
(N.S.) Vol. i. 81.) 

Notes of a trip from Zanzibar to. By Keith Johnston. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 545.) 

Notes on geology of. By J. Thomson. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. 

i. 558.) 

Journey to Magila on borders of. By A. Bellville. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xx. 74.) 

Vei Language, Discovery of a native written character at Bohmar, on W. 
coast of Africa, with vocabulary of the Vatice or Vei Tongue. By Lieut. 
F. E. Forbes, xx. 89. 

Notes on the language and alphabet. By E. Norris. xx. 101. 

Victobia Nyanza, Note on height of. By Staff Com. George. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xx. 159.) 

Journey to, and back via the Nile. By B. W. Felkin. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 357.) 

On H. M. Stanley's exploration of. By Col. J. Grant, xlvi. 10. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xx. 34.) 
Victobia and Uganda Lake. By Bev. C. T. Wilson. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. ii. 353.) 
Victobia Nyanza Expedition, Progress of the, of the Church Missionary 

Society. By E. Hutchinson. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 498.) 
Vogel, Dr., fate of. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 79.) See Centbal Afbica (Nobth). 

186 African Papers. 

Volta River, Doblen. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 49.) 

Notes on. By Capt. Croft. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 183.) 

Country between, and Niger. By Sir John Glover. (Proceedings, 

VoL xviii. 286. 

Wady Halfeh, On the country between, and Gebel-Berkel, in Ethiopia, with 
remarks on the level of the Nile. By Sir G. Wilkinson, xx. 154. 

Wami River, Boat journey by Clement Hill. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 337.) 

Wassaw, Visit to the gold fields of. By J. A. Skertchly. xlviii. 274. 

Wednoon, Letter of Mr. Davidson from. vi. 429. 

West Africa, On a map showing the possibility of the rivers Yeu and Chadda 
being the outlet of Lake Chad. By Capt. Allen, viii. 289. 

On the coast of, surveyed by H.M.S. " ^Etna " in 1830-32. By 

Capt. Belcher, r.n. ii. 278. 

British Settlements. By O'Connor. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 15.) 

Mr. Winwood Reade in. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 106.) 

Second journey into. By M. P. B. du Chaillu. xxxvi. 64. 

(Proceedings, Vol. x. 71 ; Vol. v. 108.) 

Oil rivers. By W. N. Thomas. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 148.) 

Western Equatorial Africa, An exploration of the Elephant Mountains in. 

By R. F. Burton, xxxiii. 241. 
White Nile. (See Nile.) 
Whyddah, A journey from, to Adofoodiah. By J. Duncan, xvi. 154. 

Yoruba and Nupe Countries, Journey in, in 1858. By Daniel J. May. 
xxx. 212. 

Zambesi, On the Gradient of the, on the level of Lake Nyassa, on the Murchi- 
son Rapids, and on Lake Shirwa. By John Eirk. xxxv. 167. 

Delta, On fossil bones from the alluvial strata of the. By John Kirk. 

xxxiv. 199. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 151.) 

and Shire Rivers, Extracts from ' despatches of Dr. D. Livingstone, 

1858-61. xxxi. 256. 

Notes on the. By the late Richard Thornton, xxxiv. 196. 

An expedition up the, to Senna, by three officers of H.M.S. " Leven," 

when surveying E. coast of Africa in 1823. ii. 136. 

A visit to the River. By T. S. Leigh, xix. i. 

Note on, by Capt. Hyde Parker. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 312.) 

McLeod on. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 363.) 

Journey of Galvao da Silva to Manica Gold fields, in 1788, with 

description of country south of the Lower. By Macqueen. xxx. 155. 
Expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 99.) 

Dr. Livingstone on. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 128.) 

Mackenzie. Missionary Expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 131.) 

Zanzibar, On the possessions of the Imaum of Muskat, on climate and pro- 
ductions of, and on the prospects of African discovery from Mombas. By 
Col. Sykes. xxiii. 101. 

Remarks by Sir Bartle Frere. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 343.) 

Zulu and Amatonga Countries, Notes to accompany maps of, and of the 
country between Alivval and Natal. By John Sanderson, xxxii. 335. 

American Papers. 187 

Zulu Land. Books, Memoirs, and Map of. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 201 
and 205.) 

— Notes on physical geography of, by Eev. G. Blencowe. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 324.) 


Aconcagua, Mt. in Chili, Notice of. By Capt. R. FitzRoy, r.n. vii. 143. 

Amazons River, On the southern affluents of the, on the rivers which flow 
from the Cordilleras of Peru into the Maranon or Amazons. Report of 
river Beni and surroundings, by Thadeus Haenke. v. 90. 

and Negro Rivers, Account of the, from recent observations. By 

Lieut. Smyth, r.n. vi. 11. 

Notes on the rivers Maue-assu, Abacaxis, and Canuma. By "W. 

Chandless. xl. 419. 

River, Table of distances on. By L. Nash. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 


Geographical positions on the. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 271.) 

America, Telegraphic communication with. Shaffner. (Proceedings, 

Vol. iv. 101.) 
(North), Evidence for the discovery of, by the Scandinavians in 10th 

century, viii. 114. 
America, Central, On. By Col. Don Juan Galindo. vi. 119. 

Sketch of the eastern coast of. By Capt. Bird Allen, r.n. xi. 76. 

■ ■ Considerations on the great Isthmus of. By Capt. R. FitzRoy, 

R.N. xx. 161. 

Note upon the language of. By R. G. Latham, xx. 189. 

- Sodth, Tierra del Fuego, and the Strait of Magelhaens, On the geo- 
graphy of. By Capt. Philip Parker King. i. 155. 

- North, Remarks on the freezing of streams in. By A. C. Anderson, 
xv. 367. 

Remarks on the physical geography of. By C. S. Rafinesque. 

xi. 165. 
i Palliser's expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 38-146 ; Vol. iv. 228.) 

(See Rocky Mountains.) 
Observations on the indigenous tribes of the N.W. coast. By 

John Scouler. xi. 215. 
Barometric and thermometric measurements of heights in. By 

Capt. J. H. Lefroy. xvi. 263. 

i South, and Oceania, Notes on. By Gen. W. Miller, xii. 137. 

American Antiquities, On the Museum for, in Copenhagen. By Prof. C. 

Rafn. xiv. 316. 
Andes, Southern, of Chili, Expedition across the, to open a new line from 

the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. By Don Gulliermo Cox, of Chili. 

xxxiv. 205. 
■ Proposed railway route across the, from Caldera, in Chili, 

to Rosario, on the Parana. Report of E. A. Flint's survey. By W. 

Wheelwright, xxxi. 155 . (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 45.) 

On a projected railway route over the, from the Argentine 

Republic. By R. Crawford, xliii. 46. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 57.) 

188 American Papers. 

Andes, Bolivian, On the general outline and physical conformation of the ; 
on the line of perpetual snow between 15° and 20° S. Lat. By J. B. Pent- 
land, v. 70. 

A journey across the, between Cbchabamba and Chimore\ By J. A. 

Lloyd. Remarks on communication between Bolivia and the Atlantic, 
via the Amazon, xxiv. 259. 

Anegada, Remarks on. By R. H. Schomburgk. ii. 152. 

Apurimac and Mantaro, Confluence of. By Don Antonio Raimondi. xxxviii. 

413. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 112.) 
Aquiby, Notes on the River. By W. Chandless. xxxvi. 119. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xi. 100.) 
Arizona, Notes on. By C. D. Postans. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 302.) 
Atacama, Journey into the Desert of. By Dr. R. Philippi. xxv. 158. 

The Desert of. By J. Harding, xlvii. 250. 

Atrato, From the Bay of, to the Bay of Cupica on the Pacific, in 1827. By 
Comm. Chas. Friend. r.n. xxiii. 191. 

Through the Valley of, to the Pacific, in search of a route for a ship 

canal. Under F. M. Kelley. xxvi. 174. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 63.) 

Bayanos River on the Isthmus of Panama. By Laurence Oliphant. 

xxxv. 142. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 276.) 
Belize to Guatemala, A journey from, and return by the river Polochic in 

1834. By E. Legh Page. viii. 317. 
Belize River, Physical Geography of. By A. S. Cockburn. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xii. 72.) 
Berbice, in British Guayana, Diary of an ascent of the, in 1836-37. By 

Robert H. Schomburgk. vii. 302. 
Bolivia, Notes on, to accompany original maps. By G. C. Musters, xlvii. 

201. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 40.) 

Boundary of Chili and. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 785.) 

Bogota, Journey from Chimborazo to. By R. Cross. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 

Boundary (North America), from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky 

Mountains. By Capt. S. Anderson, xlvi. 228. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 

Brazil, Journey from River St. Francisco to the River Tocantins and to city 

of Maranhao. By J. W. Wells, xlvi. 308. 

Letter on the Abrohlos Bank off coast of. By Capt. FitzRoy. ii. 315. 

The valley of the Tibagy. By T. P. Bigg-Wither, xlvi. 263. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xx. 455.) 

British Columbia, Exploration in Jarvis Inlet and Desolation Sound. By 

W. Downie. xxxi. 249. 
Journey into the interior of. By Mathew B. Begbie. xxxi. 237. 

(Proceedings, Vol. iv. 33.) 
On the geography and mountain passes of, in connection with an 

overland route. By A.Waddington. xxxviii. 118. (Proceedings, xii. 121.) 
Remarks on the geography and natural capabilities of, and its 

gold fields. By Lieut. H. S. Palmer, r.e. xxxiv. 171. (Proceedings, 

Vol. iv. 33 ; Vol. viii. 87.) 

A journey through the districts bordering on the Thompson, 

Fraser, and Harrison Rivers. By Lieut. R. C. Mayne, R.N. xxxi. 297. 
(Proceedings, Vol. iv. 33.) 

American Papers. 189 

Bkiti8h Columbia. Report on the Harrison and Lilloet route. By Lieut. 

H. S. Palmer, b.e. xxxi. 224. 

W. Kelly on. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 107.) 

■ Sketch of the country between Jervis Inlet and Fort Pemberton ; 

with a map. By Lieut. R. C. Mayne. xxxi. 297. 

" Benches " or valley terraces in. By Chief Justice Begbie. (Pro- 

ceedings, Vol. xv. 133.) 
British North American Exploring Expedition, Progress of the, under 
Capt. J. Palliser. xxx. 267. (See Rocky Mountains.) 

California, Notes on Upper. By Dr. Thos. Coulter, v. 59. 

The Modoc Regions. By Wm. Simpson. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 292.) 

Caravaya, The Province of. , By C. R. Markham. xxxi. 190. 

Rivers of San Gavan and Ayapata in. Raimondi. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xi. 102.) 

Caribs, Notice of. By Don Juan Galindo. iii. 290. 

Carmen, On the town of, and the Rio Negro. By Murrell R. Robinson. 

xiv. 130. 
Central America, New transit across. By Bedford Pirn. (Proceedings, Vol. 

vi. 75, 112.) 

Exploration in. By J. Collinson. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 25.) 

On the ruined cities of. By Capt. Lindesay Brine, r.n. xlii. 

354. (Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 67.) 

On Lake Yojoa. By Mr. Squier. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 106.) 

Chili. (See Andes.) 

Chile, Observations on the Coal Formation in. By W. Bollaert. xxv. 172. 

Boundary of Bolivia and. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 785.) 

Chiloe, Account of Island and Province of. By Capt. Blankley, r.n. iv. 344. 
Cocos, Isle. Note on. By Admiral Sir George Seymour, xix. 20. 
Colorado, On the basin of the, and the great basin of N. America. By W. A, 

Bell, xxxix. 95. (Procceedings, Vol. xiii. 140.) 
Columbia. Notes on the topography of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. 

By F. A. A. Simons. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 689.) 
River, Notes on the geography of. By the late Dr. Gairdner, m.d. 

xi. 250. 
Communication between the populations of Europe and Asia, Plan for a 

Direct. By Asa Whitney, xxi. 86. 

with the East, via British N. America. By Capt. Synge, r.e. 

xxii. 174. 

in Southern Peru. By C. R. Markham. xliv. 127. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xviii. 212.) 

Corentyn, Diary of an ascent of the. By R. H. Schomburgk. vii. 285. 
Cordova to Mendoza, Notes on the route from, in 1837. By Capt. Gosselman. 

ix. 407. 
Cosiguina, Volcano of (1835). v. 387. 

Cupica, Isthmus of. By Admiral Ulingworth. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 86.) 
Cuyuny River, Expedition up, in 1837. By Wm. Hilhouse. vii. 446. 
Cuzco, Journeys to the northward and eastward of, and among the Chunchos 

Indians, in July 1835. By Gen. Miller, vi. 174. 
On the site of. By J. Pentland. viii. 427. 

190 American Papers. 

Dabien Indians. (See Txjle.) 

Exploration of. By H. C. Caldwell. (Proceedings, Vol i. 484.) 

Scientific explorations in the, in 1861 and 1865. By M. Lucien de 

Puydt. xxxviii. 69. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 63.) 

Report of party sent to cross the Isthmus of, under Comm. J. C. 

Prevost. xxiv. 249. 

Summary of the survey of the. By L. Gisborne. xxvii. 191. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. i. 88.) 

of Central America, further considerations on the great. By Capt. R. 

FitzRoy. xxiii. 171. 

Dominica, Island of, Recent volcanic eruption at the Grand Souffriere. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 363.) 

Dominican Republic, On the peninsula and Bay of Samana in the. By Sir 
R. Schomburgk. xxiii. 264. 

Ecuadob, Explorations in, in 1856 and 1857. By Geo. Jas. Pritchett. xxx. 

64. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 93.) 
Esmeralda, Journey from, to San Carlos and Moura, thence to Demerara, in 

1839. By R. H. Schomburgk. x. 248. 
Essequibo and Massaboony Rivees, Expeditions up the, in 1830-1831. By 

Capt. J. E. Alexander, ii. 65. 

Falkland Island, East, Account of. By Sir Woodbine Parish, iii. 94. 

Fbozen Soil of British N. Amebica, Observations on the. By Sir J. 
Richardson, ix. 117. 

Galapagos Islands, A visit to, in 1880. By Capt. A. H. Markham. (Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 742.) 

Notes on Capt. Markham's paper. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. ii. 755.) 

By Sir G. Seymour, xix. 20. 

Gobgon Bay, in Central America. By Capt. Bedford Pirn, b.n. (Proceedings, 
Vol. vi. 112.) 

Gbanada, Lake of, on the Isthmus between it and the Pacific Ocean. By 
J. Baily. xiv. 127. 

Guatemala, on the latitude and longitude of important places in the Republic 
of. By A. Van de Gehuchte. xxviii. 359. (See Usamasinta River.) 

Guiana, British, Memoir on the Warow-Land of. By Wm. Hilhouse. iv, 

Expedition into interior of, in 1835-1836. By R. H. Schom- 
burgk. vi. 224. 

The third expedition into interior of, to the sources of the Esse- 
quibo, &c. By R. H. Schomburgk. x. 159. 

- A journey in the interior of. By E. F. im Thurn. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. ii. 465.) 

i Expedition to the Barima and Guiana Rivers. By R. H. 

Schomburgk. xii. 169. 

Excursion up the Barima and Cuyuni Rivers in 1841. By R. H. 

Schomburgk. xii. 178. 

Visit to the sources of the Takutu in 1842. By Sir Robert 

Schomburgk. xiii. 18. 

American Papers. 191 

Guiana, British. An expedition from Pirara to the Upper Corentyn, thence 

to Demerara. By Sir R. H. Schomhurgk. xv. 1. 
Report on the Kaieteur waterfall. By Charles B. Brown, xli. 

77. (Proceedings, VoL xv. 122.) 

Hispaniola. By Major R. Stuart, xlviii. 234. 

Honduras, Central American, Account of Lake of Yojoa or Taulehe in. 

By E. G. Squier. xxx. 58. 
Hudson's Bay. Proposed communication with Vancouver's Island. By J. 

Banister. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 263.) 

Juan 1 Fernandez, Expeditions hy order of the King of Spain 1749-76; 

establishment of a colony on the Island of. By Sir Woodbine Parish. 

iv. 182. 
Jurua, Notes of journey up the river. By W. Chandless. xxxix. 296. 

Labrador Peninsula, Exploration up the Moisie River to the edge of the 
table-land of the. By H. Youle Hind, xxxiv. 82. (Proceedings, VoL 
viii. 50.) 

I J. a no an ati, On the mountains of. By Richard Spruce, xxxi. 163. 

Magellan, Straits of, Reports from Capt. T. Henderson and Comm. S. 

Paynter, on Coal Formations in the. xx. 151. 

Visit to Skyring Water. By Dr. Coppinger. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. ii. 552.) 
Mantaro and Apurimac, The confluence of the rivers, in the Huanta 

Mountains. By Prof. Antonio Raimondi. xxxviii. 413. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xiii. 112.) 
Massaroony, Voyage up the, in 1831. By Wm. Hilhouse. iv. 25. 
Mexico, Journey from, to Mazatlan, with description of remarkable ruins. 

By Chevalier J. Lowenstern. xi. 100. 
Gulf of, On ; notes on Tampico and vicinity, and on navigation of the 

Tabasco. By Peter Masters, xv. 236. 

Journey to. By C. H. Sevin. xxx. 1. 

Excursion to an ancient volcano in. By Henry de Saussure. xxx. 53. 

(See New Spain.) 

Minas Geraes, Geographical notes on the province of. By H. Gerber. xliv. 

Modoc Region. By W. Simpson. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 292.) 
Mosquito Territory, Remarks on, with map. By C. N. Bell, xxxii. 

Indians, Journey among. By G. H. Wickham. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xiii. 58.) 

Negro River, A voyage of exploration up the. By W. Parish, vi. 136. 

Newfoundland, Physical geography of. By Julian Moreton. xxxiv. 263. 

Geography and resources of. By A. Murray, xlvii. 267. 

Journey across the island of. By Geo. Robinson, xlvii. 278. 

New Mexico, On Lieut. Wheeler's explorations in. By T. W. Goad. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxii. 272.) 

New Spain, On the monuments and reliqucs of the ancient inhabitants of. 
By Capt. Vetch, r.b., f.b.8. vii. 1. 

192 American Papers. 

Nicaragua, Notes on Lake of, and the Province of Chontales. By Chevalier 
Emanuel Friedrichsthal. xi. 97. 

Gerald Raoul Perry on. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 74.) 

Survey for a canal from Lake of, to the Port of Salinas or Bolanos. 

By Magister Andreas Oersted, xxi. 96. 
Communication between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans by way of Lake. 

By Capt. Phillips, r.n. iii. 275. 
Transit route across. By Capt Bedford Pirn, e.n. (Proceedings, Vol. 

vi. 75, 112.) 
North American Boundary, from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. 

By Capt. Anderson, xlvi. 228. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 274.) 
Norton Sound, A journey from, to Fort Youkon. By F. W. Whymper. 

xxxviii. 219. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 186.) 

Old Providence, On the Island of. By C. F. Collet, r.n. vii. 203. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 148.) 
Oregon, The exploration of, in 1878, by the Wheeler Survey. Bv J. W. 

Goad. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 694.) 

Ascent of Mount Hood. By Rev. H. K. Hines. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xi. 80.) 

- Journey across Cascade Mountains into E. Oregon. By R. Brown. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xi. 84.) 

Orinoco. Proposed expedition by Admiral Sir Charles Elliot. (Proceedings, 
Vol. i. 251.) 

Panama, Notes on Isthmus of. Communicated by J. A. Lloyd, i. 69. 

On the territory of Burica, in the Province of Chiriqui, Isthmus of. 

By. J. H. Smith, xxiv. 256. 

Parana, Report on the Brazilian Province of the. By H. P. Vereker. 

xxxii. 137. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 74.) 
Paraguay, Geography and resources of. By Leone Levi. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xviii. 117.) 
Notes on physical geography of. By Keith Johnston. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xx. 494.) 
Patagonia, Explanatory notes on maps of. By H. L. Jones, xxxi. 204. 

A year in. By Commander Musters, r.n. xli. 59. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xv. 41.) 

Peel River, Account of. By A. K. Isbister. xv. 332. 

Peru, Geography of Southern. By Wm. Bollaert. xxi. 99. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xii. 126.) 
, Railroad and steam communication in Southern. By C. R. Markham. 

xliv. 127. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 212.) 

Outlines of the Geography of. By Don Valentine Ledesma. xxvi. 210. 

On the Province of Tarapaca, in South. By Don M. B. de la Fuente. 

xxvi. 229. 
On Loreto in N. Peru. By Antonio Raimondi. (Proceedings, Vol. 

viii. 58.) 

On the Rivers San Gavan and Ayapata, in the Province of Carabaya. 

By Professor Antonio Raimondi. (See Caravaya.) xxxvii. 116. 

- Geographical Position of tribes which formed the Empire of the Yncas 
of. By C. R. Markham. xli. 281. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 367.) 

American Papers. 193 

Peru, Yncas of, Note on Map of Empire of. By T. Saunders. xiii. 513. 
Pubus, Ascent of the river. By W. Chandless. xxxvi. 86. (Proceedings, 

Vol. x. 103.) 
On the supposed sources of the. By C. R. Markham. xxv. 151. 

(Proceedings, Vol. v. 224.) 

Queen Charlotte Islands. By Torrens. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 226.) 

By R. Brown. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 381.) 
Quito, Journey from, to Cayambe. By Dr. Wm. Jameson, 1859. xxxi. 

To the River Napo, Excursion from, Jan. — May, 1857. By Dr. Wm. 

Jameson, xxviii. 337. 

Railroads. (See Communications.) 

Red River and Saskatchewan. By Dr. John Rae. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 

Rio Negro, On the. By A. R. Wallace, xxiii. 212. 
Rioja, On the Province of, in South America ; to accompany a map. By 

J. 0. French, ix. 381. 
Rocky Mountains. By Palliser and Hector, xxx. 267. (Proceedings, Vol. 

iii. 122 ; Vol. iv. 73.) 

By Lord Milton and Dr. Cheadle. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 17.) 

Rupert Land. By Capt. Synge. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 71.) 

Salado Valley, Journey through and across the Argentine Provinces. By 

T. J. Hutchinson, xxxiv. 226. 
San Salvador, Description of the State of. Communicated by John Power. 

xxvjri. 349. 
San Joaquim, Fort, Journey from, to Roraima, thence to Esmeralda, in 

1838-1839. By R. H. Schomburgk. x. 191. 
Santa Cruz River, An attempt to ascend. By Capt. R. FitzRoy, r.n. 

vii. 114. 
Skyring Water. (See Magellan Strait.) 
Sodth America, On the Geographical position of W. coast of. By Carlos 

Moesta. xxviii. 333. 
On the still unexplored parts of. By C. R. Markham. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xxii. 40.) 

Tapajos, Notes on the rivers Arinos, Juruena, and. By W. Chandless. 
xxxii. 268. 

Tehuantepec, On the Isthmus of. By Herr M. G. Hermesdorf. xxxii. 

Temperature of the air, the best points in British N. America for observing 

the. By Dr. Richardson, ix. 121. 
Texas and New Mexico, Journey through, in 1841 and 1842. By Thomas 

Falconer, xiii. 199. 
Notes on coast of Texas, taken in 1842. By Wm. Bollaert. xiii. 

On Geography of Texas. By Wm. Bollaert. xx. 113. 

Tule Indians on Darien coast, Vocabulary. By Dr. Culleu. xxi. 241. 


194 Australian Papers. 

Ucayali, Peruvian exploration of the. By J. R. Tucker. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xiii. 133.) 
Uruguay, On the gold-fields of. By H. Bankart. xxxix. 339. 
Central, A journey to. By Dr. D. Christison. (Proceedings (NJ3.) 

Vol. ii. 663.) 

Usamasinta River, Description of. By Don Juan Galindo. iii 59. 

Valparaiso and Callao, on the longitude of. ix. 502. 

Vancouver Island, Route in exploring a road from Alberme Canal to 

Nanaimo in 1861, with a Track chart. By Commander Richard C. 

Mayne, r.n. xxxii. 529. 
Report of an expedition along East coast of. By Governor Jas. 

Douglas, xxiv. 245. 

Notes on physical geography of. By C. Forbes, xxxiv. 154. 

Description of. By its first Colonist, W. Colquhoun Grant, xxvii. 

268. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 487.) 

By Mayne. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 107.) 

By Dr. Forbes, r.n. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 83.) 

Remarks on, concerning Town sites and Native Population. By 

W. C. Grant, xxxi. 208. 
To Hudson's Bay. Proposed communication. By J. Banister. 

(Proceedings, Vol. i. 263.) 
Vera Paz, Account of the Province of. By Padre F. A. de Escobar, xi. 89. 
Virginia, Account of the Mound at Grove Creek Flats, in. By Schoolcraft. 

xii. 259. 

West India Islands, Remarks on the Heavy Swell, on the set and velocity 
of the tides. By R. H. Schomburgk. v. 23. 

Yule Indians. (See Tule.) 


Alps, Australian. By Muller. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 3.) 
Australia Recent Information from. (1832.) ii. 318. 

Latest accounts from. (1835.) vi. 433. 

Account of the recent exploration to the interior of. By Major J. L. 

Mitchell, vii. 271. 

Considerations on the political Geography and geographical Nomen- 
clature of. By Capt. Vetch, r.e. viii. 157. 

Exploring excursions in. By H. S. Russell, xv. 305. 

On the Languages of. xv. 365. 

Considerations against the existence of a Great Sea in its Interior. 

By E. J. Eyre. xvi. 200. 

On Steam communication with. By Capt. J. L. Stokes, r.n. xxvi. 

183. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 79.) 

An Exploration into its interior in 1844-45. By Capt. C. Sturt. 

xvii. 85. 

Australian Papers. 195 

Australia, Diary of John M'Douall Stuart's explorations from Adelaide across 

the Continent of, 1861-62. xxxiii. 276. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 104; 

vi. 8. 
Australian Exploration, Journal of ; second preparatory journey to the 

vicinity of Lake Torrens. By John M'Douall Stuart, xxxi. 65. 
By Walker, Landsborough, M'Kinlay. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 3, 

5, 6, 40, 82, 84.) 

Journal of; third preparatory journey to vicinity of Lake Torrens. 

By John M'Douall Stuart, xxxi. 83. 

Journal of; last expedition into the Interior. By John M'Douall 

Stuart, xxxi. 100. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 82.) 

Discovery. Progress of. By Sir C. Nicholson. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xiv. 190.) 

Burdekin river in Queensland. Lower Course of. By G. E. Dalrymple. 

(Proceedings, Vol. vii. 2.) 
Burke's Expedition, Sir H. Barkly on. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 53.) 
Burke and Wills, Messrs., Reports of the expeditions to relieve or ascertain 

fate of. xxxiii. 5. 
By Lieut. Chimmo. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 255.) 

Carpentaria, Exploring expedition from Victoria to Gulf of, under Robert 
O'Hara Burke, xxxii. 430. 

Central Australia. Scientific exploration. By Dr. Neumeyer. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xji. 286.) 

Expedition to determine source of River Barcoo. By E. B. 

Kennedy, xxii. 228. 

Chatham Islands, An account of. Communicated by Dr. E. Dieffenbach, m.d. 
xi. 195. 

Letter from E. Dieffenbach, describing Te Wanga Lake. xii. 142. 

Cooper's Creek, Explorations N.W. of. By J. Ross. (Proceedings, Vol. 
xv. 96.) 

Cloudy Bay and Harbour, Notes on. By Capt. W. C. Symonds. viii. 416 

Darling River, A notice of its lower course. By Mr. John E. Eyre 

xv. 327. 
Darling and Bar wan, Voyage up the. By W. R. Randell. xxxi. 145. 

(Proceedings, Vol. iv. 94.) 
Darwin, Port. On survey of neighbourhood. By Sir C. Nicholson. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 190.) 
Denison, Port, Overland route from, to Rockingham Bay. By A. J. Scott. 

(Proceedings, Vol. viii. 110.) 
Depuch Island, Notes on. By Capt. Wickham. xii. 79. 

Essington, Port of, On the recent establishment at, on the N.E. coast of 
Australia. By Capt. Sir J. Gordon Bremer, r.n. ix. 499. (<See Mel- 
ville Island and Moreton Bay.) 

Overland journey from Sydney to. xiii. 339. 

Flinders Range, Report on the Country to the Eastward oL Sjath Australia. 
By Capt. C. E. Frame, r.e. xiv. 283. 

o 2 

190 Australian Papers. 

Gipps' Land, Mr. Orr's Report to Governor Latrobe of an expedition to. 

xi. 192. 
Great Barrier Reef, Survey within. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 114.) 
Grey and Stanley Range, Cadell on. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 55.) 

Hume River, On the course of, from the Hilly Districts to junction of the 
Morumbidgee. By Capt. C. Sturt. xiv. 141. 

King George's Sound, Descriptions of the Natives of. By Scott Nind. i. 21. 

Leichhardt, Expedition in search of the remains of Dr., and party. By 
John Forrest, xl. 231. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 190.) 
By Gregory. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 18.) 
By Clarke. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 87.) 
Search Expedition. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 58.) 
Liverpool Plains and Moreton Bay, On the country between. Letters 

from Comm. H. G. Hamilton, r.n. xiii. 245. 
Lord Howe Island, Visit to. By Dr. Corrie. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 136.) 

Melville Island and Port Essington, Geographical Memoir of, on Cobourg 
Peninsula; on settlements on N. coast of New Holland. By Major 
Campbell, 57th Foot. iv. 129. 

Moreton Bay to Port Essington, Account of Lud wig Leichhardt's expedi- 
tion from. xvi. 212. 

Murchison Range, John M'Douall Stuart's explorations to the North of, 
in 1860-61. xxxii. 340. 

Murray River, On the navigation of the. By Capt. Thos. Cadell. xxv. 177. 
(Proceedings, Vol. vi. 55.) 

New Guinea. (See under Oceania.) 

New South Wales, The Progress of interior discovery in. By Allan 

Cunningham, ii. 99. 
New Zealand, Notices of, from original Documents in the Colonial Office. 

ii. 133. 
Recent surveys in the middle Island of. By Capt. J. L. 

Stokes, r.n. xxi. 25. 
On the physique of the inhabitants. By Dr. A. S. Thomson. 

xxiii. 87. 

On Otago in. By J. T. Thomson. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 354.) 

Thos. Brunner's exploration of interior of Middle Island, xx. 344. 

Progress of discovery in Middle Island of. xiii. 344. 

West coast of Middle Island. By Dr. Hector. (Proceedings, 

Vol. viii. 47.) 
A reconnaissance survey of the southern districts of Otago. By 

J. T. Thomson, xxviii. 298. 
Altitude sections of routes between East and West coasts of 

Canterbury. By Julius Haast. xxxvii. 328. 
Expedition to W. coast of Otago. By Jas. Hector, xxxiv. 96. 

(Proceedings, Vol. ix. 32.) 
Two expeditions to W. coast of Middle Island, in 1859. By John 

Rochfort. xxxii. 292. 

Australian Papers. 197 

New Zealand, West coast of Middle Island. By A. Walker. (Proceedings, 
Vol. ix. 33.) 

Notes on mountains and glaciers of Canterbury. By Dr. J. 

Haast. xxxiv. 87. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 56.) 

Notes to the topographical map of the Southern Alps, in 

Canterbury. By J. Haast. xl. 433.) 

Reconnaissance survey of the Lake-districts of Otago and 

Southland. By Jas. McKerrow. xxxiv. 56. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 47.) 
North Australian Exploring Expedition, Journal of the, under A. C. 
Gregory, xxviii. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 2.) 

Progress of. By A. C. Gregory. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 

183 and 225, 324, 490.) 

Mr. Baines on. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 3.) 

North Australia, New Country of. By J. M. Stuart. (Proceedings, 

Vol. ix. 21.) 
On the Aboriginal tribes of its northern coast. By G. W. Earl. 

xvi. 239. 
Boat voyage along its north and west coasts. By J. P. Stow 

(Proceedings, Vol. x. 34.) 

Notes on, and the neighbouring seas. By G. W. Earl. xii. 139. 

North-East Australia, New harbours in. By Sinclair. (Proceedings, 

Vol. iv. 79 ; v. 4.) 
On the Settlement in Buckingham Bay, and advance of 

colonization over. By J. E. Dalrymple. xxxv. 191. 
North- West Australia, Notes on the physical geography of. By J. S. 

Wilson, xxviii. 137. 
North-West Coast op Australia, Expedition to the. By F. T. Gregory. 

xxxii. 372. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 54.) 
North- Western Australia, Explorations in. By Jas. Martin, xxxv. 237. 

(Proceedings, Vol. x. 86.) 
Expedition from Government Camp, Camden Harbour, to 

the Southward of the Glenelg River in. By R. J. Sholl. xxxvi. 203. 
The recent expedition to N.W. coast of, under Grey and 

Lushington. viii. 454. 
Survey of N.W. coast, in H.M.S. Beagle in 1838. By 

Capt. Wickham. viii. 460. 
On structure of. By W. H. Filton. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 


Phillip, Port, South Australia, On the country round, vi. 419. 
Port Denison to Cape York, An overland expedition from ; under F. and A. 
Jardine. By Richardson, xxxvi. 19. 

Queensland, Exploration of the lower course of the Burdekin in, and its 
identification with the Wickham. By G. E. Dalrymple. xxxiii. 3. 
(Proceedings, Vol. vi. 13.) 

By Frank Gregory. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 121.) 

Rockingham Bay, New Settlement in. By G. E. Dalrymple. (Proceedings, 
Vol. x. 33.) 

Somerset, Cape York, Australia, Description of neighbourhood of. By 
J. Jardine. xxxvi. 76. 

198 Australian Papers. 

Somerset and the Cape York Peninsula, Australia, Notes on physical 

geography, climate, and capabilities of. By Dr. A. Rattray, xxxviii. 370. 
South Australia, Expeditions of Discovery in. By E. J. Eyre. xiii. 161. 

Progress of discovery in. xiii. 341. 

Governor G. Grey's exploratory journey along its S.E. sea-board. 

By Thos. Burr. xv. 160. 

Expedition by Macdouall Stuart. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 77.) 

Macdonnel. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 93.) 

Marine survey of the Northern Territory of. By F. Howard. 

xxxvi. 227. 

By Freeling, Hach, &c. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 185.) 

South-Western Australia, Account of an expedition to explore. By Alex. 

Forrest, xiii. 388. 
Swan River, State of the Colony of, Jan. 1, 1830. By John Barrow, i. 1. 
■ General view of the Botany of the vicinity of. By R. Brown, i. 17. 

Van Diemen's Land, Remarks on a short vocabulary of the Natives of; and 
also of the Monero Downs in Australia. By Dr. John Lhotsky. ix. 157. 

Victoria River, Expedition of Mr. Edmund Kennedy to ascertain course of. 
xix. 193. 

Western Australia, Expedition under J. S. Roe to the South-Eastward of 

Perth in, during 1848 and 1849. xxii. 1. 
The settler's expedition to the Northward from Perth, under A. 

C. Gregory, xxii. 57. 
Governor J. Fitzgerald's expedition to the Murchison River, xxii. 


• On. By Amos Scott, xxv. 176. 

Report of an expedition to explore the interior of. By Robert 

Austin, xxvi. 235. 

Geology of. By Hargreaves. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 32.) 

■ Explorations. By H. M. Lefroy. (Proceedings, Vol. viii. 45.) 

Journey. By Brothers Dempster. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 11.) 

Interior of. By Sir C. Nicholson. (Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 190.) 

Researches in. xiii. 189. 

Expedition in. By Messrs. Gregory, in 1846. xviii. 26. 

By Gregory. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 34.) 

, Report of Lieut. Helpman, r.n., on coral discovered on the Irwin 

River, xviii. 38. 
, Note to correct inaccuracies in these papers. By J. Arrowsmith. 

xviii. 74. 
Journey across. By Col. Egerton Warburton. (Proceedings, 

Vol. v. 124 ; xix. 41.) 

Journal of expedition. By John Forrest, xli. 361. xlv. 249. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xix. 310-481.) 

Expeditions. By Giles, Ross, Forrest, and Gosse. xlvi. 328. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xix. 51.) 

York, Cape, Jardine Overland Expedition to. By Mr. Richardson. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. x. 32.) 

District of. By J. Jardine. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 85.) 

1 Peninsula. By Dr. Rattray. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 313.) 

Papers relating to Oceania. 199 

OCEANIA., Description of the Island of St. Mary. By Carew Hunt. xv. 258. 

Description of St. Michael. By C. Hunt. xv. 268. 

The Foimigas Bank near Santa Maria. By Capt. A. Vidal, r.n. xix. 


Bonin Islands, Notes on the. By Capt. Michael Quin, r.n. xxvi. 232. 

Easter Island or Rapa Nui, A visit to, in 1868. By J. L. Palmer, b.n. 
xl. 167. 

Fiji Islands, Remarks on a Government mission to the. By B. Seemann. 

xxxii. 51. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 96.) 

The. By M. Behsusan. xxxii. 42. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 97.) 

The exploration of the Bewa River and its tributaries in Na 

Viti Levu. By J. D. Macdonald. xxvii. 232. 
Friendly Islands, and Tonoatabu, Sketch of the. By O. W. Brierly. 

xxii. 97. 

Hawaii, Sandwich Islands, On the volcanic Mts. of.] [By J. G. Sawkins. 

xxv. 191. 
Hebrides, New, and Santa Cruz Groups. By Lieut. A. H. Markham. 

xlii. 213. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 388.) 

Navigator Islands, by Dr. Forbes. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 140.) 

New Britain and New Ireland, Notes on. By Rev. G. Brown, xlvii. 

Observations on, and neighbouring Islands, during six years' 

exploration. By W. Powell. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. iii. 84.) 
New Guinea, Natural History of the Louisiade Islands and, by J. MacGilli 

vray. xxi. 13. 
Contributions to the knowledge of. By Dr. Solomon Miillei 

xxviii. 264. 

Notes of a voyage to. By A. R. Wallace, xxx. 172. 

and its Islands, On the trade of the Eastern Archipelago with. 

By A. R. Wallace, xxxii. 127. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 358.) 

New strait at S.W. extremity of. vi. 439. 

On. By Miiller. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 181.) 

Recent discoveries at the Eastern end of. By Capt. J. Moresby 

xliv. 1. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 22 ; xix. 225.) 
Three visits to. By VV. Wyatt Gill. xliv. 15. (Proceedings 

Vol. xviii. 31.) 
and Western Islands of the Pacific, Notes on. By E. Redlich. 

xliv. 30. 
Eastern, Discoveries in, by Capt. Moresby and officers of H.M.S. 

" Basilisk." By Capt. J. Moresby, r.n. xlv. 153. 
Description of Country and Natives of Port Moresby and vicinity 

By O. C. Stone, xlvi. 34. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 266, 330.) 

On the trade of. By A. R. Wallace. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 43.) 

Discovery of Baxter River in. By 0. Stone. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xx. 92. 

200 Papers relating to Oceania 

New Guinea, Voyage of the " Ellangowan " to China Strait in. By Rev. S. 

Macf'arlane. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 350.) 
Fly River. By D'Albertis. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 343 ; (N.S ) 


■ Fly River. By Rev. S. Macfarlane. (Proceedings, Vol. xx. 253.) 

Travels of Mikluko Maklay in. (Proceedings, Vol. xix. 517.) 

New Hebrides and Santa Cruz Groups. By Comm. A. H. Markham. 

xlii. 213. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 388.) 
New Ireland, Journey along Coast. By Rev. G. Brown. (Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. hi. 213.) 

Pacific Ocean, Notes on the Cocos, and two of the Galapagos Group. By 

Rear- Admiral Sir G. Seymour, xix. 20. 
Extracts from a private journal kept on board H.M.S. " Seringa- 

patam, ' (1830). By Capt. W. Waldegrave, r.n. iii. 168. 

New Ieland in the. vi. 441. 

Newly discovered Islands in. vii. 454. 

Pitcairn Islanders, Recent accounts of the. By Capt. W. Waldegrave, 

r.n. iii. 156. 
Removal of. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 60.) 

Rapa. Description of the island of. By Capt. Vine Hall. (Proceedings, 
Vol. xiii. 83.) 

Saddle Island, Volcano of, extract from log of H.C. steam vessel " Victoria," 

xvi. 338. 
Sandwich Islands, On the geography and recent volcanic eruption of the. 

By Rev. Thos. Staley. xxxviii. 361. (Proceedings, Vol. xii. 305.) 
■ Letter dated Oahu, from Mr. Douglas to Capt. Sabine, iv. 333. 

(See Hawaii.) 
Santa Cruz Group, Commander A. H. Markham on. xlii. 213. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xvi. 388.) 
Sketch of the surveying voyage of H.M. ships " Adventure " and " Beagle," 

1825-36. By Capts. P. P. King, P. Stokes, and R. FitzRoy, r.n. 

vi. 311. 
South Sea Islands, Proceedings at the. By Capt. J. E. Erskine, r.n. xxi. 



Arru Islands. By A. R. Wallace. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 163.) 
Asiatic Archipelago, Proposed exploring expedition to the. By Jas. Brooke, 
viii. 443. 

Bay of Bengal, surface currents of, during the South- West Monsoon. By 
J. A. Heathcote. xxxii. 234. (Proceedings, Vol. vi. 101, 114.) 

Borneo, Observations on N.W. coast. By Spencer St. John, xxxii. 217. 
(Proceedings, Vol. vi. 83.) 

Sketch of the geography of. By John Crawfurd. xxiii. 69. 

New Maharajahate of Sabak in. By P. L. Sclater. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. i. 121.) 

On rivers Mukah and Oyah in. By Lieut. De Crcspigny. (Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 205; ii. 342; xvii. 133.) 

and the Indian Ocean. 201 

Borneo, On Northern. By Lieut. De Crespigny. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 171.) 

Journey up the Sadong Kiver. By A. R. Wallace. (Proceedings, Vol. 

i. 193.) 

Cayagan Sulu, near Borneo, Account of. By Capt. Chimmo. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xv. 384.) 

Sarawak and Northern Borneo. By \V. M. Crocker. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. iii. 193.) 

Ceylon, Positions in. x. 579. 

Cocos or Keeling Islands, Account of. Transmitted by Sir E. W. C. R. 
Owen. i. 66. 

Notes on. By H. 0. Forbes. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. i. 777.) 

Comoro Islands. By Capt. A. De Horsey, r.n. xxxiv. 258. 
By T. S. Leigh, xix. 7. 

Eastern Archipelago, Notes of a cruise in, in 1841. By Capt. 0. Stanley, 
b.n. xii. 262. 

Indian Archipelago, Voyages of steamer " Egeron " in, including discovery of 
Strait Egeron. xlviii. 294. 

On the physical structure and arrangement of the Islands of the. 

ByG.W. Earl. xv. 358. 

Indian Ocean, Geography of the bed of. By S. Osborn. xli. 46. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xv. 28.) 

On the course of the hurricane on the Malabar Coast in ApriL 

1847, and on the position of the " Cleopatra " at the time. By Capt. T. G. 
Carless. xix. 76. 

Kalatoa and Puloweh Isles. By J. Cameron. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 30.) 
Kisser, one of the Serawatti Group, Account of a visit to. By G. W. Earl. 
Vol. xi. 108. 

Madagascar. Account of the Ovahs ; sketch of their country, dress, &c. By 
Capt. Lewis, r.e. v. 230. 

A memoir on. By Lloyd, xx. 53. 

Abstract of MSS. books, &c, respecting, during the possession of 

Mauritius by the French. By W. J. Hamilton, xx. 75. 

A boat voyage along the coast lakes of East. By Capt. Brooke. 

xxxvi. 52. (Proceedings, Vol. x. 54.) 

A visit to the N.E. province of. By Rev. H. Maundrell. xxxvii. 108. 

Ankova and the Royal Cities. By Rev. W. Ellis. (Proceedings, 

Vol. x. 55.) 

Notes on W. coast of. By Capt. Wilson, r.n. xxxvi. 244. 

By Lieut. Oliver. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 68.) 

Explorations in North of. By Dr. Gunst. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 289.) 

On the central provinces of. By J. Mullens, xlv. 128. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xxi. 155.) 

Visit to Vohimarina. By Bishop of Mauritius. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xi. 50.) 

Recent journeys in. By Rev. J. Mullens, xlvii. 47. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xix. 182.) 

Journey from Antananarivo to Mojunga. By J. H. Maynard. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xx. 110.) 

202 Miscellaneous Papers. 

Madagascar. History of geographical knowledge of. By Rev. James Sibree. 

(Proceedings (N.S.)Vol. i. 646.) 
Malay Archipelago. On the Physical Geography of the. By A. R. 

Wallace, xxxiii. 217. (Proceedings, Vol. vii. 206.) 
Maldives, Commodore Moresby's Report on the Northern Atclls of tbe. 

v. 398. 

Rodriguez, Island of. Remarks on the country, products, &c. By E. Higgin. 
xix. 17. 

Serawatti Group. (See Kisser.) 

Seychelles. On the Island of Mahi. By Lieut.-Col. Lewis Pelly. xxxv. 

Sumatra, Dutch expedition to Central. By Professor Veth. (Proceedings 

(N.S.) Vol. i. 759.) 


Aneroid Barometer, Remarks on. By Col. P. Yorke. xxi. 35. 

for the purposes of surveying in India. By Dr. Geo. Buist. xxi. 42. 

Antiquity of Continents, Lecture on comparative, as indicated by distribu- 
tion of animals. By A. Wallace. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 505.) 

Arid Countries, On certain, and causes of their dryness. By Thos. Hopkins, 
xxvi. 158. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 58.) 

Exploration of. By F. Galton. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 60.) 

Atlantic Ocean, Geography of the bed of. By S. Osborn. xli. 46. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xv. 28.) 

Sea bed of. Proposed survey. By Dr. Wallich. (Proceedings, 

vii. 53.) 

Aurora Borealis. By J. W. Tayler. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 117.) 

Bifurcate Stream, Notice of, at Glen Lednoch Head, Perthshire. By T. P. 

White. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 352.) 
Bread Plants, The geography of. By Ph. Dr. Michelsen. xxxii. 565. 
" Bulldog," H.M.S., Surveys of. By Sir Leopold M'Clintock. (Proceedings, 

Vol. v. 62.) 

Canons and Fjords, Remarks on formation of. By R. Brown, xli. 348. 
Columbus, Landfall of. By R. H. Major, xli. 193. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 

By Capt. Becher, r.n. xxvi. 189. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 94.) 

Currents (Oceanic). On their connection with proposed Central American 

Canal. By A. G. Findlay. xxiii. 217. 

(Oceanic) on N.E. coast of S. America. By J. A. Mann. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vii. 50.) 

Gibraltar. By Dr. Carpenter. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 54.) (See 

Irminger, under Arctic and Ocean Circulation, Gulf Stream.) 

Cyclones, On the formation of, and tracks they pursue. By Capt. A. Parish. 

xxvi. 154. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 36.) 
C* clonic Hurricanes, Chronological Table of 400, in West Indies and North 

Atlantic. By Andres Poey. xxv. 291. 

Miscellaneous Papers, 203 

Distances, Vertical, Different standards for expressing. By Miss Colthurst. 
xix. 192. 

Earthquake Wave at Samoa. By Kev. D. Turner. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 

Education, Place of geography in. By Kev. E. Hale. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xvi. 450.) 
Electric Circuits. By Shaffner. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 94.) 
Evolution, Geographical. By Protessor Geikie. (Proceedings (N.S.) Vol. 

i. 422.) 

Fjords, Canons, Benches, Prairies, and intermittent rivers, on the formation 
of. By R. Brown, xxxix. 121. (Pioceedings, Vol. xiii. 144.) 

See Canons. 

' Fox,' Surveys of. By Capt. Allen Young. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 70.) 

Geography, Sketch of progress of, from 1836-37, and of the labours of the 
Royal Geographical Society. By Capt. J. Washington, r.n. vii. 172. 

Sketch of progress of, and of the labours of the Royal Geographical 

Society in 1837-38. By Captain J. Washington, r.n. viii. 235. 

Geographical Societies, Regulations respecting, in British Colonies and 

Dependencies, iii. 324. 

Discovery, Notes indicative of the progress of. xiii. 194. 

Globe, Old, at Frankfort, date 1520, Memorandum on. By H. Blanchard. 

xviii. 45. 

Voyage round the. By F. D. Bennett. 1833-36. vii. 211. 

Ground Ice in the Siberian Rivers. By Col. Jackson, vi. 416. 

Gulf Stream soundings and temperatures. By Comm. Chimmo. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xiii. 92.) 

On the. By Mr. A. G. Findlay. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 102.) 

Evidence of, in North Atlantic. By Admiral Irminger. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xiii. 226.) 

Dr. Carpenter on. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 54.) 

Heights, Determination of, from atmospheric pressure. By A. Buchan. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 360.) 
Hints to Travellers. By Admirals Smyth, Beechey, and Col. Sykes. 

xxiv. 328. 

Second edition, xxxiv. 272. 

Third edition. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 5.), 

Hurricanes. (See Cyclonic.) 

Ice. (See Ground Ice.) 

Iceberg, Note on a rock seen on an, in 61° s. lat. By C. Darwin, ix. 528. 

Lakes, On the seiches of. By Col. Jackson, iii. 271. 

Longitude, On instruments for observing. By travellers on laud. xxx. 315. 

By Moon's greatest altitude. By W. Spottiswoode. (Proceedings, 

Vol. v. 234.) 

Magnetic Intensity of the Earth, viii. 367. 

204 Miscellaneous Papers. 

Magnetic variations at Aden. Notice. By Capt. Haines, xxiv. 225. 

Magnetism of the Earth. Lecture. By Capt. Evans. (Proceedings, Vol. 
xxii. 188.) 

Mainland masses, Lecture on. By Prof. Duncan. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 

Maps. Description of Sir Henry James' projection, xxx. 106. (See Pro- 

Meteorological Observations, Instructions for making and registering, at 
various stations in Southern Africa, as also at sea. v. 367. 

and other observations made on voyage to Algoa Bay in 1853. By 

Dr. Sutherland, xxv. 256. 

Journal kept at Alexandria, Notes on. By Hugh Thurburn. xxii. 128. 

Mountain Banges, Typical. By Wm. Spottiswoode. xxxi. 149. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iv. 97.) 

Names of Places in geography. By Lieut.-Col. Ross King. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xix. 134.) 
Nomenclature, geographical, Hints on. By Col. Jackson, iv. 72. 

Oceanic Circulation. By Dr. Carpenter. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 54.) 

Letter from Sir J. Herschel. (Proceedings, Vol. xv. 211.) 

Further inquiries on. By Dr. Carpenter. (Proceedings, Vol. 

xviii. 301. 
Oceans, Geography of the beds of. By Sherard Osborn. xli. 46. (See Seas ; 

Salt ; Temperature.) 
Organic Nature, Lecture on the modifications of the external aspects of, 

produced by man's interference. By Prof. Rolleston. xlix. 320. 
Orography, Additions to. By Prof. Chaix. x. 575. 

Picturesque Description in books of travel. By Col. Jackson, v. 381. 

Places with Two Names, List of. By E. Norris. xxiv. 318. 

Plant Distribution as a field for geographical research. By Thiselton Dyer. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 412.) 
Projection of the Sphere, On a new. By Sir J. Herschel. xxx. 100. 

(Proceedings, Vol. iii. 174.) 
Description of Sir H. James's, xxx. 106. 

Reconnaissance of a new country. By Capt. Warren. (Proceedings, Vol. 
xix. 155.) 

Salt, On the distribution of, in the ocean. By J. Y. Buchanan, xlvii. 72. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 255.) 
Sea, Physical geography of. By Maury. (Proceedings, Vol. v. 22.) 
Seas passed between England and India, On specific gravity, temperature, 

and currents of. By H. Toynbee. xxxv. 147. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 

Scientific Geography, Introductory lecture on. By Lieut.- Gen. Strachey. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 179.) 

On the scope of. By Gen. Strachey. (Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 443.) 

Stake as a linear Measure, Col. Leake on. ix. 1. 

Miscellaneous Papers. 205 

Stereoscopic Maps taken from models of mountainous countries. By F. Galton. 

xxxv. 99. (Proceedings, Vol. ix. 104.) 
Sun Signals. By Francis Galton. (Proceedings, Vol. iv. 14.) 

Temperature of deep-sea bottom. Lecture by Dr. Carpenter. (Proceedings, 
Vol. xxi. 289.) 

Surface, of North Atlantic, Admiral Irminger on. xl. 441. 

Mild, of British Isles in winter, on causes of. By T. Hopkins, xxvii. 


Ocean. Summary of observations recently made. By Dr. Carpenter. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xix. 493.) 

Surface of North Atlantic. By N. Whitley. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 


Thermometer, Use of, to determine heights, CoL Sykes on. viii. 435. 
Trade Winds. By T. Hopkins. (Proceedings, Vol. ii. 357.) 
Tussac Grass, Sir W. Hooker on. xii. 265. 

Vespucci, Amerigo Varnhagen on the voyages of. (Proceedings, Vol. iii. 

( 206 ) 







Geographical Arrangement and Nomenclature, Illustrations to Col. 

Jackson's Paper on. (Journal, Vol. iv.) 
Land-Masses. — 5 Diagrams to illustrate the paper by Prof. P. Martin 

Duncan, " On the Formation of the Main Land-Masses." (Proceedings, 

Vol. xxii.) 
Oceanic Circulation. — Further inquiries on. Diagrams to illustrate Dr. 

Carpenter's Paper on. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii.) 
Oceanic Currents. — Map to illustrate Findlay's Paper on. (Journal, Vol. 

Projection. — Col. James's Projection. (Journal, Vol. xxx.) 

New Projection of the Sphere. Herschel. (Journal, Vol. xxx.) 

Saltness of the Ocean. — Chart showing the Distribution of. (Journal, 

Vol. xlvii.) 
Vertical Distances. — Table to illustrate Miss Coulthurst's Comparative 

View of the various Standards used to express Vertical Distances. 

(Journal, Vol. xix.) 
World. — 1. Lines of Equal Magnetic Variation or Declination (Isogonic 
Lines) 1878. 

2. Terrestrial Magnetic Meridians, and Curves or Equal Dip, or 

Inclination (Isoclinal Lines) 1878. (With the Magnetic 
Pole in each Hemisphere.) 

3. The Earth's Magnetism. 

To accompany the Paper by Capt. F. J. Evans, Hydrographer of the 
Admiralty. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii.) 


Arctic Coasts. — Examined by Dr. J. Eae. (Journal, Vol. xxii.) 

Arctic Discoveries. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 

Arctic Explorations. — Map to illustrate Dr. Rink's Paper on Dr. Kane's 

Arctic Explorations. — (Journal, Vol. xxviii.) 
Arctic Land Expedition. — Map showing the Route of the recent Arctic 

Land Expedition. (Journal, Vol. v.) 
Arctic Land Expedition. — Map of the Route of the. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 

Arctic Maps. 207 

Arctic Regions. — Map of the range of Temperature in the. 2 Maps. 
(Journal, Vol. ix.) 

■ Map to illustrate Inglefield's Route in the. (Journal, Vol. xxiii.) 

Chart illustrating the remarks of Mr. Findlay, on the prohahle 

course pursued by Sir John Franklin's expedition, and of Capt. Irminger, 
on the Arctic Current around Greenland. (Journal. Vol. xxvi.) 

— 1 — Map to illustrate Kennedy's Route in the. (Journal, Vol. xxiii.) 

Map to illustrate Dr. Rae's Arctic Explorations. (Journal, Vol. 


Map to illustrate Capt. Sherard Oshorn's Paper on Light in the. 

(Journal, Vol. xxviii.) 

Map showing the Coasts explored in 1859, in search of the lost 

ships of Sir John Franklin in 1845. (Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 

Map of the North Tolar Regions : to illustrate the paper on the 

origin and migrations of the Greenland Esquimaux by C. R. Markham, 
Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 

Chart of Coast from Cape York to Smith's Channel. Drawn 

by Kallihirua (alias Erasmus York). Supplement to the Journal, 
" Arctic Papers for the Expedition of 1875." 

Circumpolar Map. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi.) 

Chart of the Ice-Field between Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla in 

1676. (Proceedings, Vol. ix.) 

The Swedish and Dutch Arctic Expeditions of 1878. (Proceed- 

ings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

Map of the Barents and Kara Seas, illustrating the Arctic Cani^ 

paign of 1879. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 
Balleny Islands. — View of the. Antarctic Ocean. (Journal, Vol. ix.) 
Deception Island, New South Shetland. — By Lieut. E. N. Kendall, 1829. 

(Journal, Vol. i.) 
Feanz Josef Land, Map of : from a Survev by Julius Payer. (Journal, 

Vol. xli.) 

South Coast of. (Proceedings, Vol. iii., New Series, p. 129.) 

Greenland. — Map illustrating Rink's Paper on the Continental Ice of. 

(Journal, Vol. xxiii.) 

From " Purchas his Pilgrimes." Vol. iii. To illustrate Mr. Markham 's 

Paper. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 

South Coast of. — Sketch Chart of the : from the Danish Admiralty 

Survey, corrected to 1873. Supplement to the Journal, " Arctic Papers 
for the expedition of 1875." 

South West. — Sketch Chart of: from the Danish Admiralty Survey, 

corrected to 1873. With Prof. Rafn's adaptation of the ancient Sites 
from Ivar Bardsen's Chorography. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 

Kino William Land. — Showing the Line of retreat of the Franklin Expedi- 
tion. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

North-West Passage. — Map to illustrate McClure's Discovery of the. 
(Journal, Vol. xxiv.) 

Novaia Zemlia. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 

Nov ata Zemlya. — The Matyushin Shar (Matotschkin Schar) and part of the 
East Coast of Novaya Zemlya. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

Smith Sound. — Map to illustrate Dr. Kane's Expedition up. (Journal, Vol. 

208 Maps. — Europe. 

Southern Hemisphere. — Part of the Southern Hemisphere, showing recent 

discoveries. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 
South Polar Regions. — To illustrate the Paper hy Staff-Commander J. E. 

Davis. (Journal, Vol. xxxix.) 
Spitzbergen. — Map of: to illustrate the Paper by Prof. Nordenskiold and 

Capt. von Otter. (Journal, Vol. xxxix.) 

Map to illustrate Petermann's Paper on the Sea of. (Journal, Vol. 


Fac-simile of the latest Edition of Van Keulen's Chart of. 1707. To 

illustrate Mr. Markham's Paper. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 

Zeno Map. — (Fac-simile.) 1. To accompany Mr. Major's Paper on the 
" Site of the lost Colony of Greenland and the Pre-Columbian Dis- 
coveries of America." (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 
2. Sketch Map of the Countries referred to in the Zeno narrative. To 
accompany Mr. Major's Paper. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 


Adriatic Sea. — 1. Appearance of the bottom of the. 

2. Course of the descending River. 

3. Currents in the. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

Aitkin's Rock. — Track of H. M. 61oop " Onyx," in search of Aitkin's Rock, 

under the command of Capt. A. T. E. Vidal, R.N., 1830. (Journal, 

Vol. i.) 
Albania. — Count Karaczay's Map of. (Journal, Vol. xii.) 
Athos, Mount. — (Journal, Vol. vii.) 

• Map of the Isthmus of. (Journal, Vol. xvii.) 

Arta, the Gulf of. — Surveyed in 1830. Drawn by Lieut. James Wolfe, 

r.n. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 
Argos Amphilochicum. Wall of Limncea, S.W. Side. Ruins of 

Limncea. Ruins at Camarina. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 
Azov, Sea of. — Capt. Sherard Osborn's Paper on the. (Journal, Vol. xxvii.) 
Balkan. — Map to illustrate Jochmus's Journey in the. (Journal, Vol. xxiv.) 
Beaufort, Valley of. — Map to illustrate Prof. Chaix's Paper on the. 

(Journal, Vol. xxv.) 
Columbretes Rocks, near the Coast of Valencia, Spain, by Capt. W. H. 

Smyth, r.n., K.S.F., f.r.s. (Journal, Vol. i.) 
Danube, River. — Map to accompany Notes on the Lower Course of the. By 

Major J. Stokes, r.e., 1859. (Journal, Vol. xxx.) 
Epirus. — Map of. To accompany the Paper by Major R. Stuart. (Journal, 

Vol. xxxix.) 
F.er6e Islands. — Map of the. To illustrate the Route of Nicolo Zeno- 

(Journal, Vol. xliii.) 
Graham Island. —Sketch of the appearance of Graham Island on the 18th 

of July, 1831, when examined by H.M.S. " Rapid." (Journal, Vol. i.) 
Greece. — Map of the Northern Frontier of. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 
Maps, etc., to illustrate General Jochmus's Commentaries (seven in 

number). 1. Taking of Thermus. 2. Defile of Me*nela'ion. 3. 

Brennus against Thermopylas, etc. 4. Battle of Marathon. 5. Plan of 

Sellasia. 6. Antiquities in Laconia, etc. 7. Sketch of Laconia and 

Cynuria, etc. (Journal, Vol. xxvii.) 

Maps. — Asia. 209 

Iceland. — Map of. To illustrate the Paper by W. L. Watts, Esq. (Journal, 
Vol. xlvi.) 

Map to illustrate the Paper by Admiral Irminger. (Journal, Vol. xliv.) 

Kustenje and the Danube. — Map to illustrate Capt. Spratt's Route between. 

(Journal, Vol. xxvi.) 
Milo Group, etc. — Map of the Volcanic Group of Milo, etc., and of the 

Ancient Town of Melos, by Lieut. Leycester. (Journal, Vol. xxii.) 
Minoa and Nisosa. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 
Neva. — Tables illustrating a Memoir on the Congelation of the Neva. 

(Journal, Vol. v.) 
Nobway and Lapland. — Map of the Coasts of. To illustrate Lieut. G. T. 

Temple's Paper. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 
Santobin. — Admiralty Map of. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Views of. To illustrate Lieut. Leycester's Paper. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Ubal Mountains. — Map of the Southern Ural. Communicated by R. I. 

Murchison, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xiii.) 


Aden. — Map of the vicinity of. To accompany the Paper by G. J. Stevens. 

(Journal, Vol. xliii.) 
Afghanistan, etc. — Map showing Route from Peshawur, through Chitral to 

Faizabad in Badakshan. From the Exploration made by a Sapper 

Havildar during 1870. To accompany the Paper by Major T. G. Mont- 

gomerie, b.e., f.b.g.s. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

10 Sketches to illustrate Sir Richard Temple's Paper, " The Highway 

from the Indus to Candahar." (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

Map of the Country between Sind and Candahar, showing the course of 

the proposed Railway. To illustrate Sir Richard Temple's Paper. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

12 Views, etc., illustrating Sir Michael A. Biddulph's Paper, " Pishin 

and the Routes between India and Candahar." (Proceedings, Vol. ii., 
New Series.) 

Al Hadhb, Ruins at. — (Journal, Vol. xi.) 

Aiju-Dabia. — Map of the Delta and Mouths of the. From a Sketch Map by 

Admiral A. Boutakoff (Russian Navy). (Journal, Vol. xxvii.) 
Amu-Dabya, R. — Mouths and Lower Courses of Amu (17th Century and 

subsequently). Lower courses of Amu-darya, 1848-59 (after Boutakoff). 

(Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

19 Diagrams, Sections, etc., of the. To illustrate Wood's Notes on the 

Lower Amu-darya. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

Amur Riveb. — Map to illustrate Notes on the. (Journal, Vol. xxviii.) 
Anti-Libanus. — Sketch Map of the. From Observations taken in 1878, by 

C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, f.b.g.8. To accompany Capt. Burton's Paper. 

(Journal, Vol. xlii.) 
Ababia. — Map of. Showing the Routes of W. G. Palgrave, Esq., in 1862-3. 

(Journal, Vol. xxxiv.) 

Map of. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Map to illustrate Wallin's Journeys in. (Journal, Vol. xxiv.) 


210 Maps. — Asia. 

Arabia. — Map of Part of. Showing the Route of Lieut.-Col. Pelly. (Journal, 
Vol. xxxv.) 

Map of Northern and Central. To illustrate Mr. Blunt's Paper, 

" A Visit to Jebel Shammar." (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

Map of Part of the South Coast of Arabia. (Journal, Vol. ix.) 

Map of the Southern Coast of. Showing the Eoute of Capt. S. B. 

Miles and Werner Munzinger in 1870. (Journal, Vol. xli.) 

Part of South-East Coast of. (Journal, Vol. xv.) 

South-East Coast of. (Journal, Vol. xvi.) 

Arabia Petr.ea and Palestine. — Map of Part of. (Journal, Vol. ix.) 
Aral Sea. — Map to illustrate Butakoffs Survey of the. (Journal, 

Vol. xxiii.) 
Aral, Lake. — Southern Part of; according to the Survey of 1873. To 

illustrate Wood's Notes. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 
After Admiral Butakoff. To illustrate Wood's Notes on Lake 

Aral. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 
Armenia and Asia Minor. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 
Armenia, Kurdistan, and Upper Mesopotamia. — Maps illustrating a Tour 

in. By J. G. Taylor, H.M. Consul for Kurdistan. (Journal, Vol. 

Asia, Central. — Constructed from the latest English and Russian docu- 
ments ; adapted to Recent Astronomical Observations. By J. Arrow- 
smith. 1872. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 
Map of. To accompany the Paper, by Capt. H. Trotter, r.e., on 

the Geographical Results of Sir T. D. Forsyth's Mission to Kashghar, 

1873-74. (Journal, Vol. xlviii.) 
Asia Minor. — Map of part of. From Scutari to Vezir Kopri. (Journal, 

Vol. ix.) 

Western portion of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 

Map of Routes in. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 

Asia Western. — Sketch, showing the Routes of Lieuts. Conolly and Burnes. 

(Journal, Vol. iv.) 
Assam over the Patkoi Range into Hookoong. — Map showing the Route 

from. To illustrate the Paper by H. L. Jenkins, Esq. (Journal, 

Vol. xli.) 
Baghdad to Busrah. — Map to illustrate Mr. Loftus' Journey from. (Jour- 
nal, Vol. xxvi.) 
Beluchistan and Eastern Persia. — Sketch Map of, to accompany the 

Papers by Col. F. J. Goldsmid, C.B., and J. W. Barns, Esq., c.E. 

(Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 
Bengal, Bay of. — Chart of the : showing the Currents of the S.W. Monsoon. 

by Lieut. J. A. Heathcote, H.M.I. Navy. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 
Bhamo and Momein. — Map of the country between : showing the route of 

the expedition under the command of Major E. B. Sladen. (Journal, 

Vol. xli.) 
Bhamo and Mcng-Mau. Route Map between. Through the Hills of the 

Lenna Kahhyens, by Ney Elias, Esq., 1875. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
Bhawxtlpore States (Pdnjab). — Map of the, to accompany the Paper by 

J. W. Barns, Esq., f.g.s. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 
Bolor Highlands. — Map to accompany Paper on the. By M. Veniukof. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xiii.) 

Maps. — Asia. 211 

Bolor Mountains, and the Upper Sources of the Amu Daria, explanatory 
Map to Article on the Pamir. By M. Veniukof. (Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 

Borneo Island. — Part of the N.W. Coast of Borneo, to illustrate the Paper 
of Spencer St. John, Esq., H.B.M. Consul-Greneral for Borneo. (Journal, 
Vol. xxxii.) 

North. (Proceedings, Vol. Hi., New Series, p. 256.) 

Burma, etc. — Map to illustrate Capt. Yule's Paper on the Geography of. 
(Journal, Vol. xxvii.) 

Bustar Dependency. — Sketch Map of the, by Capt. T. Etoldich, r.e. 
(Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

Busker to Shiraz, and thence to Kazerun. — Map to illustrate General 
Monteith's and Consul Abbott's Route from. (Journal, Vol. xxvii.) 

Cambodia. — Map of Part of the Province of Siemrab (Cambodia), to accom- 
pany the Paper by Dr. Bastian. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 

etc. — Map of .Cambodia, the Lao Country, etc. : to illustrate the 

Route and Notes of M. Henri Mouhot, 1859-61. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

Caria and Lycia. — Map of. By Mr. Hoskyn. (Journal, Vol. xii.) 

Caucasus. — Map of the. (Journal, Vol. xxi.) 

China. — Sketch Map of the South-Western Frontiers of China, from a Map 
compiled by the French Missionaries. (Proceedings, Vol. xv.) 

Map to illustrate the journey from Hankow to Tali-fu of Mr. A. R. 

Margary. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 

Map showing the proposed Overland Trade Routes from India and 

British Burmah to. To accompany the Paper by J. Coryton, Esq. 
(Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

Central and Southern. — Map of, illustrating Mr. McCarthy's Journey 

from Chin-Kiang to Bhamo, 1877. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

Eastern. — Maps to accompany Papers on Journeys in, by G. J. 

Morrison,, 1878. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

North and Inner Mongolia. — Route Map of Journey through, by 

Dr. Bushell. (Journal, Vol. xliv.) 

South-Eastern Coast of. — From Sir Robert Dudley's Arcano del 

Mare. VoL ii., 1647. (Journal, Vol. xliv.) 

Western and Eastern Tibet. — Route Map of Capt. W. J. Gill's 

Journey in. 1877. (Journal, Vol. xlviii.) 

Chusan. — Map to illustrate Davis's Paper on. (Journal, Vol. xxiii.) 
Cochin. — Sketch to illustrate the Paper on. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 
Constantinople to Mosul. — Route from. (Journal, Vol. x.) 
Coorg. — Map of. To accompany the Paper by George Bidie, M.B. (Journal, 
Vol. xxxix.) 

Curia Muria Isles. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. xi.) 

Cutch, Runn of, etc — Map to illustrate Sir H. Bartle E. Frere's Notes on 
the. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 

Damascus, Hauran, and Lebanon. — Map to illustrate the Rev. Mr. Porter's 
Paper on Damascus, Hauran, and Lebanon. (Journal, Vol. xxvi.) 

Eastern Archipelago. — (Journal, VoL xv.) 

Eastern Turkistan. — Sketch Map of: showing the Hydrography of the 
Pamir to the East, the true Courses of the Yarkand and Karakash 
Rivers, with all the Routes from Ladak across the Karakoram and 
adjacent Ranges. To illustrate the Paper of G. W. Hay ward. (Journal, 
Vol. xl.) 


212 Maps. — Asia. 

Eastern Turkistan, Sketch Map of. To illustrate the Paper by K. B. 

Shaw, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
El Jemn. — Amphitheatre of. A View. (Journal, Vol. iv.) 
Everest, Mount, and Deodanga. — Map to illustrate Col. A. S. Waugh's 

Paper on. (Proceedings, Vol. ii.) 
Formosa Island. — Sketch Map of. To illustrate the Paper by Mr. Kobert 

Swinhoe (Vice Consul). (Journal, Vol. xxxiv.) 
Southern. — Sketch map of. To accompany the Paper by J. Thom- 
son, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 
Ganges, Mouths of the. — To illustrate account of the Cossyah Country. 

(Journal, Vol. ii.) 
Georgia and Armenia. — Part of. To illustrate Col. Monteith's Journal. 

(Journal, Vol. iii.) 
Hauran, etc. — Map to illustrate Mr. Cyril Graham's Explorations East of 

the Hauran, etc. (Journal, Vol. xxviii.) 
Helmund Eiver. — Map of the. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 
Himma-leh Mountains. — Sketch of Part of the. To illustrate the Paper 

by Capt. Johnson. (Journal, Vol. iv.) 
Hindu Kush and Passes between the Kabul and Oxus. — (Proceedings, 

Vol. i., New Series.) 
India, etc. — Sketch Map of North-Eastern India, with Portions of Burmah 
and China. To accompany the Paper by Gen. Sir Arthur Cotton, r.e. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 
Indus. — Map of the Delta of the. To accompany the Paper by Col. C. W. 
Tremenheere, c.b., r.e. (Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 

Delta of the. — (Journal, Vol. viii.) 

— — and Punjab Rivers. — A Map of the Indus and Punjab Rivers, 
with the Southern Portion of Rajpootana, by Lieut. Burnes, of the 
Bombay Army. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 

Map of the Indus and Punjab Rivers, with the Southern Portion 

of Rajpootana, by Lieut. Burnes, of the Bombay Army. (Journal, 
Vol. iv.) 
Iskenderun, Bay of. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 
Japan. — Map of. Reduced from a Japanese Map. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

The Island of Yezo. To illustrate the Papers by Capt. T. Blakiston 

and Com. St. John, r.n. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

Map to illustrate Mr. Troup's Tour. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

Sketch Map of Route from Kioto to Yedo (Japan.) To accompany the 

Paper by C. W. Lawrence, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 

Map to illustrate a Journey from the City of Yeddo to the Mountain 

of Fusi-Yama; performed by Rutherford Alcock, Esq., c.b., 1860. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 

■ Map of Part of Nipon Island. To accompany Mr. Adams' Report on 

the Central Silk Districts of Japan. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 

Jask to Bampur. — Route Map from. To accompany the Paper by Mr. E. 
A. Floyer. (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

Jebel Shammar— Sketch Map of the. By "W. S. Blunt, Esq. 1879. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

Jerahi River. — Part of the. (Journal, Vol. xvi.) 
Kach'hi Gandava.— Routes in. (Journal, Vol. viv.) 

Maps. — Asia. 213 

Kandahar to India. — Sketch Map of a Portion of the march of the Tal — 

Chotiali Field Force from Kandahar to India in the spring of 1879. 

Compiled from personal observation and from information obtained, by 

Lieut. R. C. Temple, b.s.c. (Journal, Vol. xlix.) 
Kabun River. — Sketch of the. (Journal, Vol. xiv.) 
Kashgar. — Map of the Route from Badakshan, across the Pamir Steppe to, 

with the Southern Branch of the Upper Oxus. From the Survey made 

by the Mirza, in 1868-69. To accompany the Paper by Major T. G. 

Montgomerie, r.e., f.r.g.s. (Journal, Vol. xli.) 
Kashmere, &c. — Two Sections of the Map of George Ludwig von . 

Reduced to one fourth. (From a tracing sent to the R.G.S. by M. de 

Khanikof). (Proceedings, Vol. x.) 
Kashmir. — Map of the Valley of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 
Kashmir.— Map of the valley of. From Surveys made by Capt. T. G. 

Montgomerie, under the direction of the Surveyor General of India. 

To illustrate the Notes of Capt. Godwin Austen and William Purdon, 

Esq., to which is added a Sketch of surrounding Countries. (Journal, 

Vol. xxxi.) 

Khiva. — Khanate of. After Russian sources by Major Herbert Wood, r.e. 
(Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

Khorassan. — Map of the Northern Frontier of. With parts of Irak aud 

Mazandardn. To illustrate Reports by Capt. the Hon. G. Napier. 

(Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
Khtjzistan. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. xvi.) 
Kishm Island. — Map of. To accompany the Paper by Lieut. Col. Lewis 

Pelly. (Journal, Vol. xxxiv.) 
Koladyn. — Map to illustrate Tickell's Voyage up the. (Journal, Vol. xxiv.) 
Kong, or Cassia River.— Reduced from the large Map by Albert S. 

Bickmore, Esq., m.a. With Sketch Map illustrating Mr. Bickmore's 

Journey from Canton to Hankow. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 
Kooloo, Lahoul, and Spiti. — A Map to illustrate Capt. Harcourt's Paper 

on the Himalayan Valleys of. With a Sketch Map of the Passes from 

India to Eastern Turkistan. (Journal, Vol. xli.) 
Korea, Strait of. — Tsu-sima Island in the Strait of Korea. To illustrate 

the Paper by Laurence Oliphant, Esq., 1863. (Journal, Vol. xxxiii.) 
Kuldja District and the Russo-Chinese Frontier in Turkistan. — 

Reduced from Col. Walker's Map. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New 

Kuma6n and Garhwal. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. xxi.) 
Kurdistan. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. xi.) 
Map of Part of. Illustrating the Journeys and Researches of Mr. 

Consul Taylor. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 
Kurdistan and Part of Persia. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 
Kurrachee to Gwadur. — Map of the Coast from. Showing the Route 

traversed by Major Goldsmid and Party. (Journal, Vol. xxxiii.) 
Leh (Ladak) to the City of Yarkund. — Summer Route from. By 

Capt. T. G. Montgomerie, r.e. (Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 
Leh and IlchL — Map of the Country between. Showing the Routes taken 

by Mr. Johnson, Civil-Assistant G. T. Survey, 1865. (Journal, Vol. 

Madras Presidency. — The Hill Districts in the. To accompany Mr. C. R. 

Markham's Pai>er. (Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 

214 Maps. — Asia. 

Maghian. — Map of. By M. Fedchenko. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 
Mahanuddy River (Central India). — Sketch Map of the Basin of the. 

To accompany the Paper by R. Temple, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 
Mahavillaganga River, at Peradenia, Ceylon. — A View. (Journal, 

Vol. iii.) 
Malabar Coast. — Sketch to illustrate Capt. Carless's Paper on the Hurricane 

off the. (Journal, Vol. xix.) 
Malay Archipelago. — Map to illustrate a Paper on the Physical Geography 

of the. By Alfred Russell Wallace, Esq., 1863. (Journal, Vol. xxxiii.) 
Maldiva Islands. — From Capt. Horsburgh's Chart, 1814. (Journal, 

Vol. ii.) 
Manchuria. — Map of the Russian Possessions in. To accompany the Paper 

by Rev. W. V. Lloyd. (Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 

Map to accompany the Notes on. By the Rev. Alexander Williamson. 

(Journal, Vol. xxxix.) 

Map to accompany Notes of a Journey through. By the Archimand- 
rite Palladium. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

&c. — Map to illustrate the Routes of Messrs. Michie and Grant, the 

former from Tien-tsin to Moukden in Manchucia, the latter from Peking 
across the Desert of Gobi to Kiachta. (Journal, Vol. xxxiii.) 

Mediterranean to the Dead Sea. — Map showing the Levelling from. 
Executed by Capt. Wilson, r.e., under the direction of Sir Henry 
James, r.e., f.r.s., Director of the Ordnance Survey. (Journal, Vol. 

Menam and other Siamese Rivers. — Sketch of. From the Surveys and 
Observations of the American Missionaries. Communicated by Mr. 
Consul Parkes. 1855. (Proceedings, Vol. v.) 

Mesh-hed to the Heri Rud. — Dr. Forbes' Route from. (Journal, Vol. 

Mesopotamia. — Trigonometrical Survey of a part of, from Sheriat-el-Beytha 

(on the Tigris) to Tel Ibrahim. To accompany the Paper by Lieut. J. 

B. Bewsher. (Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 
Midian. — Map of the Land of. Constructed from Reconnaissances and 

Surveys made by Officers of the Egyptian General Staff, under the 

command of Capt. R. F. Burton, 1878. (Journal, Vol. xlix.) 
Mokha to San'a. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 
Mongolia, Western. — Map to illustrate a Journey through. By Ney Elias, 

Jun., f.r.g.s., July, 1872, to January, 1873. (Journal, Vol xliii.) 
Nakab el Hajar. — Map of a Route to the Ruins of, in Arabia. (Journal, 

VoL vii.) 
Nor-Zaisan Lake, and its Neighbourhood (Chinese Tartary). — To 

illustrate the Paper of M. Abramof. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 
Oman, in Arabia. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 
Oxus, Upper. — 3 Sketches taken from Chinese Map. To illustrate Col. 

Yule's Papers. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

Upper "Region. — Photographic reduction of a Chinese Map of the 

Upper Oxus Region, with Autograph Transciptions by Julius Klaproth, 
to whom it belonged. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

Palestine. — Physical Map of. To accompany the Paper by Major C. W. 
Wilson, R.E. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 

Map to illustrate Mr. Poole's Route in. (Journal, Vol. xxvi.) 

Maps. — Asia. 215 

Palestine. — Map to illustrate Kobinson's Journey in. (Journal, Vol. xxiv.) 
Pamir Steppe. — Map of the, and Neighbouring Districts. To illustrate the 
Letters of Col. Gordon and Members of the Kashgar Mission. (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xviii.) 
Paumbdm Passage. — Gulf of Manaar, 1833. (Journal, Vol. iv.) 
Peking. — Plan of the city of. From a Survey by Capt. Bouvier, of the 
French Engineers, 1862. To illustrate the Paper by W. Lockhart, Esq. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 
Pebak, and Adjacent Native States. — Sketch Map of. To illustrate the 

Paper by W. Barrington D' Almeida. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
Persia. — Map to illustrate Routes from Teheran to Herat, and from Teheran 
to Bushire. By Capt. Claude Clerk. (Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 

Routes in. (Journal, Vol. xi.) 

Map to illustrate Consul Abbott's Routes in. (Journal, Vol. xxv.) 

Section from Bushire to Teheran. To accompany the Paper by Major 

0. St. John. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 

• and India. — Sketch to illustrate a Memoir, by E. Stirling, Esq., on the 

Political State of the Countries between Persia and India. (Journal, 

Vol. v.) 
Persian Gulf. — Map of the Eastern Shores of the Persian Gulf. (Journal, 

Vol. v.) 
Persia, Eastern. — Map of. To illustrate the Paper by Major-Gen. Sir F. 

J. Goldsmid. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 
Pishin Valley and Upper Basin of the Lora. — Constructed from the 

surveys and reconnaissances executed by officers attached to the forces 

serving in Southern Afghanistan, 1879, collatted with Major Wilson's 

Map by W. J. Turner. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 
Red Sea. — Map of the. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 
Russian and Chinese Frontier. — Map of the. Illustrating the Journey of 

Semenof to the Tian-Shan Mountains and River Jaxartes, and Golubefs 

Issyk-kul Expedition. (Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 
Saghalin. — The Island of. From Russian Authorities. To accompany the 

Paper by Col. Veniukof. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 
Sarawak and Singapur. — Meteorological Observations at. (Diagrams.) 

(Journal, Vol. xvi.) 
Seistan. — Map of. To accompany the Paper by Major -Gen. Sir H. C. 

Rawlinson. (Journal, Vol. xliii.) 
Shan States. — Sketch Map to illustrate Journal of a Tour to Karen-ni, for 

the purpose of opening a Trading Road to the Shan Traders, from 

Mobyay and the adjacent Shan States, through Toungu. Protracted 

from the Notes, Bearings, etc., of Edward O'Riley, Esq. (Journal, 

Vol. xxxii.) 
Shan-tung. — Sketch Map showing the Mineral and Silk Districts of the 

Province of. (China.) To accompany the Paper by J. Markham, Esq., 

H.M. Consul at Chefoo. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 
Siam and Cambodia. — Sketch Map from Bangkok in Siam, to Pelombing in 

Cambodia. To accompany the Journal of D. 0. King, Esq., 1857-8. 

(Journal, Vol. xxx.) 

and the Adjacent States.— Sketch of. To illustrate Geographical 

Notes on Siam, by Harry Parkes, Esq., H.B.M. Consul at Amoy, 1855. 
(Proceedings, Vol. v.) 

Map to illustrate Consul Parkes' Paper on. (Journal, Vol. xxvi.) 

216 Maps. — Asia. 

Siam, Gulf of, and Adjacent Districts in Laos and Cambodia. — To 
illustrate the Journey of Mr. H. G. Kennedy. (Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 

Sikhim. — Map of. To illustrate Dr. Hooker's Paper. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Sinai, Mount. — The Peninsula of. A Sketch from Observations on the 
ground, by the Eev. F. W. Holland, M.A. (Journal, Vol. xxxix.) 

Sulimani Mountains on the Afghan Frontier of British India. (Proceed- 
ings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

Syria, etc. — Map of. Showing the Routes of Dr. Charles T. Beke, 1861-2. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

TabrIz to Gilan. — Map of Route from. (Journal, Vol. x.) 

Theches, Mount (of Xenophon). — Sketch Map to accompany the Paper by 
M. Rorit, on the identification of. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 

Tibet, &c. — Map of the head Waters of the Kin Char Kiang, Lan Tsan 
Kiang, Now Kiang, and Great River of Tibet. Laid down from 
Chinese Maps by T. T. Cooper. (Proceedings, Vol. xiii.) 

Maps showing the Route Survey from Nepal to Lhasa, and thence 

through the Upper Valley of the Brahmaputra, made by Pundit ■ . 

From the Map compiled by Capt. T. G. Montgomerie, r.e. (Journal, 
Vol. xxxviii.) 

Map to illustrate Strachey's Paper on. (Journal, Vol. xxiii.) 

Great. — Map illustrating the Journey of the Pundit Nain Singh 

through, from Lad&kh to Assam. To accompany the Paper by Capt. H. 
Trotter, r.e. (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

and Nepal. — Map showing Routes of Native Explorers in. To 

illustrate the Papers by Mr. Markham and Lieut. Col. T. G. Mont- 
gomerie. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

Tigris River. — From Ctesiphon to Mosul. (Journal, Vol. ix.) 

Trans-Indus. — Sketch Map of the Glaciers of the Mustakh Range (Trans- 
Indus) and Valley of Skardo, etc. Surveyed by Capt. H. H. Godwin 
Austen. (Journal, Vol. xxxiv.) 

i Countries, including Gilgit, Dilail, Yassin, etc — By Geo. J. W. 

Hayward. (Journal, Vol. xli.) 

■ Frontier. — Map showing Recent acquisitions to the Geography of the 

Districts bordering the British Trans-Indus Frontier between Peshawur 
and Dera Ismael Khan. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

Trans-Naryn Country. — Map to illustrate Baron Osten Sacken's Route, 
from Vernoe to the. (Central Asia.) (Journal, Vol. xl.) 

Travancore Coast and Back Waters. — Map of Portion of the. Showing 
the Anchorage at Alipee. To accompany Mr. C. R. Markham's Paper. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 

Troy. — Map to accompany Dr. Forchhammer's Paper on the Topography of 
Troy. (Journal, Vol. xii.) 

Tulul el Safa. — Route Map of the. From Observations taken in May, 
1871, by R. F. Burton, F.R.G.S., and C. F. Tyrrwhitt Drake. To illus- 
trate Capt. R. F. Burton's Paper. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

Turcoman Steppe and Northern Khorassan. — To illustrate Sir H. Raw- 
linson's Paper, " The Road to Merv." (Proceedings, Vol. i., New 

Wurkallay Barrier. — To accompany Mr. C. R. Markham's Paper. (Jour- 
nal, Vol. xxxvi.) 

Yang-tsze-Kiang, The, from Tung-Ting Lake to Chung-King. — To accom- 
pany the Paper by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H.M. Consul. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 

Maps. — Africa. 217 

Yang-tze-Kiang, Map of the Basin of the. Illustrative of a Paper by E. L. 

Oxenham, f.b.g.s. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 
From Han-kow to Ping-Shan. — From the Survey of Capt. T. 

Blakiston, R.A., by John Arrowsmith. To illustrate the Paper by 

Lieut. -Col. Henry Andrew Sarel, f.b.g.s. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 
Map of the Yang-tse-Kiang, or Ta-Kiang, from Han-kow in 

Hoopeh to Nankin in Kiangsu. Captian Sherard Osborn, b.n., 1858. 

(Journal, Vol. xxx.) 

Map of the. (Journal, Vol. xvii.) 

Yellow River. — Map to accompany Mr. Ney Elias' Paper on the New 

Course of the. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 
Yemen. — Map of Part of. By Dr. C. Millingen. (Journal, Vol. xliv.) 
Map of Part of (from Niebuhr). To accompany the Paper by Dr. C. 

Millingen. (Journal, Vol. xliv.) 
Zabafshan Valley. — Map to illustrate the Expedition of Mr. A. Fedchenko 

to the, in 1869. (Journal, Vol. xL) 
Zohab to Khuzistan. — Map of Route from. (Journal, Vol. ix.) 


Abyssinia. — Map of the Countries South of. By Dr. Charles Beke. 
(Journal, Vol. xiii.) 

Map of the Countries South of. (Journal, Vol. xvii.) 

Map illustrating Dr. Beke's Journey in. (Journal, Vol. xiv.) 

1. Map showing the Line of March from the Coast to Adigerat. 

2. Line of March from Adigerat to the River Takkazye. 

3. Wadela and Dalanta Plateaux and Magdala. 

To illustrate the Paper by C. R. Markham, Esq., on the Geographical 
Results of the Abyssinian Expedition. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 
Map of Part of. To illustrate Dr. Blanc's Journey from Metemma to 

Damot. (Journal, Vol. xxxix.) 
Afab Countby and the Nobthebn Pabt of the Abyssinian Highlands. 

— To illustrate the Journey of W. Munzinger, Esq. (Journal, Vol. 

Africa. — Map to illustrate Dr. Livingstone's Explorations in. (Journal, 

Vol. xxv.) 

Map to illustrate Mr. Moffat's Journey from Colesberg to Steinkopf, 

and from Little Namaqualand eastward, along the Orange River. 
(Journal, Vol. xxviii.) 

Map to illustrate Livingstone's Explorations in. (Journal, Vol. xxiv.) 

Centbal. — Map to illustrate Mr. Gassiott's Route to the Limpopo ; 

also of Mr. Galton's Expedition into the Interior of S.W. Africa from 
Walfisch Bay, and of Messrs. Livingstone and Oswell's Explorations in 
Central Africa to the N. of Lake 'Ngami. (Journal, Vol. xxii.) 

Map to illustrate Mr. Macqueen's Paper on. (Journal, Vol. 


Map of. (Journal, Vol. xxi.) 

Map showing the Route of Silva Porto from Benguela to Cape 

Delgado, in 1853-54 ; also the Sources of the Nile and the Countries 
around them, by James Macqueen, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxx.) 

218 Maps. — Africa. 

Africa, Central, Map to illustrate Dr. Vogel's Journey to. (Journal, Vol. 

Interior of. — Dr. Livingstone's Explorations in. (Journal, Vol. xxvii.) 

North. — Map showing the Caravan Routes between Tripoli and 

Ghadamis. To accompany the Account of Ghadamis by C. H. Dickson, 
Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxx.) 

Map of. To illustrate the Question, " Is the Quorra the Nigir of 

the Ancients ? " By W. Leake. (Journal, Vol. ii.) 

Map to accompany a General Historical Description of the state 

of Human Society in Northern Central Africa, by Dr. H. Barth. (Jour- 
nal, Vol. xxx.) 

East Central. — Sketch of the supposed Boute of Dr. Livingstone, 

and probable place of the attack by the Mavite, by J. Kirk, m.d., H.M. 
Vice-Consul, Zanzibar. (Proceedings, Vol. xi.) 

Eastern. — Map to illustrate the Explorations in. By Count Carl 

Krockow. (Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 

Map showing the Boutes of some Native Caravans from the 

Coast into the Interior of. From information collected by the Bev. T. 
Wakefield, Missionary at Mambasa ; also of two Personal Journeys to 
the Southern Galla Country made by the Bevs. T. Wakefield and 0. New 
in 1865 and 1866-7. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 

■ Map of the Boutes in Eastern Africa between Zanzibar, the Great 

Lakes, and the Nile, Explored and Surveyed by Capt. J. H. Speke, 
1857-63. (Journal, Vol. xxxiii.) 

East. — Map of the Boutes between Zanzibar and the Great Lakes in 

Eastern Africa, in 1857, 1858, and 1859, by Capts. B. F. Burton and 
J. H. Speke. (Journal, Vol. xxix.) 

The East African Lakes, showing their relation to the Source of 

the Nile. With Map of the Lake Begion : — 1. According to Burton and 
Speke, May, 1858. 2. Speke, 1859. 3. Speke and Grant, 1863. 4. Sir 
S. W. Baker, 1864. (Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 

Map to illustrate the progress of the East Africa Expedition. 

(Journal, Vol. xxviii.) 

Sketch Map of the Boute of the B.G.S. East African Expedition 

from Dar-es-Salaam to Lake Nyassa, 1879. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New 

Map of the Boute of the B.G.S. East African Expedition to 

Lakes Nyassa and Tanganyika, constructed from Mr. Thompson's 
Original Map, collated with the Boutes of other Explorers, by W. J. 
Turner. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

Sketch -Map of Native Boutes from Dar-es-Salaam towards the 

head of Lake Nyassa. From Information obtained by Mr. Keith John- 
son, r.g.s., Eastern African Expedition, 1879. (Proceedings, Vol. i. 
New Series.) 

Sketch Map of Boute from Lake Nyassa to Ugogo. By Mr. H. 

B. Cotterill. (Proceedings, Vol. xxii.) 

Equatorial. — Map illustrating M. Du Chaillu's Boutes in, 1864-65 

(Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 

• West Coast of. — To illustrate Capt. Belcher's Observations. (Jour- 
nal, Vol. ii.) 
Map of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 

South. — Map of: illustrating the Journey of Major Serpo Pinto from 

Benguella to Natal, 1877-79. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

Maps, — Africa. 219 

Africa, West Coast of. — Map of Zulu, Amatonga, Natal, and Kaffir Land, 
from the Sketches of Messrs. Sanderson, Paxton, Eider, and Newling. 
To illustrate Papers by John Sanderson, Esq., 1861. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

Map to illustrate Mr. Anderson's Journey in. (Journal, Vol. 


Sketch to accompany a Trading Trip into the Orange River Free 

States, and the Country of the Transvaal Republic in 1851-52. By John 
Sanderson, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxx.) 

Sketch to illustrate the Paper by W. D. Cooley, Esq. (Journal, 

Vol. iii.) 

Map of the Central Portion of. Illustrating Dr. Holub's Jour- 
neys, 1873-9. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

Map of. To illustrate the Paper by James Fox Wilson, Esq., 

and Dr. Livingstone's theory of Ancient Lakes. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 

Temperate. To illustrate a Paper by Sir Bartle Frere. (Proceedings, 

Vol. iii., New Series, p. 64.) 

South-East. — Map to accompany a Journey from Inhambane to 

Zoutpansberg, in 1855-6, to which is added the parts of South Africa, 
adjacent, by J. McQueen, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

' South-Eastern. — Sketch Map of Part of. To illustrate the Journeys 

of Dr. Lacerda (1798), the Pombeiros (1806-11), and Major Monteiro. 
(1831-32). In Supplement to Journal, " The Lands of Cazembe," 1873. 

Southern. — Outline Map of. To illustrate the Analysis of Capt. 

Owen's Voyage. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 

Map of the S.W. portion of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 

Western. — Map to illustrate Travels in the Yoruba and Nupe Coun- 
tries. Performed by Daniel J. May, Esq., r.n., 1858. (Journal, Vol. 

Albert N'yanza. — Map of. And of the Routes leading to its Discovery in 

1864, by Samuel White Baker, Esq. (Proceedings, Vol. x.) 
Map of the. And of the Routes leading to its Discovery in 

1864, by Samuel W. Baker, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 
Bamangwato Country. — Map of the. To illustrate Capt. Patterson's Paper. 

(Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 
Barkly to Gubuluwayo (South Africa). — Route Map of A. C. Bailie's 

Journey from. (Journal, Vol. xlviii.) 
Benzerta. — The Lakes of. (Journal, Vol. xvi.) 
Berenice. — View of the Ruins of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 
Binue River, Upper. — Map of the. From a Survey by Mr. E. R. Flegel, 

of the Church Missionary Society's Expedition, 1879. (Proceedings, 

Vol. ii., New Series.) 
Bonah to Kostantinah. — Map of Route from. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 

Bonny and Brass Rivers. — Chart of Creeks and Rivers between. Surveyed 
by R. D. Boler and R. Knight, Sept. 1874. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 

Cameroons, Mount. — The Vicinity of. From a Drawing by the Rev. T. J. 

Comber, Baptist Missionary Society, 1877. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New 

Cape Colony. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 
Cape of Good Hope. — Chart of the Currents off the. To accompany Capt. 

Toynbee's Paper " On the Specific Gravity, Temperature, and Currents 

of the Sea," the result of a portion of five Consecutive yearly Voyages 

220 Maps.— Africa. 

from England to India. Projected from the Log-books by S. Comm. C. 
George, Map Curator r.g.s. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 
Cape of Good Hope. Sketch of the Cape of Good Hope Colony. (Journal, 

Chad, Lake, and Neighbouring Regions. — To illustrate the Paper by Dr. 

Nachtigal. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
Chadda River. — Dr. Baikie's Trip up the. (Journal, Vol. xxv.) 
Chobe River. — (Proceedings, Vol. iii., New Series, p. 256.) 
Congo River. — Reduction of Lieut. Grandy's Map of his Route from Ambriz 

to the River Congo, 1873-4. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 

Neighbourhood of San Salvador. (Proceedings, Vol. hi., New Series, 

p. 64.) 

Damara Land. — Map of the principal part of. Based on Prismatic Compass 
Triangulation checked by observed Latitudes. By C. J. Andersson, Esq., 
Cape Town, 1866. (Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 

Dar-es-Salam to Kilwa. — The Slave Caravan Route from. To accompany 
the Paper by Capt. F. Elton. (Journal, Vol. xliv.) 

Egyptian Desert. — Map of the Egyptian Desert between Keneh and Suez, 

by J. Wilkinson, Esq. (Journal, Vol. ii.) 
Gambia and Casamanza Rivers. — Sketch to illustrate Paper on the supposed 

junction of the Gambia and Casamanza Rivers. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 

Gasa Country. — Route Map of the. Illustrating the Journey of Umzila, 
King of Gasa. Reduced from the original Map constructed by Mr. St. 
Vincent Erskine. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

Jamoor River. — Mouths of the. (Journal, Vol. xvi.) 

Jubb and Haines Rivers. —Lower Courses of the. (Journal, Vol. xiv.) 

Kagei to Tabora. — Map of Route from. By the Rev. C. T. Wilson. 
(Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

Kilima-ndjaro Mountains. — Map of the Snowy Mountains, Kilima-ndjaro, 
illustrating the Paper of Baron C. "Von der Decken. (Journal, Vol. 

Kordofan and Darfur. — Map of Routes in. Constructed from the recon- 
naissances made by Officers of the Egyptian General Staff, 1875-76, by 
W. J. Turner. (Journal, Vol. xlix.) 

Kwara, Yeu, and Chada Rivers. — (Journal, Vol. viii.) (See also Quorra 
and Niger.) 

Limpopo River. — Mouth of the. By St. Vincent W. Erskine. (Journal, 

Vol. xxxix.) 
Map of Route from the Tati Settlement to Delagoa Bay. To 

illustrate the Paper by Capt. F. Elton. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

. and Zambesi Rivers. — Sketch Map of Mr. Baines' Routes between the. 

(Journal, Vol. xli.) 
Lufigi River. — Map of the two main Mouths of the. From a Sketch by 

Capt. Wharton, H.M.S. " Shearwater." (Proceedings, Vol. xviii.) 

Madagascar. — Physical Map of. By the Rev. James Sibree, reduced from 
Dr. Mullens' Map. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

Map to illustrate Col. Lloyd's Paper. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Part of. From the latest Surveys by Joseph Mullens, d.d. (Journal, 

Vol. xlvi.) 

The Central Provinces of. By Joseph Mullens, d.d. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

Maps. — Africa. 221 

Madagascar, South-East, and the Ibaba Countby. — By Joseph Mullens, 
d.d. From the Surveys of Messrs. Sibree, Shaw, and Richardson. 
(Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

West-Centbal. — By Joseph Mullens, d.d. From Messrs. Grandidier, 

Sewell, &c. (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

Mabocco. — From Observations in 1830. (Journal, Vol. i.) 

Moselekatse. — Map to illustrate Mr. Moffat's Route to. (Journal, Vol. xxvi.) 

Natal. Map of the Colony of. To accompany the Paper by Dr. R. J. Mann. 

(Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 
N'gami, Lake. — Map to illustrate the Route to. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 
Nigeb, Riveb. — Country of the. Map to accompany Notes of a Journey 

from Bida in Nupe, to Kano in Haussa. Performed by Dr. W. B. 

Baikie, b.n., 1862. (Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) (See also Quorra and 

Nile and its Western Affluents, between the Albert Nyanza on the South, and 

the Sobat on the North. Founded on the Astronomical Observations, 

Bearings, and Distances, of John Petherick, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 

Map of the, from Es-suan to Alle'is. (Journal, Vol. ix.) 

Sections of the Valley of the Nile in Egypt. (Journal, Vol. ix.) 

Riveb. — Sketch Map of Route from Gondokoro to Dufli, by J. Kemp, 

Esq., Sept., Oct., 1874. (Proceedings, Vol. xix.) 

Sources of the. Rough Sketch of Countries North and South of the 

Equator on the Meridian of Khartum. (Proceedings, Vol. v.) 

Upper Countries of the Nile. To illustrate M. Linant's Journey. 

(Journal, Vol. ii.) 

Uppeb. — Map of the. To illustrate the Reports of Col. Gordon and 

M. Gessi, by W. J. Turner. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi.) 

Nyassi, or the Great Lake of Southern Africa. (Journal, Vol. xv.) 

Nyassi Lake, the Shibe Riveb, &c. — From the MS. Map by Dr. Kirk. 

With Section. (Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 
Sketch Map of. By Mr. E. D. Young, 1876. (Proceedings, 

Vol. xx.) 

— — Route Survey of the Western Side of (Northern Portion). By 

Mr, James Stewart, c.e., 1879. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

• Route Survey of the Western Side of. By Mr. Jas. Stewart, c.e., 

Livingstonia Mission, 1878. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

and Tanganyika. — Route Survey between. By Mr. Jas. Stewart, c.e., 

1879. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 

North end of. (Proceedings, Vol. iii., New Series, p. 320.) 

Okavango Riveb.— (Proceedings, Vol. iv., New Series, p. 44.) 
Old Calabab, ob Cboss Riveb, The. — (Journal, Vol. xiv.) 

Quanza Riveb. — Chart of the. From the Bar to the Livingstone Falls. Sur- 
veyed and Drawn by Carl Alexanderson, 1873-74. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 

Quobba, ob Nigeb, Riveb. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. xi.) 

The Course of the Quorra, the Joliba, or Niger of Park, from 

the Journals of Messrs. Richard and John Lander, with their Route from 
Badagry to the Northward, in 1830. (Journal, Vol. i.) (See also Kwara 
and Niger.) 

Red Sea. — Map of the Red Sea, from the late Survey. (Journal, Vol. v.) 

Regio Abomatifeba. — Sketch of the. To illustrate Mr. Cooley's Paper. 
(Journal, Vol. xix.) 

222 Maps. — Africa. 

Rufigi River. — Track and Soundings of Steam Cutter up the. By Capt. 

Sulivan, r.n., assisted by Sub-Lieut. F. J. Grassie, r.n., H.M.S. 

"London," 24th Feb., 1875. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 
Rufu, or Kingani River (Eastern Africa). — Map of. To accompany the 

Paper by Frederick Holmwood, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 
Schwa. — Map to illustrate Dr. Beke's Excursion in. (Journal, Vol. xii.) 
Senaar. — Sketch of the Province of. (Journal, Vol. v.) 
Shire and Zambesi Rivers. — The Course of the River Shire, below Lake 

Nyassa and the River Zambesi, below Kabrabasa. To illustrate the 

Papers of Dr. David Livingstone. (Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 
Socotra Island. — Map of the. (Journal, Vol. v.) 
Souffleur Point, Mauritius. — (A View). (Journal, Vol. iii.) 
Suakin to Ra-sai. — Map showing Route of the Electric Telegraph from. 

Reduced from the Map by the late Capt. L. Rokeby, r.n. (Journal, 

Vol. xliv.) 
Tajurrah to Ank6bar. — Route from. (Journal, Vol. x.) 
Tanganyika and Lovale. — Reduction of Lieut. Cameron's Preliminary 

Map of his Route and the adjacent Country between, 1874-5. With 

continuation from the Maps of Dr. Livingstone and other travellers. 

(Proceedings, Vol. xx.) 
Lake. — Map of. From Ujiji to its Southern extremity. Reduced from 

the Map by Lieut. V. Lovett Cameron, r.n. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 
From Ujiji to its Southern extremity. Reduced from the Map 

by Lieut. V. L. Cameron, r.n. (Proceedings, Vol. xix.) 
Transvaal and the Surrounding Territories. — By F. Jeppe, f.r.g.s. 

(Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 
Tripoli to GhadamIs. — Map to illustrate the Journey from. By Vice- 

Consul Dickson. (Journal, Vol. xxii.) 
Uniamesi, Sea of, &c. — By the Rev. Messrs. Erhardt and Rebman, of the 

Church Missionary Society, 1855. (Proceedings, Vol. i.) 
Usambara, Southern. — Map of Mr. Keith Johnston's Route in, 1879. 

Reduced from his original drawing. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 
Map of. By the Rev. J. P. Farler, b.a. (Proceedings, Vol. i., 

New Series.) 
Vei Language. — Inscriptions of the. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Alphabet of the. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Victoria Nyanza, Lake. — 1. Stanley's Map of the. Adapted to the 
Observations and Topography of Capt. Speke and Col. Grant by 
W. J. Turner. 

2. Map of the Victoria Nyanza as delineated by Mr. H. M. Stanley. 
(Proceedings, Vol. xx.) 
Map of the North-West Portion of the. Constructed from Col. 

Grant's Original Map and Bearings, adapted to the Astronomical Observa- 
tions of Capt. Speke, by W. J. Turner. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
Map of the. Compiled from the Original Maps of Capt. Speke, 

Col. Grant, and Mr. Stanley; adapted to the Recorded Observations of 

Captain Speke by W. J. Turner. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
White Nile, from Khartum to Rigaf. — By Lieuts. Watson and Chip- 

pendall, r.e. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
from Lardo to Urondogani. — Map of. By Col. Gordon, c.b., 

r.e. Surveyed in 1875-76. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 
Zambesi Region, Central. —(Proceedings, Vol. iii., New Series, p. 192.) 

Maps. — America. 223 


Amazon River. — Map of the. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 

America, British North. — Map to illustrate Capt. Synge's proposed Route 
through. (Journal, Vol. xxii.) 

Central. — Map illustrating Fitz-Roy's Paper on. (Journal, Vol. 


Map of. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Map of Canal. (Journal, Vol. xxi.) 

Discovery on N.E. Coast of. (Journal, Vol. x.) 

North. — Sketch showing the proposed Route of Capt. Back. (Journal, 

Vol. hi.) 

Map of the Country between Lake Superior and Vancouver 

Island. To illustrate the Papers of the Exploring Expedition under 
the Command of Capt. John Palliser, 1857 to 1860. (Journal, Vol. 

South. — Chart of a Part of South America, Surveyed by Order of 

The Rt. Hon. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, under the 
Direction of Capt. P. P. King, r.n., during the years 1826-30. (Journal, 
Vol. i.) 

Andes. — Map of the Bolivian Andes. (Journal, Vol. v.) 

Map of the Mountains of Llanganati, in the Quitonian Andes, by Don 

Atanasio Guzman. To illustrate a Paper by Richard Spruce, Esq. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 

Map of Proposed Line of Railway across the Andes, from Caldera to 

Fiambala. To accompany Report of Mr. E. A. Flint's Survey. Com- 
municated by W. Wheelright Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 

Map to illustrate Extracts from the Narrative of a Route across the 

Southern Andes, by Don Guillermo Cox, 1862-3. (Journal, Vol. 

Map showing the Projected Railway Route from Buenos Ayres to 

Chile. To accompany the Paper by R. Crawford, Esq. (Journal, Vol. 

c Map to illustrate Lloyd's Journey across the. (Journal, Vol. xxiv.) 

Diagrams to illustrate T. J. Hutchinson's Paper, " Across the Andes 

from Callao." (Proceedings, Vol. xviii.) 

Anegada, with its Reefs. — By R. H. Schomburgk. (Journal, Vol. ii.) 
Aquiry River. — Map of the (an affluent of the Purus). To accompany 

Notes by W. Chandless, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 
Argentine Republic. — Map of part of the. To illustrate the Paper by 

Mr. Consul Hutchinson. (Journal Vol. xxxiv.) 
Ataoama Desert of (Bolivia). — Map of part of. To accompany the Paper 

by Mr. Josiah Harding. (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

District of. — Showing the Territory in Dispute between Chili and 

Bolivia. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

Bolivia.— Map of Part of. From the Surveys of J. B. Minchin. To illustrate 
the Paper by G. C. Musters (Retired Com. R.N.). (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

Brazil. — Map of the Rivers Arinos, Juruena, and Tapajos. To accompany 
the Notes of W. Chandless, Esq., 1862. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

Map of the Rivers Canum&, Abacaxis, and Mau4-assu and its 

224 Maps. — America. 

Tributaries. Keduced from the Original Map by W. Chandless, Esq. 
(Journal, Vol. xl.) 
Bbazil, Nokth-East. — Eoute Map of a Journey through. By James W. 
Wells, c.e. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 

South. — The Valleys of the Tibasy and Ivahy, Province of the Parana. 

By T. P. Bigg- Wither. (Journal, Vol. xlvi.) 

British Columbia. — 1. Map of. Beduced from the Original Map by Mr. 
Alfred Waddington. 
2. Sketch Map, showing Proposed Communication between Canada 
and British Columbia. To accompany the Paper by Mr. Alfred 
Waddington. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 

Part of. To illustrate the Papers of Mr. Justice Begbie, Com. 

Mayne, b.n., Lieut. Palmer, b.e., and Mr. Downie, 1861. (Journal, 
Vol. xxxi.) 

Outline Map of Part of. By Lieut. H. S. Palmer, b.e. 

Beconnaissance Sketch of Part of Cariboo by Lieut. H. S. Palmer, b.e. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxiv.) 

Nobth Amebican Boundaby. — By Capt. S. Anderson, b.e., Chief 

Astronomer, North American Boundary Commission. (Journal, Vol. 

Guayana. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 

Map of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 

Map of a Portion of. (Journal, Vol. xv.) 

Part of. (Journal, Vol. iv.) 

Huts of the Warrows. (A View.) (Journal, Vol. iv.) 

Guiana — Sketch Map of. By J. E. Alexander, h.p. (Journal, Vol. ii.) 

Sketch Map of a Portion of the Essequebo and Potaro Bivers. 

Showing the Position of Kaieteur Fall. To accompany the Paper by 

C. B. Brown, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xli.) 
Beduction of the Map of. Compiled from the Surveys executed 

under Her Majesty's Commission from 1841 to 1844, and under the 

Direction of the Koyal Geographical Society from 1835 to 1839, by Sir 

E. H. Schomburgk. Bevised and Corrected. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New 

Califobnia. — Sketch of the Coast of Upper California (Journal, Vol. v.) 
Cabthagena to Bogoto. — Section of South America, from Carthagena to 

Bogoto. — A Spanish MS. found among Mr. Lloyd's Papers. Authority 

unknown. (Journal, Vol. i.) 
Centbal Amebica. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. xi.) 
Columbus. — Map to illustrate Capt. Becher's Landfall of. (Journal, Vol. 

Coomabow Fall. — Massaroony Eiver. (View.) (Journal, Vol. iv.) 
Cobdoba to La Bioja. — Boute from. South America. (Journal, Vol. ix.) 
Costabbica. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 
Cuzco. — Map of the Environs of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 

■ Plan of. Ancient and Modern. (Journal, Vol. xli.) 

Dabien. — Map of Part of the Isthmus of. To accompany the Paper by 

M. Lucien de Puydt. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 

Map to illustrate Provost's Survey of the Isthmus of. (Journal, 

Vol. xxiv.) 

Maps. — America. 225 

Dabien, Isthmus of. — Mr. Gisborne's Paper on the. (Journal, Vol. xxvii.) 
Ecuador. — Sketch Map to illustrate Explorations in. By G. J. Pritchett, 

1856-57. (Journal, Vol. xxx.) 
Falkland Island, East. — From Papers communicated by Woodbine Parish 

Esq. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 
Fbobisheb's Voyages. — Map to illustrate Capt. Becher's Paper on Frobisher's 

Voyages. (Journal, Vol. xii.) 
Guayana. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. x.) 
Guiana. — Map to illustrate the Chevalier Schomburgk's Koute in. (Journal, 

Vol. xii.) 
Honduras. — Sketch showing the Position of Lake Yojoa or Taulebe, also the 

Proposed Railway between the Bay of Honduras and the Bay of 

Fonseca. To illustrate a paper by E. G. Squier, 1859. (Journal, 

Vol. xxx.) 
Hudson's Stbaits. — Chart of. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 
Jubua River. — Map of the. For an estimated distance of 980 Geographical 

Miles from its Mouth. By W. Chandless, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxix.) 
Labbadob. — Chart of the North-East Coast of. To accompany the Paper by 

Com. W. Chimmo. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 

Map of. Showing the Canoe Route from Seven Islands to Hamilton 

Inlet. Map of the River Moisie and adjoining Country. Illustrating 
the Paper by Prof. H. Y. Hind. (Journal, Vol. xxxiv.) 

Magdalena, State of, U.S. of Columbia. — Map of the Northern Part of. 

By Mr. F. A. A. Simons, 1879. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 
Massaboony Riveb, South Amebica. — By W. Hilhouse, Esq., 1830. 

(Journal, Vol. iv.) 

View on the. Natives Fishing. (Journal, Vol. iv.) 

Mexico. — Map to illustrate a Journey to the North- Western Provinces of 

Mexico, by Charles Sevin, 1856. (Journal, Vol. xxx.) 
Mexican Antiquities. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 
Mississippi. — Sources of the. 1834. (Journal, Vol. iv.) 
Mosquito Tebbitoby. — Map of the. From Surveys and Sketches made 

during several years' residence in the Country. By Charles N. Bell, Esq., 

1856. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 
Newfoundland. — Map of. To accompany the Paper by Alexander Murray 

Esq. (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

Map of. To accompany the Paper by the Rev. J. Moreton. (Journal, 

Vol. xxxiv.) 

Map of Part of. To illustrate the Paper by Staff-Corn. G. Robinson, 

r.n. (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

Panama, The Isthmus of. — To illustrate the Paper by Laurence Oliphant, 

Mouths of the Bayanos River (to accompany Mr. Oliphant's Paper). 

(Journal, Vol. xxxv.) 
Patagonia. — Map of Part of. By Henry L. Jones, Esq., to accompany his 

Notes. (Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 

To illustrate Capt. Musters' Route. 1869-70. (Journal, Vol. xii.) 

Peel Riveb, Nobth Amebica.— Sketch Map of the. (Journal, Vol. xv.) 
Pebu. — Sketch Map of the Province of Caravay, &c. in Southern Peru ; 

showing the Sources of the River Purus. By Clements R. Markham, Esq. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 


226 Maps. — America. 

Peru. — Map showing the Course of the Rivers, S. Gavan and Esquilaya in the 
Province of Carabaya. To accompany the Paper by Sr. Raimondi. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 

Map showing the Junction of the Rivers Mantaro and Apurimac. To 

accompany the Paper by Prof. A. Raimondi. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 

Southern. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. xxi.) 

■ Map of. To accompany Mr. Markham's Paper. (Journal, Vol. 

Purus, River. — Mr. Markham's Route to the. (Journal, Vol. xxv.) 
Map of the. From near its source to its mouth. By W. 

Chandless, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxvi.) 
Rio Negro. — Map to illustrate "Wallace's Paper on the. (Journal, Vol. 


of Patagonia. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 

Samana. — Map to illustrate Schomburgk's Paper on. (Journal, Vol. xxiii.) 

Santa Cruz River. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 

Tabasco and its Tributaries. — Part of the. (Journal, Vol. xv.) 

Terra Cotta. — Heads in. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 

United States. — Map of the South-Western Portion of the, and of Sonora 

and Chihuahua. To illustrate the Paper by Dr. W. A. Bell. (Journal, 

Vol. xxxix.) 
Uruguay. — Estancia de San Jorge. From a Survey by Don Juan Frugoni, 

Durazno, 1867. (Proceedings, Vol. ii., New Series.) 
Usumasinta River.' — Sketch of the Course of the, Central America. To 

illustrate Col. Galindo's Paper. (Journal, Vol. iii.) 
Vancouver Island. — Sketch of the Country between Albernie Canal and 

Nanaimo. Showing the Line of Road proposed by Com. Mayne, r.n. 

1861. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 
■ Map of. To illustrate the Paper of Dr. C. Forbes, r.n. (Journal, 

Vol. xxxiv.) 
■ and Part of British Columbia. — Map of. To accompany the 

Paper by R. Brown, Esq. (Journal, Vol. xxxix.) 
Map to illustrate Lieut.-Col. Grant's Paper on. (Journal, Vol. 

Virgin Islands. — Map of the. (Journal, Vol. v.) 
West Indies. — 1. Bahama Islands. Antonia de Herrera, 1601. 

2. Bahama Islands. Modern. To accompany Mr. Major's 


3. Watling Island. To accompany Mr. Major's Paper, 
i (Journal, Vol. xli.) 

William the Fourth's Cataract. — View of. (Journal, Vol. vi.) 
Yncas. — Ttahuantin-Suyu or the Empire of the (except Quito and Chile) 
in its four great divisions of Chincha-Suyu, Cunti-Suyu, Anti-Suyu, 
Colla-Suyu, with their Tribes and Ayllus or Lineages ; also the Routes 
of the Ynca Conquerers. By Clements R. Markham, c.b. (Journal, 
VoL xlii.) 
Yukon or Kwich-pak River. — Map of the. To illustrate Mr. Whymper's 
Paper. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 

Maps of Australia. 227 


Australia. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 

Central. — Map to illustrate Diaries of Exploration of, bv John McDouall 

Stuart, Esq., 1860 and 1861. (Journal, Vol. xxxi.) 

Map to accompany the Diary of Messrs. Bnrke and Wills, across 

Australia to the Gulf of Carpentaria; also Mr. Howitt's Journal to 
Cooper's Creek. Constructed chiefly from the Observations and Field- 
book of W. J. Wills, Esq., 1861. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

Eastern. — Map of: on which are Delineated the Eoutes of Messrs. 

Burke and Wills, McKinlay, Landsborough and Walker, &c. (Journal, 
Vol. xxxiii.) 

Moreton Bat, &c. — Sketch Map to illustrate Mr. H. S. Kussell's 

Papers. (Journal, Vol. xv.) 

North-East. — Map to illustrate the Winds of. To accompany the 

Paper by Dr. A. Rattray, m.d., r.n. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 

Map to illustrate the Climate and Physical Geography of North- 

East Australia. To accompany the Paper by Dr. A. Rattray, M.D., r.n. 

(Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 
Map illustrating' the Overland Expedition from Port Denison to 

Cape York under the Command of F. and A. Jardine, Esqs. To accompany 

Mr. Richardson's Paper. (Journal, VoL xxxvi.) 

Dr. Leichardt's Exploration in. (Journal, Vol. xvi.) 

Map of Capt. Sturt's Route. (Journal, Vol. xvii.) 

North. — Map to complete Diaries of Exploration across Australia 

(from South to North) by John McDouall Stuart, Esq., 1861 and 1862. 
(Journal, Vol. xxxiii.) 

Map of the N.W. Coast. (Journal, Vol. viii.) 

North-Western. — Map of. To illustrate the Journal of Exploring 

Expedition, Commanded by F. T. Gregory, Esq., 1861. (Journal, Vol. 

Map to illustrate the Route of the North Australian Expedition, and 

Mr. Wilson's Paper on the Physical Geography of N.W. Australia. 
(Journal, Vol. xxviii.) 

South. — Sketch to illustrate Extracts of Explorations made by Surv.- 

Gen. Freeling, Mr. S. Hack, and others in South Australia, 1857. 
(Proceedings, Vol. ii.) 

Range of Southern Dialects of. (Journal, Vol xv.) 

Map of the Explorations from Beltana Station (South Australia), 

to the City of Perth (Western Australia), by Ernest Giles, 1875. 
(Journal, Vol xlvi.) 

Map of the South-East Portion of Australia, showing the Progress 

of Discovery in the Interior of New South Wales to 1832. (Journal, 
Vol. ii.) 

Map of the South-Eastern Portion of. (Journal, Vol. vii.) 

Western. — Map to illustrate Mr. Austin's Explorations in. (Journal, 

Vol. xxvi.) 

From the Latest Documents received in the Colonial Office, 1832. 

(Journal, Vol. ii.) 

Map showing the Explorations to the Eastward and Southward 

of Hampton Plains. By Alexander Forrest, Assistant Surveyor, 1871. 
(Journal, Vol. xlii.) 

Q 2 

228 Maps. — New Zealand. 

Australia, Western. — Map showing the Route of the Exploring Expedition 
through the Centre of, from Champion Bay, on the West Coast, to the 
Overland Telegraph Lines between Adelaide and Port Darwin. Com- 
manded by John Forrest, 1874. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

Barcoo and Warrego. — Mr. Kennedy's Expedition to the. (Journal, Vol. 

Flinders' Range, Australia. — Country to the E. of. (Journal, Vol. xiv.) 

River. — Portion of the. To illustrate the Observations of Com. 

Norman, r.n. (Journal, Vol. xxxiii.) 

Liverpool Plains and Moreton Bat. — Map of the Country between. By 
Com. H. G. Hamilton, r.n. (Journal, Vol. xiii.) 

Melville and Bathurst Islands. — With Coburg Peninsula. (Journal, 
Vol. iv.) 

Murray River. — Country near the Mouth of the River Murray, Australia. 
(Journal, Vol. hi.) 

New Guinea. — Chart of the South-East Coast of. To accompany the Paper 
by Capt. J. Moresby, r.n. (Journal, Vol. xliv.) 

Map of the Fly River. Drawn from the Original Charts made 

by Signor L. M. DAlbertis by W. J. Turner. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New 

Eastern. — Map of. To accompany the Paper by Capt. J. 

Moresby, r.n. (Journal, Vol. xlv.) 

New Zealand. — Map of the Provinces of Canterbury and Otago. To 
illustrate the Papers of Mr. James M'Kerrow, Dr. J. Haast, and Dr. 
Hector. (Journal, Vol. xxxiv.) 

Routes near West Coast of Nelson District. By John Rochfort, 

Esq., in 1859. (Journal, Vol. xxxii.) 

Chart of. (Journal, Vol. ii.) 

Map of the Province of Canterbury, showing the Five Routes 

between the East and West Coasts, with Sections of the Routes. To 
accompany the Paper by Dr. J. Haast. (Journal, Vol. xxxvii.) 

Middle Island of. (Journal, Vol. xxi.) 

Middle Island of. (Journal, Vol. xx.) 

Otago. — Map to illustrate Mr. Thomson's Survey of. (Journal, Vol. xxviii.) 

Perth to Eucla and Adelaide. — Map showing the Overland Tracks from. 
By John Forrest, Government Surveyor, 1870. (Journal, Vol. xli.) 

Russel Range (Australia). — Map to illustrate the Route of 

the Expedition from. Also of the Settlers' Expedition from Perth to 
the Gascoigne River, and of the Expedition to the Murchison River. 
(Journal, Vol. xxii.) 

Southern Alps. — Map of the. In the Province of Canterbury, New 
Zealand. Reduced from the large Map by Julius Haast, Ph.D., f.r.s. 
(Journal, Vol. xl.) 

Tenimber Islands. — Map of the. After Guyot's General Map of the 
Assistant Residency Banda. Illustrating the recent Discovery of Egeron 
Strait. To accompany the Paper by Prof. P. J. Veth. (Journal, Vol. xlviii). 

Maps. — Atlantic, 229 


Ascension Island. — View from the Mountain Road in the Island of Ascension. 

(Journal, Vol. v.) 
Atlantic Ocean. — With Contour Lines showing approximately the depth of 

water in fathoms. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi.) 

Sections of. Between St. Thomas and Tenerife. 2. St. Thomas 

to Bermuda. 3. Bermuda to Halifax. 4. Bermuda to New York. 5. 
Bermuda to Azores, Azores to Madeira. 6. Section of Equatorial Atlantic. 
7. Section of South Atlantic. 8. Section of Mid-Atlantic, taken nearly 
North and South. 9. Section of North Atlantic, taken nearly North and 
South. (Proceedings, Vol. xviii.) 

Deep Sea Sections. To illustrate the Paper by Capt. Sherard 

Osborn, r.n. (Journal, Vol. xli.) 

Sections of. To illustrate a Paper " On the Distribution of Salt 

in the Ocean, as indicated by the Specific Gravity of its Waters." By 
J. Y. Buchanan, Chemist and Physicist in the " Challenger " Expedition. 
(Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

and Mediterranean. — 2 Diagrams showing the Temperature of. 

To illustrate the Paper by Dr. Carpenter " On the Temperature of the 
Deep-Sea Bottom, and the Conditions by which it is determined." 
(Proceedings, Vol. xxi.) 

Ocean. — Northern Portion of. With Contour Lines showing approxi- 
mately the depth of water in fathoms. (Proceedings, Vol. xxi.) 

North.— Surveys of H.M.S. "Bulldog" in the. To illustrate 

the Paper by Capt. Sir F. Leopold McClintock, r.n., f.r.g.s. (Proceedings, 
Vol. v.) 

Section of. Between Disco and Valentia. (Proceedings, Vol. 


Surface Temperatures of the. Between Shetland and Greenland, 

collected by Admiral Irminger. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 

Azores. — Island of St. Mary. (Journal, Vol. xv.) 

Davis Strait and the Atlantic Ocean. — Soundings of H.M.S. " Valorous," 
1875. (Proceedings, Vol. xx.) 

Formigas Bank, Azores. — Sketch to illustrate Capt. VidaPs Paper on the. 
(Journal, Vol. xix.) 

Gulf Stream. — Diagram of the. To illustrate the Paper by A. G. Findlay. 
(Proceedings, Vol. xiii.) 


Behring Strait. — Map to illustrate Capt. Collinson's Voyage through. 
(Journal, Vol. xxv.) 

Chatham Islands. — Map of. (Journal, Vol. xi.) 

Fiji Islands. — Dr. Macdonald's Explorations in the. (Journal, Vol. xxvii.) 

New Britain, N.E. Portion. — (Proceedings, Vol. iii., New Series, p. 128.) 

Pacific Ocean, etc. — 12 Sections showing the Temperature of various Parts 
of the. To illustrate the Summary of Recent Observations on Ocean 

230 Maps. — Pacific. 

Temperature made in H.M.S. "Challenger" and U.S.S. "Tuscarora"; 
with their bearing on the Doctrine of a General Oceanic Circulation 
sustained by difference of Temperature. By W. B. Carpenter, m.d., 
ll.d., Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. (Proceedings, 
Vol. xix.) 

Pacific Ocean, Central. — Section of. To illustrate a Paper on " The 
Distribution of Salt in the Ocean, as Indicated by the Specific Gravity 
of its Waters." By J. Y. Buchanan, Chemist and Physicist in the 
" Challenger " Expedition. (Journal, Vol. xlvii.) 

Bapa-Nui, or Easter Island. — Chart of. To accompany the Paper by 
J. L. Palmer, Esq., r.n. (Journal, Vol. xl.) 

Sandwich Islands. — Chart of the. To accompany the Paper by the Bishop 
of Honolulu. (Journal, Vol. xxxviii.) 

Solomon, New Hebrides, and Santa Cruz Groups. — To illustrate the 
Paper by Lieut. A. H. Markham, r.n. (Journal, Vol. xlii.) 


Cocos or Keeling Islands. — Map of the : exhibiting the changes that have 
taken place since 1836. (Proceedings, Vol. i., New Series.) 

Peter Botte Mountain. — Ascent of the. (View.) (Journal, Vol. iii.) 

( 231 ) 



Abbott, K. E. xii. 207 ; xxv. 1 ; 

xxvii. 149. Proceedings, Vol. iii. 

Abich, Prof. Hermann, xxi. 1. 
Abbamof, Gen. xxxii. 555 ; xxxv. 

58. Proceedings, Vol. ix. 40. 
Abu Bekb es Seddik. vi. 100. 
Adams, F. 0. xL 339. 
Ainswobth, W. viii. 185 ; ix. 216 ; 

x. 275 ; x. 311 ; x. 489 ; xi. 1 ; xi. 21. 
Alcock, Sir Rutherford, xxxi. 321 ; 

xxxii. 280. Proceedings, Vols. v. 

132 ; vi. 196-200. 
Alexandeb, Capt. J. E. ii. 65 ; vi. 

443 ; vii. 439 ; viii. 1. 
Alexandebson, Carl. xlvi. 428. 
Allen, Capt. Wm., b.n. vii. 198 ; 

viii. 289; xiii. 1 ; xxiii. 154, 157, 

Allen, H. J. Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 

Allen, Capt. Bird, b.n. xi. 76. 
Andebson, A. C. xv. 367. 
Andebson, Jas. xxvi. 18 ; xxvii. 321. 
Andebson, Dr. J. xl. 286. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xiv. 346. 
Andebson, Capt. S. xlvi. 228. 

Proceedings, Vol. xx. 274. 
Andebssen, xxv. 79 ; xxxvi. 247. 

Proceedings, iv. 63. 
Andbeteff, A. Proceedings, Vol. 

xiii. 375. 
Ablett, Lieut, vi. 285. 
ABBOWsiMTH.John. iv.320; xviii.74. 
Atkinson. Proceedings, Vol. iii. 127. 
Austin, Robert, xxvi. 235. 
Aybton, F. xviii. 48. 

Back, Sir Geo. ii. 336 ; iii. 64 ; v. 
405 ; vi. 1 ; vii. 457, 460. 

Bacon, Dr. Francis, xii. 196. 
Baikie, Dr. xxv. 108 ; xxxvii. 92. 

Proceedings, Vols. ii. 83 ; vi. 22 ; 

vii. 66 ; xi. 49. 
Bailie, Alex, xlviii. 287. 
Baily, J. xiv. 127. 
Baines, T. xxi v. 288 ; xxxvi. 247 ; 

xii. 100. Proceedings, Vols. ii. 3 ; 

xv. 147. 
Bakeb, Lieut. Julian, b.n. xliv. 37. 

Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 131. 
Bakeb, Sir Samuel, xxxiii. 237; 

xxxvi. 1. Proceedings, Vols. x. 6, 

279 ; xv. 92 ; xviii. 50. 
Bakeb, Lieut. -Col. vii. 81. 
Ball, John. Proceedings (N.S.),Vol. 

i. 564. 
Banisteb, T. Proceedings, Vol. i. 

Bankabt, H. xxxix. 339. 
Baekeb, W. Burckhardt. vii. 95. 
Babkeb, Lieut, xii. 238; xviii. 130. 
Babns, J. W. xxxvii. 338 ; xiii. 

Babbow, John. i. 1. 
Babth, Dr. H., c.b. xxi. 130 ; xxiv. 

283 ; xxx. 112. Proceedings, Vol. 

ii. 217. 
Babton, Dr. A. xxxii. 26. 
Basevi, Capt. J. xiii. 368. 
Bastian, Dr. A. xxxv. 74. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. ix. 85. 
Beavan, Capt. R. Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. i. 727. 
Becheb, Capt., b.n. xii. 1 ; xxvi. 

189. Proceedings, Vol. i. 94. 
Becboft, Capt. vi. 424; xi. 184; 

xiv. 260. 
Bedingfield, Capt., b.n. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iv. 66 ; vii. 105. 


Authors of Papers. 

Beechey, Adm. xxiv. 328. 

Begbie, M. B. xxxi. 237. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iv. 33 ; xv. 133. 

Behm, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. xvii.21. 

Beke, Dr. xii. 84, 245 ; xiii. 182, 254 ; 
xiv. 1 ; xvii. 1 ; xx. 289 ; xxxii. 
76. Proceedings, Vol. vi. 195. 

Belcher, Sir E. ii. 278. 

Bell, C. N. xxxii. 242. 

Bell, W. A. xxxix. 95. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xiii. 140. 

Bellville, A. Proceedings, Vol. xx. 

Bennet, Capt. Proceedings, Vol. x. 

Bennett, F. D. vii. 211. 

Bensusan, M. xxxii. 42. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vi. 97. 

Bewsheb, Lt., i.n. xxxvii. 160. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xi. 155. 

Bickmoke, Albert S. xxxviii. 50. 
Proceedings, Vol. xii. 51. 

Biddulph, Gen. Sir M. Proceed- 
ings (N.S.), Vol. ii. 212. 

Bidie, Dr. xxxix. 77. Proceedings, 
xiii. 74. 

Bigg- Wither, J. xlvi. 263. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xx. 455. 

Bird, Jas. iv. 192. 

Biscoe, J., r.n. iii. 105. 

Blackney, Wm., r.n. xxx. 93. 

Blakiston, Capt. T. xiii. 77. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xvi. 188. 

Blanchard, H. xviii. 45. 

Blanckley, Capt., r.n. iv. 344. 

Blencowe, Bev. G. Proceedings 
(N.S.), Vol. i. 324. 

Blunt, W. S. Proceedings (N.S.), 
Vol. ii. 81. 

Boler, B. D. xlvi. 411. 

Bollaert, W. xiii. 226 ; xxi. 99 ; xxv. 
172. Proceedings, Vol. xii. 126. 

Boteler, Capt., r.n. ii. 274. 

Boutakoff, Admiral. xxiii. 93; 
xxxvii. 152. Proceedings, Vol. 
xi. 113. 

Bouza, Don F. ii. 269. 

Bradshaw, Dr. B. T. Proceedings 
(N.S.), iii. 208. 

Brand, Vice-Consul, xxiv. 266. 

Brandreth, Capt., r.e. v. 243. 

Brant, Jas. vi. 187 ; x. 341. 

Breitenbach, Bernard de. ix. 311. 

Brierly, O. W. xxii. 97. 

Brine, Capt. Lindesay, r.n. xiii. 354. 
Proceedings, Vol. x. 317 ; xvii. 67. 

Brock, Capt., r.n. viii. 428 ; ix. 507. 

Brooke, Jas. viii. 129, 443. 

Brown, C. B. xii. 77. Proceedings, 
Vol. xv. 122. 

Brown, F. C. iii. 268. 

Brown, Bev. G. xlvii. 137. Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.), iii. 213. 

Brown, Eobert. i. 17. 

Brown, Et. xxxix. 121 ; xii. 348. 
Proceedings, Vol. xi. 84 ; xiii. 144, 

Brunner, T. xx. 344. 

Bryce, Jas. Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 

Buchan, A. Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 

Buchanan, J. Y. xlvii. 72. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxi. 255. 

Buist, Dr. xxi. 42; xxiv. 227. 
Proceedings, Vol. iv. 50. 

Bullock, T. L. Proceedings, Vol. 
xxi. 266. 

Burke, Et. O'Hara. xxxii. 430. 

Burnes, Sir A. iv. 88 ; vi. 23, 113 ; 
vii. 11. 

Burr, T. xv. 160. 

Burton, E. F. xxiv. 208 ; xxv. 
121, 136 ; xxix, the whole volume ; 
xxxiii. 241 ; xxxv. 1 ; xiii. 49, 408 ; 
xlix. 1. Proceedings, Vol. iii. Ill, 
348; vi. 49, 64, 238; vii. 104; 
ix. 6 ; xvi. 104, 129. 

Bushell, Eev. E. (Proceedings, 
Vol. xvi. 167.) 

Bushell, S. W. xliv. 73. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xviii. 149. 

Butakoff. (See Boutakoff.) 

Cadell, Capt. xxv. 177. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vi. 55. 

Caldwell, H. C. Proceedings, Vol. 
i. 484. 

Cameron, Capt. Duncan. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vi. 5. 

Cameron, J. Proceedings, Vol. ix. 30. 

Cameron, Comm. L. V. xlv. 197. 
Proceedings, Vol. xix. 136, 246; 
xx. 118, 304. 

Campbell, Sir Geo. Proceedings, 
Vol. xi. 54. 

Campbell, Dr. Jas. xxx. 182. 

Campbell, Major, iv. 129. 

Canning, Lord. Proceedings, Vol. 
iv. 30. 

Cabless, Capt. F. G. viii. 328; xix. 

Authors of Papers. 


Carpenter, Dr. C. B. Proceedings, 

Vol. xv. 54 ; xviii. 301 ; xix. 493 ; 

xxi. 289. 
Carter, H. J. xvi. 187. 
Chaix, Professor Paul. x. 575 ; xiv. 

322; xix. 143; xxiv. 313; xxv. 182. 
Chandless, W. xxxii. 268 ; xxxvi. 

86, 119; xxxix. 296; xl. 419. 

Proceedings, Vol. x. 103 ; xi. 100. 
Chapman, J as. Proceedings, Vol. v. 

Cheadle, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. ix. 

Chesney, Lieut.-Col. iv. 374 ; vii. 

411 ; viii. 228. 
Chimmo, Comm. W. xxxviii. 258. 

Proceedings, Vol. i. 255 ; xii. 195 ; 

xiii. 92 ; xv. 384. 
Chippendale, Lieut. Proceedings, 

Vol. xx. 67. 
Christison, Dr. D. Proceedings 

(N.S.), Vol. ii. 663. 
Christopher, Lieut., i.n., xiv. 76. 
Clark, Rev. John, xvi. 255. 
Clarke, Major F. C. H. Proceed- 
ings (N.S.), Vol. ii. 489. 
Cleghorn, John, xxvii. 230. 
Clerk, Capt. Claude, xxxi. 37. 
Cockburn, A. S. Proceedings, Vol. 

xii. 72. 
Colchester, Lord. xvii. 130. 
Collet, C. F., r.n. vii. 203. 
Collinson, Lieut.-Col. xxxii. 68. 
Collinson, Adml. xvii. 130; xxv. 

Collinson, J. Proceedings, Vol. xii. 25. 
Colthorst, Miss. xix. 192. 
Comber, Rev. T. J. Proceedings 

(N. S.), Vol. i. 225 ; iii. 20. 
Cooley, Mr. Deshorough. iii. 310; 

xv. 185 ; xvi. 138 ; xix. 166 ; xxiv. 

Cooper, H. T. M. Proceedings, Vol. 

xx. 78. 
Cooper, T. T. Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 

392 ; xiv. 335 ; xv. 163. 
Coppinger, Dr. Proceedings (N.S.), 

Vol. ii. 552. 
Corner, A. Proceedings, Vol. xix. 

Corrie, Dr. A. Proceedings, VoL 

xxii. 136. 
Coryton, J. xiv. 229. Proceedings, 

Vol. xix. 264. 
Costa de Macedo, Don J. J. da. xi. 


Cotteril, H. B. Proceedings, Vol. 

xxii. 233. 
Cotton, Sir Arthur, xxxvii. 231. 

Proceedings, Vol. xi. 255. 
Coulter, Dr. J. v. 59. 
Cox, Don Gulliermo. xxxiv. 205. 
Craufurd, John, xxiii. 69. 
Crawford, R. xliii. 46. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xvii. 57. 
Creagh, E. F. 1. 21. 
Crocker, W. M. Proceedings (N.S.), 

Vol. iii. 193. 
Croft, Capt. J. A. Proceedings, 

Vol. xviii. 183. 
Cross, Robert. Proceedings, Vol. ix. 

Crowther, Bishop. Proceedings, 

Vol. xxi. 481. 
Cruttenden, Capt., i.n. viii. 267 ; 

xviii. 136 ; xix. 49. 
Ccllen, Dr. xxi. 241. 
Cunningham, Alan. ii. 99. 

D'Abbadie, M. ix. 317. 
D'Albertis. Proceedings, Vol. xx. 

343; (N. S.)i. 4. 
D'Almeida, W. B. xlvi. 357. 
Dalrymple, G. E. xxxiii. 3 ; xxxv. 

191. Proceedings, Vol. vi. 13 ; vii. 

2 ; x. 33. 
Dalyell, R. A. O. xxxiii. 234. 
Darwin, C. ix. 528. 
Davidson, Mr. John. vi. 429; vii. 

Davis, Capt. J. E. xxxix. 91. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xiii. 114. 
Davis, Sir John, xxiii. 242. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. i. 330. 
De Bertou, Count, ix. 277, 286. 
De Bode, Baron. xiii. 75, 108. 

Proceedings, Vol. iv. 91. 
De Crespigny, Lieut. Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 205; ii. 342; xvi. 171; 

xvii. 133. 
De Horsey, Capt. A., r.n. xxxiv. 

258. Proceedings, Vol. viii. 274. 
De la Fuente, Don M. B. xxvi. 

Dempster Brothers. Proceedings, 

Vol. vi. 11. 
De Puydt, M. Lucien. xxxviii. 69. 

Proceedings, Vol. xii. 63. 
Dickson, Vice-Consul. xxx. 255. 
Dieffenbach, E. xi. 195 ; xii. 142. 
Dilke, Ashton W. Proceedings, 

Vol. xviii. 246. 


Authors of Papers. 

Douglas, Rev. C. xliv. 112. 

Douglas, Gov. Jas. xxiv. 245. 

Downie, W. xxxi. 249. 

Du Chaillu, M. xxxvi. 64. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. v. 108 ; x. 71. 

Duncan, Mr. John. xvi. 143, 154. 

Duncan, Professor. Proceedings, Vol. 
xxii. 68. 

Dyer, Thistelton. Proceedings, Vol. 
xxii. 412. 

Eaele, G. W. xi. 108 ; xii. 139 ; 

xv. 358 ; xvi. 239. 
Eaton, F. A. Proceedings, Vol. viii. 

Elias, Ney. xl. 1 ; xliii. 108 ; xlvi. 

198. Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 20; 

xvii. 184 ; xx. 234. 
Elliot, Adml. Sir C. Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 251. 
Elton, Capt. xlii. 1 ; xliv. 227. 

Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 89 ; xix. 110. 
Emery, Lieut., r.n. iii. 280. 
Endebbt, C. Proceedings, Vol. ii. 171. 
Erman, Professor, ix. 508. 
Erskine, Capt., r.n. xxi. 222. 
Erskxne, St. Vincent, xxxix. 233 ; 

xlv. 45 ; xlviii. 25. Proceedings, 

Vol.xiii. 320 ; xix. 110 ; xxii. 127. 
Escobar, Padre, xi. 89. 
Ethersey, Lieut, viii. 196. 
Evans, Capt., r.n Proceedings, 

Vol. xxii. 188. 
Eyre, E. J. xiii. 161; xv. 327; 

xvi. 200. 

Falconer, Thomas, xiii. 199. 

Farler, Rev. J. P. Proceedings 
(N. S.), i. 81. 

Fedchenko, Mr. xl. 448. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xv. 393. 

Felkin, R. W. Proceedings (N.S.), 
ii. 357. 

Findlay, A. G. xxiii. 217; xxvi. 
26 ; xxxvii. 193. Proceedings, 
Vol. i. 21 ; xi. 232 ; xiii. 102. 

Fitton, W. H. Proceedings, Vol. 
i. 501. 

Fitzgerald, Gov. C. xxii. 71. 

FitzRoy, Capt. ii. 315; vi. 311; 
vii. 114, 143 ; xx. 161 ; xxiii. 171. 

Floyer, E. A. xlvii. 188. 

Forbes, C, m.d. xxxi v. 154. 

Forbes, Dr. F., e.i.cs. xiv. 145. 

Forbes, Commander C. S., r.n. xxxvi. 
173. Proceedings, Vol. x. 169. 

Forbes, F. ix. 409. 

Forbes, Lieut. F. E. xx. 89. 

Forbes, H. 0. Proceedings (N.S.), i. 

Forbes, Dr. Litton, m.d. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xxi. 140. 

Forchhammer, Dr. P. W. xii. 28. 

Forrest, Alex. xlii. 388. 

Forrest, John. xl. 231 ; xii. 361 ; 
xlv. 249. Proceedings, Vol. xix. 

Forsyth, Sir Douglas. xlvii. 1. 
Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 27. 

FRASER,Capt. Proceedings, Vol. vii. 58. 

Fraser, J. Baillie. viii. 308. 

French, J. 0. ix. 381. 

Frere, Sir H. Bartle. xl. 181. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xiv. 120 ; xvii. 343 ; 
(N.S.) iii. 1. 

Freshfield, Douglas, xxxix. 50. 
Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 66. 

Friedrichsthal, Chevalier E. xi. 97. 

Friend, Commander C, r.n. xxiii. 

Frome, Capt., r.e. xiv. 283. 

Forlong, Capt. Proceedings, Vol. 
vii. 58. 

Fynney, F. B. xlviii. 16. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxii. 114. 

Gairdner, Dr. xi. 250. 

Galindo, Don Juan. iii. 59, 290; 
vi. 119. 

Galton, Francis, xxii. 140; xxxv. 
99. Proceedings, Vol. ii. 60; iv. 
14; ix. 104. 

Garden, R. J. xxxvii. 182. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xi. 159. 

Gardner, C. J. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiii. 170. 

Gassiott, H. xxii. 136. 

Geikie, Prof. Proceedings (N.S.), 
Vol. i. 422. 

George, Staff-Comm. Proceedings, 
Vol. xx. 159. 

Gerber, H. xliv. 262. 

Gessi, R. Proceedings, Vol. xx. 50, 

Gibbons, Surgeon, xi. 136. 

Giles, Ernest, xlvi. 328. 

Gill, Capt. xlviii. 57. Proceedings, 
Vol. xxii. 255. 

Gill, Rev. W. Wyatt. xliv. 15. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xviii. 31. 

Gisborne, Lionel, xxvii. 191. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. i. 88. 

Glover, Sir John. Proceedings, 
Vol. xviii. 286. 

Authors of Papers. 


Goad, J. W. Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 
272 ; (N. S.) i. 694. 

Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. xxxi. 
30 ; xxxiv. 19 ; xxxvii. 343 ; xliii. 
1. Proceedings, Vol. viii. 34 ; xi. 
32 ; xvii. 36. 

Goldsmid, Sir Frederic, xxxiii. 181 ; 
xxxvii. 269; xliii. 65; xliv. 183.' 
Proceedings, Vol. vii. 91 ; xvii. 86. 

Golubef, Capt. A. xxxi. 366. 

Goodenough, Dr. Edmund, d.d. i. 

Gordon, Col. xlvi. 381. 431. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xx. 50 ; xxi. 48, 49, 
56, 63. 

Gordon, Lieut., r.n. xix. 22. 

Gosselman, Capt. ix. 407. 

Graberg, Count, vii. 243. 

Graham, Cyril, xxviii. 226. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. ii. 173. 

Grandy, Lieut., r.n. Proceedings, 
Vol. xix. 78. 

Grant, Lieut.-Colonel J. A., c.b., c,s.i. 
xlii. 243; xlvi. 10. Proceedings, 
Vol. xx. 34. 

Grant, W. Colquhoun. xxvii. 268. 
Proceedings, Vol. i. 487. 

Grant, C. M. xxxiii. 167. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vii. 27. 

Graves, Capt. T., r.n. viii. 428 ; 
xix. 152. 

Gregory, Capt. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiv. 214. 

Gregory, A. C. xxii. 57 ; xxviii. 
1-26. Proceedings, Vol. i. 183, 
225, 324, 341, 490 ; iii. 34 ; v. 2. 

Gregory, F. T. xxxii. 372. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. v. 121 ; vi. 54. 

Grey, Capt. viii. 454. 

Grover, Capt. xvi. 162. 

Guarracino, M. F. xv. 296. 

Gubbins, J. H. Proceedings, Vol. 
xvii. 78. 

Gunst, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. ix. 289. 

Gutzlaff, Dr. iii. 291 ; xix. 33, 
85 ; xx. 191. 

Haast, Dr. Julius. xxxiv. 87; 
xxxvii. 328; xl. 433. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. viii. 56. 

Haenke, Thadeus. v. 90. 

Haines, Capt., i.n. ix. 125 ; xv. 
104 ; xxiv. 225. 

Hale, Rev. E. Proceedings, Vol. 
xvi. 450. 

Hall, Capt. C. F. Proceedings, Vol. 
vii. 99 ; xv. 382. 

Hall, Capt. Vine. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiii. 83. 

Hamilton, Comm. H. G., r.n., xiii. 

Hamilton, Rear-Admiral R. V., c.b. 
Proceedings, Vol. ix. 131; xiii. 
234 ; xiv. 145. 

Hamilton, W. J. vii. 34, 74 ; viii. 
137 ; xx. 75. 

Harcourt, A. F. P. xli. 245. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xv. 336. 

Harding, J. xlvii. 250. 

Hargreaves, Mr. Proceedings, Vol. 
viii. 32. 

Haijslab, Gen. xiv. 34. 

Havildar, The. xlii. 180. Pro- 
ceedings, xvi. 253. 

Hay, Capt. J. S. xlvi. 299. Pro- 
ceedings, xx. 475. 

Hay, R. W. iii. 72. 

Hayward, G. W. xl. 33; xli. 1; 
Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 40. 

Heathcote, Capt., i.n. xxxii. 234. 
Proceedings, Vol. vi. 101-114. 

Hector, Dr. xxxiv. 96. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iii. 122 ; iv. 73 ; viii. 47 ; 
ix. 32. 

Helpman, Lieut, xviii. 38. 

Henderson, Capt., r.n. xx. 151. 

Hermesdorf, M. G. xxxii. 536. 

Herschel, Sir John. xxx. 100. 
Proceedings, Vol. iii. 174 ; xv. 211. 

Hickson, W. xxxv. 129. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. ix. 137. 

IIiggin, E. xix. 17. 

Hilhouse, Wm. iv. 25, 321 ; vii. 

Hill, Clement. Proceedings, Vol. 
xvii. 337. 

Hind, H. Y. xxxiv. 82. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. viii. 50. 

Hines, Rev. H. K. Proceedings, Vol. 
xi. 80. 

Hirth, Dr. F. 1. 6. 

Hodgson, Pemberton. Proceedings, 
Vol. v. 113. 

Hofmann, M. xix. 31. 

Hogg, John. xx. 38. 

Holdich, Capt. T. H. Proceedings 
(N.S.), Vol. i. 372 ; iii. 65. 

Holland, Rev. F. W. xxxviii. 237 ; 
xxxix. 342. Proceedings, Vol. x. 
158 ; xii. 190 ; xiii. 204. 

Holmwood, F. xlvii. 253. 

Holroyd. ix. 163. 

Holub, Dr. E. Proceedings (N. S.), 
Vol. ii. 166. 


Authors of Papers. 

Hooker, Sir Joseph D. xx. 49. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xv. 212. 

Hooker, Sir Wm. xii. 265. 

Hope, Percy, xliv. 203. 

Hopkins, T. xxvi. 158 ; xxvii. 206. 
Proceedings, Yol. i. 58 ; ii. 357 ; iv. 

Horsburgh, Capt. ii. 72. 

Hoskyn, R. xii. 143. 

Houghton, Lord. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiv. 88. 

Howard, F. xxxvi. 227. 

Howorth, H. H. xliii. 240; xliv. 252. 

Hxjgel, Baron, vi. 343. 

Hulton, Dr. xi. 156. 

Hunt, Carew. xv. 258, 268, 

Hunt, Commr., r.n. Proceedings, 
Vol. ii. 374. 

Hutchinson, E. Proceedings (N.S.), 
Vol. ii. 289. 

Hutchinson, T. J. xxxiv. 226. 

Huttmann, Wm. xiv. 117. 

Ibrahim Khan. Proceedings, Vol. 

xv. 387. 
Illingworth, Admiral. Proceedings, 

Vol. i. 86. 
Im-Thurn, E. F. Proceedings (N.S.), 

Vol. ii. 465. 
Inglefield, Capt., r.n. Vol. xxiii. 

Ingram, Govr. xvii. 150. 
Irminger, Admiral xxvi. 36; xl. 

441 ; xlix. 398. Proceedings, Vol. 

i. 61 ; v. 225 ; xiii. 226. 
Isbister, G. A. K. xv. 332. 
Isenberg, Dr. x. 455. 

Jackson, Colonel J. E. iii. 271 ; iv. 

72; v. 1,381.; vi. 416. 
James, Colonel Sir Henry, xxx. 106 ; 

xxxvi. 201. 
Jameson, Dr. "W. xxviii. 337 ; xxxi. 

Jansen, Commodore. Proceedings, 

Vol. ix. 163. 
Jardine, J. xxxvi. 76. Proceed- 
ings, x. 85. 
Jeffreys, A. F. Proceedings, Vol. 

xix. 169. 
Jenkins, H. L. xii. 342. 
Jeppe, F. xlvii. 217. 
Jervis, Col. T. B. vii. 127. viii. 202. 
Jochmus, General, xxiv. 36 ; xxvii. 

1. Proceedings, Vol. i. 301, 481. 
Johnson, A. R. xiv. 112. 
Johnson, Capt. C. iv. 41. 

Johnson, J. H., r.n. ii. 316. 

Johnson, W.|H. xxxvii. i. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xi. 6. 

Johnston, A. Keith. Proceedings, 
Vol. xvi. 125 ; xx. 494 ; (N.S.) i. 
417, 545. 

Johnston, A. R. xiv. 112. 

Jones, Lieut. F. T. xviii. 1. 

Jones, H. L. xxxi. 204. 

Junker, Dr. Proceedings (N.S.), iii. 

Kane, Dr. E. K. xxvi. 1. 

Karaczay, Count, xii. 45. 

Kaye, Lieut.-Gen. Proceedings 
(N.S.), Vol. i. 244. 

Kazi, Syud Ahmad, xlvi. 142. 

Kelley, F. M. xxvi. 174. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. i. 63. 

Kemp, J. Proceedings, Vol. xix. 324. 

Kempthorne, Lieut., i.n. v. 263. 

Kendal, Lieut., r.n. i. 62. 

Kennedy, Mr. W. xxiii. 122. 

Kennedy, H. G. xxxvii. 298. 

Kennedy, E. B. xxii. 228. 

Kennedy, Edmund, xix. 193. 

Kerr, Lord Schomherg. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iii. 2. 

Khanikoff, M. xiii. 278 ; xiv. 333. 

King, Lieut.-Col. Ross. Proceedings, 
Vol. xix. 134. 

King, D. 0. xxx. 177. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iii. 365. 

King, Dr. J. B. xiv. 260. 

King, Capt. P. P., r.n. i. 155 ; vi. 311. 

Kirk, Dr. R. xii. 221. 

Kirk, Dr. John, xxxiv. 199 ; xxxv. 
154, 167. Proceedings, Vol. viii. 
151 ; ix. 284; xvii. 340 ; xviii. 74. 

Koller, Baron, xii. 75. 

Kopsch, H. Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 

Krapf, Dr. x. 455, 469. 

Ladislaus, Magyar, xxiv. 271. 

Lagan, J. R. xvi. 304. 

Lamprey, Jones, xxxvii. 239. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xi. 259. 

Lander, Rd. i. 179. 

Landsborough, Wm. Proceedings, 
Vol. vii. 5, 6, 40, 83, 84. 

Latham, R. G. xx. 189. 

Lawrence, C. W. xliii. 54. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xvii. 80. 

Laws, Capt., r.n. i. 175. 

Laws, Dr. Proceedings (N. S.), Vol. 
i. 305. 

Authors of Papers. 


La yard, A. H. xvi. 1. 

Leake, Col. W. M. ii. 1; ix. 1; 

xii. 162. 
Ledesma, Don V. xxvi. 210. 
Lefeoy, Capt. J. H. xvi. 263. 
Lefroy, H. M. Proceedings, Vol. 

viii. 45. 
Leichhardt, Dr. xvi. 212. Search 

for, xl. 231. Proceedings, Vol. i. 

322 ; iii. 18, 87 ; x. 58. 
Leigh, T. S. xix. 7. 
Leone, Levi, Professor. Proceedings, 

Vol. xviii. 117. 
Lewin, Lieut.-Col. Proceedings, Vol. 

xi. 52. 
Lewis, Capt. r.e. v. 230. 
Leycester, Lieut., r.n. xx. i. ; 

xxii. 201. 
Lhotsky, Dr. John. ix. 157. 
Lindley, John. v. 296. 
Livingstone, Dr. xx. 138; xxi. 

18 ; xxii. 163 ; xxiv. 291 ; xxv. 

218 ; xxvi. 78 ; xxvii. 349 ; xxxi. 

256 ; xxxiii. 251 ; xxxi v. 245. 

Proceedings, Vol. ii. 116 ; iv. 87 ; 

v. 128; vi. 20; vii. 18; xii. 175; 

xiv. 8, 16 ; xv. 115, 335 ; xviii. 221. 
Livingstone, Dr. Search, xiv. 334 ; 

xvi. 124, 145, 158, 203, 225, 241. 
Livingstone, C. Proceedings, Vol. 

xiv. 167. 
Lloyd, Rev. W., r.n. xxxvii. 212. 

Proceedings, Vol. xi. 253. 
Lloyd, Colonel, i. 69 ; xxiii. 196 ; 

xxiv. 259. 
Lloyd, xx. 53. 
Lockhart, W. xxviii. 288 ; xxxvi. 

128. Proceedings, Vol. ii. 201; 

x. 154. 
Loftus, W. K. xxvi. 131 : xxvii. 

120. Proceedings, Vol. i. 45, 219. 
Long, Professor, iii. 257 ; xii. 102. 
Lovett, Major Beresford. xlii. 202 ; 

xliv. 145. Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 

219, 261. 
Lowenstern, Chevalier, xi. 100. 
Lushington, Capt. viii. 454. 
Lynch, Capt. H. B., i.n. ix. 441, 

Lysaght, Lieut.-Comm., xix. 29. 

McCarthy, J. Proceedings (N.S.), 

Vol. i. 489. 
Macdonald, J. D. xxvii. 232. 
Macedo, Don J. J. da Costa de. xi. 


Macfarlane, R. Proceedings, Vol. 
ix. 125. 

Macfarlane, Rev. S. Proceedings, 
Vol. xx. 253 ; xxi. 350. 

MacGillivray, J. xxi. 13. 

Mackenzie, Bishop. Proceedings, 
Vol. v. 131. 

M'Clintock, Sir L. xxxi.i. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. v. 62 ; xv. 102 ; xix. 464. 

M'Cosh, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. v. 47. 

M'Clure, Sir R. xxiv. 240. 

M'Kerrow, Jas. xxxiv. 56. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. viii. 47. 

McKinlay, Mr. Proceedings, Vol. 
vii. 5, 6, 84. 

Macgowan, D. J. xxxii. 74. 

McLeod, Consul. Proceedings, Vol. 
ii. 363. 

Macpherson, Duncan. Proceedings, 
Vol. vii. 95. 

Macqueen, Mr. Jas. xv. 371 ; xx. 
235; xxvi. 109; xxx. 128, 136, 
155, 161. Proceedings, Vol. i. 12, 
75 ; iii. 208, 362. 

Mahomed Amin. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiii. 122. 

Major, R. H. xii. 193 ; xliii. 156 
xlix. 412. Proceedings, xi. 246 
xv. 210 ; xvii. 312. 

Malden, Prof. H. xv. 351. 

Man, E. H. 1. 1. 

Mann, Dr. xxxvii. 48. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vii. 50 ; xi. 18 ; xvi. 138. 

Maples, Rev. C. Proceedings (N. S.), 
Vol. ii. 337. ' 

Margary, A. R. xlvi. 172; Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xx. 184. 

Markham, Capt. A. H. xlii. 213. 
Proceedings, Vol. xvi. 388; xxi. 
110 ; (N. S.) ii. 1, 742. 

Markham, Clements R., o.b. xxv. 
151 ; xxxi. 190 ; xxxv. 87 ; xxxvi. 
180, 195 ; xxxviii. 1, 12 ; xii. 281 ; 
xliii. 83; xliv. 127; xiv. 299. 
Proceedings, Vol. v. 224 ; ix. 88, 
138 ; x. 266 ; xi. 78 ; xii. 11, 113, 
298 ; xv. 367 ; xvi. 158 ; xvii. 97 ; 
xviii. 12, 212 ; xix. 327 ; xx. 55, 
241 ; xxi. 536. (N. S.) i. 16, 38, 
110, 191, 353, 675 ; ii. 657 ; iii. 129. 

Markham, John. xl. 207. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xiv. 137. 

Martin, Capt. Gerald. Proceedings 
(N.S.), Vol. i. 617. 

Martin, James, xxxv. 237. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. x. 86 


Authors of Papers. 

Masters, Peter, xv. 236. 
Mathison, Commr. xx. 136. 
Maundrell, Rev. H. xxxvii. 108. 
Maury, Capt. Proceedings, Vol. v. 22. 
May, D. J., r.n. xxx. 212. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. vi. 36. 
Maynard, J. H. Proceedings, Vol. 

xx. 110. 
Mayne, Lieut., r.n. xxxi. 297; xxxii. 

529. Proceedings, Vol. iv. 33 ; vi. 

Michell, Major, r.e. vi. 168. 
Michell, Eobert. xxxviii. 429 ; 

xliii. 263 ; xlvii. 17. Proceedings, 

Vol. xxi. 122. 
Michelsen, Dr. xxxii. 565. 
Michie, A. xxxiii. 153. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vii. 25. 
Miles, Capt. xli. 210; xlii. 61; 

xliv. 163. Proceedings, Vol. xv. 

319 ; xvi. 149. 
Miller, General, vi. 174 ; xii. 137. 
Millingen, C. xliv. 118. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xviii. 194. 
Milton, Viscount. Proceedings, Vol. 

ix. 17. 
Milum, Eev. J. Proceedings (N. S.), 

Vol. iii. 26. 
Mirambo, P. Broyon. Proceedings, 

Vol. xxii. 28. 
Mirza, The. xli. 132. Proceedings, 

Vol. xv. 181. 
Mitchell, Major T. L. vii. 271. 
Moesta, Carlos, xxviii. 333. 
Moffat, Dr. xxvi. 84 ; xxviii. 153, 

174. Proceedings, Vol. ii. 77, 158. 
Mohammed Sisei. viii. 448. (See 

Molyneux, Lieut, xviii. 104. 
Monteith, Colonel, iii. 1 ; v. 404 ; 

xxvii. 108. 
Montgomerie, Major G. T. xxxvi. 

157 ; xli. 132 ; xlii. 180 ; xlv. 315, 

325, 330; xxxviii. 129; xxxix. 

146. Proceedings, Vol. x. 162; 

xii. 146 ; xiii. 130, 183 ; xiv. 207 ; 

xvi. 253. 
Moorcroft, Wm. ii. 253. 
Moresby, Capt., i.n. v. 398. 
Moresby, Capt. J., r.n. xliv. 1. 

Proceedings, Vol. xviii. 22 ; xix. 

Moreton, Julian, xxxiv. 263. 
Morgan, L. Delmar. xxxix. 311 ; 

xlviii. 301. Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 

229. (N.S.) i. 701 ; iii. 150. 

Morier, J. vii. 230. 

Morrison, G. J. Proceedings (N.S.), 

Vol. ii. 145. 
Mouat, P. J. xxxii. 109. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vi. 41. 
Mouhot, M. Henri, xxxii. 142. 

Proceedings, Vol. vi. 80. 
Mullens, Rev. J. xlv. 128 ; xlvii. 

47. Proceedings, Vol. xix. 182 ; 

xxi. 155, 233. 
Muller, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. i. 3. 
Muller, Dr. Solomon, xxviii. 264. 
Munful, Mir Munshi. Proceedings, 

Vol. xiii. 130. 
Munzinger, Werner, c.b. xxxix. 

188; xli. 210. Proceedings, Vol. 

xiii. 219. 
Murchison, Sir Roderick, xiii. 269. 

Proceedings, Vol. viii. 151; ix. 

Murphy, Lieut, ii. 93. 
Murray, A. xlvii. 267. 
Musters, Commr., r.n. xli. 59 ; 

xlvii. 201. Proceedings, Vol. xv. 

41 ; xxii. 40. 

Nachtigal, Dr. xlvi. 396. 
Nain Singh. (See Pundit.) 
Napier, Capt. the Hon. G. xlvi. 62. 

Proceedings, Vol. xx. 166. 
Nares, Capt. Sir G. Proceedings, 

Vol. xiv. 75; xxi. 96,274. 
Nash, G. L. Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 

Neumeyer, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. 

xii. 286. 
New, Rev. C. xlv. 414. Proceedings, 

Vol. xvi. 167 ; xix. 317. 
Newbold, Capt. xvi. 331. 
Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xiv. 190. 
Nind, Scott, i. 21. 
Nordenskiold, Prof, xxxix. 131. 

Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 151. 
Norris, E. xx. 101 ; xxiv. 318. 

O'Connor, Gov. Proceedings, Vol. 
i. 42 ; vi. 15. 

Oersted, Magister A. xxi. 96. 

Oldfield, R. K. vii. 195. 

Oliphant, Laurence. xxx. 75 ; 
xxxiii. 178 ; xxxv. 142. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iii. 162 ; vii. 61 ; ix. 

Oliver, Lieut. Proceedings, Vol. 
vi. 85 ; vii. 68. 

Authors of Papers. 


O'Riley, Edward, xxxii. 164. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. vi. 83. 

Orb, John. xi. 192. 

Osbobn, Adm. Sherard, c.B. xxvii. 
133 ; xxviii. 371 ; xxxvi. 279 ; xii. 
46. Proceedings, Vol. i. 104, 305 ; 
iii. 55; ix. 42; xii. 92; xv. 28; 
xvi. 227; xvii. 172. 

Osten Sacken, Baron. xl. 250. 
Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 221. 

Oswell, W. C. xx. 143 ; xxii. 163. 

Owen, Captain, b.n. i. 66 ; ii. 81. 

Oxenham, E. L. xlv. 170. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xix. 244. 

Page, E. Legh. viii. 317. 

Palgbave, W. Gifford. xxxiv. 111. 
Proceedings, Vol. viii. 63 ; xvi. 

Palladius, Archimandrite, xlii. 142. 

Palliseb, Capt. xxx. 267. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. ii. 38, 146, 228 ; iii. 
iv. 73. 

Palmeb, Lient., b.e. xxxi. 224 ; 
xxxiv. 171. Proceedings, Vol. iv. 
33 ; viii. 87. 

Palmeb, John Linton, b.n. xl. 167. 
Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 108. 

Pabish, Sir Woodbine, iii. 94 ; iv. 
182 ; vi. 136. 

Parish, Capt. A. xxvi. 154. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. i. 36. 

Pabkes, Sir Harry, xxiv. 306 ; xxvi. 
71. Proceedings, Vol. i. 13. 

Pabkyns, Mans6eld. xx. 254. 

Pabby, F. xliv. 152. 

Pattebson, Capt., R. R. Proceedings 
(N.S.), Vol. i. 240, 509. 

Pa^ee, Julius, xlv. 1. Proceedings, 
Vol. xix. 17. 

Pelly, Sir Lewis, xxxiv. 251 ; xxx v. 
169, 231. Proceedings, Vol. viii. 
18 ; ix. 293. 

Peney, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. vi. 18. 

Pentland, J. B. v. 70 ; viii. 427. 

Pebby, Gerald Raoul. Proceedings, 
Vol. vi. 74. 

Peschubof, M. xxviii. 376. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. ii. 153 ; iii. 92. 

Petebmann, Dr. A. xviii. 89 ; xx. 
232 ; xxii. 118 ; xxiii. 129. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. ix. 90, 114. 

Pethebick, Consul, xxxv. 289. Pro- 
ceedings, Vols. iv. 39, 223 ; v. 27, 
40, 41 ; vi. 18 ; vii. 20 ; viii. 122. 

Peytieb, M. viii. 423. 

Phxlippi, Dr., b.a. xxv. 158. 

Phillips, Geo. xliv. 97. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xviii. 168. 

Phillips, Capt., b.n. iii. 275. 

Philpots, E. P. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiii. 372. 

Pim, Capt. Bedford, b.n. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vi. 75, 112. 

Pinto, Major Serpa. Proceedings 
(N.S.), Vol. i. 481. 

Poey, Andre's, xxv. 291. 

Pollington, Viscount, x. 445. 

Poole, H. xxvi. 55. Proceedings, 
Vol. i. 221. 

Pobteb, Rev. J. L. xxvi. 43. 

Poston, Hon. C. Proceedings, Vol. 
xix. 302. 

Powell, W. Proceedings (N.S.), 
Vol. iii. 84. 

Poweb, Mrs. Col. v. 243. 

Poweb, John, xxviii. 349. 

Pbevost, Commr., b.n. xxiv. 249. 

Pbichabd, Dr. J. C. ix. 192. 

Pbitchett, G. xxx. 64. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iii. 93. 

Pbout, Major H. G. xlix. 392. 

Prudhoe, Lord. v. 38. 

Pundit, The. xxxviii. 129; xlvii. 
86. Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 325. 

Pubdon, Wm. xxxi. 14. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iv. 31. 

Puydt, M. Lucien de. xxxviii. 69. 
Proceedings, Vol. xiL 63. 

Quin, Capt. Michael, b.n. xxvi. 232. 

Rae, Dr. John. xxii. 73 ; xxv. 246. 
Proceedings, Vol. v. 80 ; vii. 102. 

Rafinesque, C. S. xi. 165. 

Rafn, Professor, xiv. 316. 

Raimondi, Don Antonio. xxxvii. 
116 ; xxxviii. 413. Proceedings, 
Vol. xi. 102 ; xiii. 112. 

Randell, W. R. xxxi. 145. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. iv. 94. 

Rattbay, A. xxxviii. 370 ; xlii. 
431. Proceedings, Vol. xii. 313. 

Rawlinson, Sir Henry, k.cb. ix. 
26; x. 1, 65; xii. 112; xxvii. 
185 ; xlii. 482 ; xliii. 272. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. i. 39, 280, 351; 
v. 219; x. 134; xiii. 10; xvii. 
92, 108, 162 ; xviii. 414 ; (N.S.) 
i. 106, 161. 

Reads, Winwood. Proceedings, Vol. 
vii. 106. 


Authors of Papers. 

Redlich, E. xliv. 30. 

Richards, Admiral Sir G. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xiv. 259 ; xix. 208. 

Richardson, Sir John. ix. 117, 121, 

(Australia), xxxvi. 19. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. x. 32. 

Rigby, General. Proceedings, Vol. 
x. 113. 

Rink, Dr. H. xxiii. 145; xxviii. 
272. Proceedings, Vol. ii. 195; 
vii. 76. 

Robins, J. V. Proceedings, Vol. x. 

Robinson, Dr. ix. 295 ; xviii. 77 ; 
xxiv. 1. 

, Murrell W. xiv. 130. 

, Staff Commr. G., r.n. xlvii. 


Rochfort, John, xxxii. 294. 

Roe, J. S. xxii. 1. 

Rolleston, Professor, xlix. 320. 

Rooke, Capt. xxxvi. 52. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. x. 54. 

Rorit, M. P. xl. 463. 

Ross, Major E. C. Proceedings, Vol. 
xvi. 139, 219. 

Ross, John (Baghdad), ix. 443 ; 
xi. 121. 

, John (Australia). Proceedings, 

Vol. xv. 96. 

Russell, H. S. xv. 305. 

St. John, Commander, r.n. xlii. 343. 

, Major, xxxviii. 411. 

i , Spencer, xxxii. 217. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. vi. 83. 

Sanderson, John. xxx. 233 ; xxxii. 

Sarel, Lt.-Col. xxxii. 1. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vi. 2. 

Saunders, Trelawny. xlii. 513. 

■ , Commander J. P. xvi. 169. 

Saussure, Henri de. xxx. 53. 

Schlagintweit Brothers. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. i. 273. 

Schmidt, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. x. 

Sclater, P. L. Proceedings (N.S.), 
Vol. i. 121. 

Schomburgk, Sir Robert, ii. 152 ; 
vi. 224 ; vii. 285, 302 ; x. 159, 191, 
248 ; xii. 169, 178 ; xiii. 18 ; xv. 1 ; 
xxiii. 264 ; xxxi. 302. Proceedings, 
Vol. v. 118. 

Schoolcraft, Prof. xii. 259. 

Schuyler, E. Proceedings, Vol. 

xviii. 408. 
Scott, Amos. xxv. 176. 
A. J. Proceedings, Vol. viii. 

Scouler, John. xi. 215. 
Seebohm, H. xlviii. 1. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xxii. 101. 
Selby, Lieut. W. B., i.n. xiv. 

Selous, P. C. Proceedings (N.S.), 

Vol. iii. 169. 
Semenof, M. P. P. xxxi. 356 ; 

xxxv. 213 ; xxxix. 311. 
Severtsof, M. xl. 343. Proceed- 
ings (N.S.), Vol. ii. 499. 
Sevin, C. H. xxx. 1. 
Seymour, Rear- Admiral Sir George, 

k.c.b. xix. 20. 
Shaffrer. Proceedings, Vol. iv. 

101 ; v. 94. 
Shaw, J. B. xii. 373; xlvi. 277. 

Proceedings, Vol. xiv. 124 ; xv. 180; 

xvi. 242, 395 ; xvii. 195. 
Shiel, Lieut.-Col. Sir Justin, viii. 

54, 430. 
Sholl, J. B. xxxvi. 203. 
Sibree, Rev. James. Proceedings 

(N.S.), Vol. i. 646. 
Simons, F. A. Proceedings (N.S.) 

Vol. i. 689. 
Simmonds, P. L. Proceedings, Vol. 

i. 53. 
Simpson, Messrs. and Dease. viii. 

213 ; ix. 325 ; x. 268. 
Simpson, W. Proceedings, Vol. xix. 

Sinclair, Captain. Proceedings, Vol. 

iv. 79. 
Skene, Jas. H. xviii. 139. 
Skertchley, J. A. xlviii. 274. 
Sladen, Major, xii. 257. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. xv. 343. 
Smith, Dr. A. vi. 394. 
Smith, Dr. F. P. Proceedings, Vol. 

xxi. 580. 
Smith, J. H. xxiv. 256. 
Smith, Lieut. Wehber. vii. 61. 
Smyth, Lieut., r.n. vi. 11. 
Smyth, Admiral W. H., c.b. i. 58 ; 

xxiv. 328. 
Sosnoffsky, Col. xlvii. 150. 
Speke, Captain, xxviii. 188 ; xxxiii. 

322, 334. Proceedings, Vol. ii. 

52 ; iii. 348 ; vi. 17 ; vii. 20, 213, 


Authors of Pajiers. 


Spottiswoode, Wm. xxxi. 149. 
Proceedings, Vol. iv. 97 ; v. 234. 

Spratt, Admiral, viii. 205 ; xvi. 
251 ; xvii. 145 ; xxiv. 238 ; xxvi. 
203 ; xxvii. 220. 

Spruce, Richard, xxxi. 163. 

Sprye, Capt. Proceedings, Vol. v. 45. 

Squier, E. G. xxx. 58. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iii. 106. 

Staley, Rev. D. xxxviii. 361. 
Proceedings, Vol. xii. 305. 

Stanley, H. M. Proceedings, Vol. 
xxii. 165, 382. 

Stanley, Captain Owen, r.n. xii. 

Stebnitzky, Colonel, xliv.' 217. 

Stephenson, Capt., r.n., c.b. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxi. 106. 

Stevens, Capt. J. xliii. 295. 

Stewart, Dr. James. Proceedings 
(N.S.), Vol. i. 289 ; ii. 428. 

Stokes, Admiral, vi. 311 ; xix. 33 ; 
xxi. 25; xxvi. 183. Proceedings, 
Vol. i. 79. 

Stone, 0. Proceedings, Vol. xx. 92. 

Stow, J. P. Proceedings, Vol. x. 

Strachan, R. xlvi. 421. 

Strachey, Capt. H. xxi. 57 ; xxiii. 1. 

Strachey, Gen. Richard, c.s.i. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xvi. 443 ; xxi. 179. 

Stbuve, Professor, viii. 406 ; xxxix. 

Stuart, Major R. xxxix. 276 ; 
xlviii. 234. Proceedings, Vol. xxi. 

Stuart, Dr. J. L. xxxii. 316. 

Stuart, John M'Douall. xxxi. 65, 
83,100; xxxii. 340; xxxiii. 276. 
Proceedings, Vol. v. 55, 104 ; vi. 8 ; 
vii. 82 ; ix. 21. 

Sturt, Captain Charles, xiv. 141 ; 
xvii. 85. 

Sulivan, Capt. R.N. xlv. 364. 

Sutherland, Dr. xxv. 256. 

Suter, Henry, x. 434. 

Swinhoe, Robert, xxxiv. 6 ; xl. 
268. Proceedings, viii. 23 ; xiv. 
83, 235. 

Sykes, Colonel, viii. 435 ; xxiii. 101 ; 
xxiv. 328. 

Symonds, Capt. W. C. viii. 416. 

Synge, Capt., r.e. xxii. 174. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. vii. 71. 

Tanner, Colonel H. Proceedings 
(N.S.), Vol. iii. 278. 

Taylek, J. W. xl. 228. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. iii. 117 ; v. 90 ; xiv. 156. 

Taylor, J. E. Proceedings, Vol. xi. 

Taylor, J. G. xxxv. 21 ; xxxviii. 
281. Proceedings, Vol. ix. 36; 
xii. 302. 

Taylor, Lieut., r.a. iii. 99. 

Temple, Sir Richard, xxxv. 70. 
Proceedings, ix. 81 ; (N.S.) ii. 529. 

Temple, Lieut. George, r.n. Pro- 
ceedings (N.S.) ii. 273. 

Temple, Lieut. R. C. xlix. 190; 1. 1. 

Tennant, Professor. Proceedings, 
Vol. xii. 322. 

Thomas, W. N. Proceedings, Vol. 
xvii. 148. 

Thomson, Dr. A. S. xxiii. 87. 

Thomson, J.; xliii. 97; Proceedings, 
Vol. xvii. 144 ; (N.S.) i. 97. 

Thomson, Joseph, 1. 14. Proceedings 
(N.S.),Vol. i. 558 ; ii. 102. 209, 306. 

Thomson, R. F. Proceedings, Vol. 
iii. 2. 

Thomson, J. T. xxviii. 298. 

Thomson, W. C. xvi. 106. 

Thornton, Richard. xxxiv. 196. 
Proceedings, Vol. vi. 47 ; ix. 15. 

Thurburn, Hugh. xxii. 128. 

Tickell, Capt. xxiv. 86. 

Tinn£, Madame. Proceedings, Vol. 
viii. 12. 

Todd, Major D'Arcy. viii. 29, 101. 

Torrens. Proceedings, Vol. iv. 

Toynbee, Capt. xxxv. 147. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. ix. 281. 

Tremenheere, Colonel, xxxvii. 68. 
Proceedings, Vol. xi. 22. 

Trotter, Capt. H. xlvii. 86 ; xlviii. 
173. Proceedings, Vol. xxii. 287. 

Troup, J. xlii. 425. 

Tucker, Admiral, J. R. Proceedings, 
Vol. xiii. 133. 

Turner, W. J. xlvi. 428. 

Turner, Rev. D. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiii. 57. 

Twyford, A. W. Proceedings, Vol. 
i. 503. 

Van de Gehuchte. xxviii. 359. 
Varnhagen, M. Proceedings, Vol 

iii. 389. 
Veniukof, M. xxxii. 560 ; xxxvi. 

265, 248 ; xlii. 373. 
Vereker, Hon. H. P. xxxii. 137. 

Proceedings, vi. 74. 



Authors of Papers. 

Vetch, Capt. vii. 1 ; viii. 157. 

Veth, Professor. Proceedings (N.S.), 
Vol. i. 759. 

Vidal, Capt., R.N. i. 51 ; xix. 160. 

Vigne, T. G. ix. 512. 

Vogel, Dr. xxi. 130 ; xxiv. 276 ; 
xxv. 237. Proceedings, Vol. ii. 30, 

Von Baee, Professor, viii. 210, 411. 

Von per Decken, Baron. Proceed- 
ings, Vol. viii. 5 ; x. 28, 109. 

Von Hammer, Baron, xii. 261. 

Von Krokow, Count, xxxvi. 198. 

Von Maltzan, Baron. Proceedings, 
Vol. xvi. 115. 

Von Muller, Baron, xx. 275. 

Yon Wildenbruch, Colonel, xx. 227. 

Von Wrangell, Admiral, xviii. 19, 

Von Wrede, Baron, xiv. 107. 

Waddington, A. xxxviii. 118. 
Proceedings, Vol. xii. 121. 

Wakefield, Rev. J. xl. 303. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xvi. 125. 

Waldegrove, Capt., r.n. iii. 156, 

Walker, Mr. (Australia). Proceed- 
ings, Vol. vii. 5, 6, 84. 

Walker, A . Proceedings, Vol . ix. 33. 

Walker, Col. J. T. xxxii. 303. 

Walker, Capt. J. B. Proceedings, 
Vol. xvi. 135. 

Walker, R. B. N. Proceedings, 
Vol. xvii. 354. 

Wallace, A. R. xxiii. 212; xxx. 
172; xxxii. 127; xxxiii. 217. 
Proceedings, Vol. i. 193 ; ii. 163 ; 
iii. 358 ; vi. 43 ; vii. 206 ; xxi. 505. 

Wallich, Dr. Proceedings, Vol. 
vii. 53. 

Wallin, Dr. G. A. xx. 293 ; xxiv. 
115 ; xxv. 260. 

Warburton, Col. Egerton. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. v. 124 ; xviii. 183 ; 
xix. 41. 

Wareham, Mr. xii. 21. 

Warren, Capt. C. xlviii. 283. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xix. 155. 

Washington, Capt., r.n. i. 123; 
vii. 172 ; viii. 235, 448. 

Watson, R. G. Proceedings, Vol. vi. 

Watson, Lieut, xlvi. 417, 424. 

Watts, W. L. xlvi. 1. Proceedings, 
Vol. xx. 21. 

Webb, Capt. W. S. iv. 376. 

Wells, J. W. xlvi. 308. 

Wellsted, Lieut., i.n. v. 129, 286 ; 
vi. 96 ; vii. 20, 102. 

Weyprecht, Lieut, xlv. 19. 

Wheelwright, W. xxxi. 155. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. iv. 45. 

White, Robert. Proceedings, Vol. 
i. 27. 

White, T. P. Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 

Whitelock, Lieut., i.n. viii. 170. 

Whitley, N. Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 

Whitney, Asa. xxi. 86. 

Whymper, F. xxxviii. 219. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xii. 186. 

Whyte, W. A. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiv. 243. 

Wickham, G. H. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiii. 58. 

Wickham, Capt., r.n. viii. 460; 
xii. 79. 

Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, ix. 431 ; 
xxv. 206. 

Wilkinson, J. ii. 28. 

Wilkinson, J. R. Proceedings, Vol. 
xiii. 134. 

Williamson, Rev. A. xxxix. 1. 
Proceedings, Vol. xiii. 26. 

Wilson, Rev. C. T. Proceedings 
(N. S.), Vol. ii. 353. 

Wilson, Major C. W. xliii. 206. 
Proceedings, Vol. xvii. 326. 

Wilson, Col. D. iii. 283. 

Wilson, Capt. J. C, r.n. xxxvi. 244. 

Wilson, J. Fox. xxxv. 106. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. ix. 106. 

Wilson, Capt. J. R. xiii. 118. 

Wilson, J. S. xxviii. 137. 

Wolfe, Lieut. J., r.n. iii. 77. 

Wood, Lieut., i.n. vi. 29 ; x. 530. 

Wood, Major Herbert, xlv. 367. 

Wortabet, Dr. xxxii. 100. 

Wrangell, Admiral von. xviii. 19, 

Yorke, Colonel Philip, xxi. 35 
Young, Sir Allen. Proceedings, Vol. 

v. 70; ix. 296. 
Young, E. D., r.n. xxxviii. 111. 

Proceedings, Vol. xii. 79 ; xx. 451 ; 

xxi. 225. 
Yule, Col. H., c.b. xxvii. 54 ; xiii. 

438. Proceedings, Vol. i. 269 ; x. 


Zahrtmann, Admiral, v. 102. 

( 243 ) 



From 1832 to 1850 Geography was considered with Geology, sometimes 
with a separate President for the geographical papers. After 1850 Geography 
and Ethnology formed a separate Section E. After 1869 Ethnology was 
placed in a sub-section of Section D, and since that year Section E has been 
for Geography alone. 


Geographical Beanch of Section C. 

1831. York .. .. 

1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge.. 

1834. Edinburgh.. 
1855. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool .. 

1838. Newcastle .. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth .. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork .. .. 

1844. York .. .. 

1845. Cambridge.. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford .. 

1848. Swansea .. 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 

No sections. 

I No separate President for the geographical 

Mr. E. I. Murchison, f.r.8. 
Mr G. B. Greenough, f.b.s. 
Lord Prudhoe, Captain, r.n. 
Mr. G. B. Greenough, f.r.s. 
Mr. G. B. Greenough, f.r.s. 

No separate President for the geographical 

Mr. G. B. Greenough, f.b.s. 

No separate President for the geographical 

K 2 


British Association. 






1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull .. 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds .. 

1859. Aberdeen 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. 5a*A .. 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich 

1869. .Exeter 

1870. Liverpool 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton 

1873. Bradford 

1874. .BeZ/as* 

1875. -Br&foZ 

1876. Glasgow 

1877. Plymouth 

1878. DuUtn 

1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. Tor* .. 

(Section E). 

Sir Roderick Murchison, f.r.s. 

Colonel Chesney, f.b.s. 

Mr. R. G. Latham, f.r.8. 

Sir Roderick Murchison, f.r.s. 

Sir John Richardson, c.b., f.r.s. 

Sir Henry Rawlinson, k.c.b., f.r.s. 

Rev. Dr. J. H. Todd. 

Sir Roderick Murchison, f.r.s. 

Admiral Sir James C. Ross, f.r.s. 

Sir Roderick Murchison, f.r.s. 

Mr. John Crawfurd, f.r.s. 

Mr. Francis Galton, f.r.s. 

Sir Roderick Murchison, f.r.s. 

Sir Roderick Murchison, f.r.s. 

Sir Henry Rawlinson, k.c.b., f.r.s. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. 

Sir Samuel Baker. 

Captain Richards, R.N., c.b., f.r.s. 

Sir H. Bartle Frere, g.cs.i., k.c.b. 

Sir Roderick Murchison, k.c.b., f.r.s. 

Colonel H. Yule, c.b. 

Mr. Francis Galton, f.r.s. 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, k.c.b. 

Lieut. -Colonel Wilson, c.b., f.r.s. 

Lieut.-General R. Strachey, c.s.i., f.r.s. 

Captain Evans, R.N., c.b., f.r.s. 

Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, c.b., f.r.s. 

Sir Wyville Thomson, f.r.s. 

Mr. Clements Markham, c.b., f.r.s. 

Lieut.-General Sir J. H. Lefroy, k.c.m.g., f.r.s. 

Sir Joseph D. Hooker, k.c.s.i., c.b., f.r.s. 

British Association. 



Geography & Ethnology. 

1851. Ipswich .. .. Dr. Norton Shaw, Rev. J. Donaldson, Mr. Cull, (Ethn.) 

1852. Belfast ».. .. „ „ Mr. Mac Adam, Mr. Cull, (Ethn.) 

1853. Hull .... „ „ ltev.H. W.Kemp, Mr. Cull, (Ethn.) 

1854. Liverpool .. „ „ Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. line, Mr. 

Cull, (Ethn) 

„ „ Dr. Blackie, Mr. Cull, (Ethn.) 

„ „ Mr. Hartland, W. H. Rumsey. Mr. 

Cull, (Ethn.) 
„ „ Mr. Ferguson, Dr. Madden. Mr. 

Cull, (Ethn.) 
„ „ Mr. F. Galton, Dr. O'Callaghan, 

T. Wright, (Ethn.) 
„ „ Prof. Geddes, Mr. Cull, (Ethn.) 

„ „ Captain Burrows, R.N., Dr. Lem- 

priere, Dr. Hunt, (Ethn.) 
„ „ W. Spottiswoode, J. Kingsley, Dr. 

Hunt, (Ethn.) 
Rev. J. Glover, J. W. Clarke, Dr. 

Hunt, (Ethn.) 
C. R. Markham R. W. Watson, C. Carter Blake, 

„ „ H. W. Bates, Capt. Murchison, 

T. Wright, (Ethn.) 
„ „ H. W. Bates, 8. Evans, G. Jabet, 

T. Wright, (Ethn.) 
„ „ H. W. Bates, R. H. Major, Rev. 

E. T. Cusins, D. W. Nash, T. 

Wright, (Ethn.) 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, B. J. Mackie, R. 

Sturrock, (Ethn.) 
C. R. Markham, H. W. Bates, T. Baines, T. Wright, 


1855. Glasgow . . 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin .. 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen 

1860. Oxford .. 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee. .. 

1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter .. 

1870. Liverpool 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast .. 

1875. Bristol .. 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth 

1878. Dublin .. 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 


C. R. Markham, H. W. Bates, J. H. Thomas. 

„ „ „ „ A. Mott, D. Buxton. 

„ „ A. Keith Johnston, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Rev. J. Newton, 

J. H. Thomas. 
C. R. Markham, A. Keith Johnston, H. W. Bates. 
E. C. Rye, E. G. Ravenstein, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. Tuckett 
„ „ R. 0. Wood. 

„ F.E.Fox. 
E. C. Rye, John Coles. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, C. E. D. Black. 


Hakluyt Society. 





1847. Sir Roderick Murchison, Bart., k.c.b., f.r.s. 
1871. Right Honourable Sir David Dundas. 

to [Colonel H. Yule, c.b. 

1847. Mr. Desborough Cooley. 
1849. Mr. R. H. Major. 

to | Mr. Clements Markham, c.b., f.b.s. 


Colonel H. Yule, c.b., f.b.g.s. 


Admiral C. R. Drinkwater Bethune, c.b., f.b.g.s. 
Major-General Sir Henry Rawlinson, k.cb., f.r.g.s 

W. A. Tyssen Amherst, Esq., m.p., 


Rev. Dr. G. P. Badger, d.c.l., f.r.g.s. 
J. Barrow, Esq., f.r.s., f.r.g.s. 
Walter de Gray Birch, Esq. 

E. H. BuNBURY, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

Adm. Sir R. Collinson, k.c.b., f.r.g.s. 
The Earl of Ducie, f.r.s., f.r.g.s. 
Captain F. B. Hankey, r.n. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. Henry Lefroy, 

C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

R. H. Major, Esq., f.s.a., f.r.g.s. 
Rear-Admiral Mayne, c.b., f.r.g.s. 
E. Delmar Morgan, Esq., f.r.g.s. 
Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney, 

C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Lord Arthur Russell, m.p., For. 

Sec. r.g.s. 
The Lord Stanley of Alderley. 
Edward Thomas, Esq., f.r.s. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir Henry Thuillier, 

C.S.I., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Honorary Secretary — C. R. Markham, c.b., f.r.s., Sec. r.g.s. 
Bankers — Messrs. Ransom, Bouverie, and Co., 1, Pall Mall East. 

The Hakluyt Society, which is established for the purpose of printing rare 
or unpublished Voyages and Travels, aims at opening by this means an easier 

Hakluyt Society., 247 

access to the sources of a branch of knowledge, which yields to none in 
importance, and is superior to most in agreeable variety. The narratives of 
travellers and navigators make us acquainted with the earth, its inhabitants 
and productions ; they exhibit the growth of intercourse among mankind, 
with its effects on civilisation, and, while instructing, they at the same time 
awaken attention, by recounting the toils and adventures of those who first 
explored unknown and distant regions. 

The advantage of an Association of this kind consists not merely in its 
system of literary co-operation, but also in its economy. The acquirements, 
taste, and discrimination of a number of individuals, who feel an interest in 
the same pursuit, are thus brought to act in voluntary combination, and the 
ordinary charges of publication are also avoided, so that the volumes pro- 
duced are distributed among the Members (who can alone obtain them) at 
little more than the cost of printing and paper. The Society expends the 
whole of its funds in the preparation of works for the Members ; and since 
the cost of each copy varies inversely as the whole number of copies printed, 
it is obvious that the members are gainers individually by the prosperity of 
the Society, and the consequent vigour of its operations. The number 
of Members is now 240. 

Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members of the Hakluyt Society should 
intimate their intention to the Secretary, Mr. Clements H. Markham, c.b., 
f.b.s., 21, Eccleston Square, S.W., or to the Society's Agent for the delivery 
of its volumes, Mr. Richards, 37, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields ; 
when their names will be recorded, and on payment of their subscription of 
11. Is. to Mr. Richards, they will receive the volumes issued for the year. 

New Members have, at present (1881), the privilege of purchasing the 
publications of the Society for previous years for 2ol. Is. 6d. Members 
wishing to purchase back volumes may, with the consent of the Council, be 
supplied with them at the rate of 10s. each volume, when they require any 
number less than one quarter of the whole series, and at the rate of 8s. 6d. 
a volume when they require any number more than a quarter of the whole 

The Members are requested to bear in mind that the power of the Council 
to make advantageous arrangements will depend in a great measure on the 
prompt payment of the subscriptions, which are payable in advance on 
the 1st of January, and are received by Mr. Richards, 37, Great Queen 
Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. Post-Office Orders should be made payable to 
Mr. Thomas Richards, at the West Central Office, High Eolborn. 


1. — The Observations of Sir Richard Hawkins, Knt., 

In his Voyage into the South Sea in 1593. Reprinted from the edition of 
1622, and edited by Capt. C. R. Drinkwater Bethune, R.N., o.b. 

Issued for 1848. (First Edition out of print. See No. 57.) 

2. — Select Leteees of Columbus. 

With Original Documents relating to the Discovery of the New World. 
Translated and Edited by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British Tduseum. 

Issued for 1849. (First Edition out of print. See No. 43.) 

248 Volumes of the 

3. — The Discoverie of the Empire of Guiana, 

By Sir Walter Raleigh, Knt. Edited, with copious Explanatory Notes, and 
a Biographical Memoir, hy Sir Robert H. Schomburgk, 1'hil.D., &c. 

Issued for 1850. 

4. — Sir Francis Drake his Voyage, 1595. 

By Thomas Maynarde, together with the Spanish Account of Drake's attack 
on Fuerto Rico. Edited from the Original MSS. by W. D. Cooley, Esq. 

Issued for 1850. 

5. — Narratives of Early Voyages 

Undertaken for the Discovery of a Passage to Cathaia and India, by the 
North-west, with Selections from the Records of the worshipful Fellowship of 
the Merchants of London, trading into the East Indies ; and from MSS. in 
the Library of the British Museum, now first published ; by Thomas 
Rundall, Esq. Issued for 1851. 

6. — The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, 

Expressing the Cosmographie and Commodities of the Country, together with 
the manners and customs of the people, gathered and observed as well by 
those who went first thither as collected by William Strachey, Gent., the 
first Secretary of the Colony ; now first Edited from the original manuscript 
in the British Museum, by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British Museum. 

Issued for 1851. 

7. — Divers Voyages touching the Discovery of -America 

And the Islands adjacent, collected and published by Richard Hakluyt, 
Prebendary of Bristol in the year 1582. Edited, with Notes and an Intro- 
duction, by John Winter Jones, Esq., of the British Museum. 

Issued for 1852. 

8. — A Collection of Documents on Japan. 
With a Commentary by Thomas Rundall, Esq. Issued for 1852. 

9. — The Discovery and Conquest of Florida, 

By Don Ferdinando de Soto. Translated out of Portuguese by Richard 
Hakluyt ; and Edited, with notes and an introduction, by W. B. Rye, Esq., 
of the British Museum. Issued for 1853. 

10. — Notes upon Russia, 

Being a Translation from the Earliest Account of that Country, entitled 
Rerum Muscoviticarum Commentarii, by the Baron Sigismund von Herber- 
stein, Ambassador from the Court of Germany to the Grand Prince Vasiley 
Ivanovich, in the years 1517 and 1526. Two Volumes. Translated and 
Edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British 
Museum. Vol. 1. Issued for 1853. 

11. — The Geography of Hudson's Bay. 

Being the Remarks of Captain W. Coats, iu many Voyages to that locality, 
between the years 1727 and 1751. With an Appendix, containing Extracts 

Hakluyt Society.. 249 

from the Log of Captain Middleton on his Voyage for the Discovery of the 
North-west Passage, in H.M.S. 'Furnace,' in 1741-2. Edited by John 
Barrow, Esq., f.b.s., f.s.a. Issued for 1854. 

12. — Notes upon Russia. Vol. 2. 

Issued for 1854. 

13. — Thbee Voyages by the Noeth-east, 

Towards Cathay and China, undertaken by the Dutch in the years 1594, 
1595, and 1596, with their Discovery of Spitzbergen, their residence of ten 
months in Novaya Zemlya, and their sate return in two open boats. By 
Gerrit de Veer. Edited by C. T. Beke, Esq., Ph.D., f.s.a. 

(First Edition out of print. See No. 54.) Issued for 1855. 

14-15. — The Histoby of the Gbeat and Mighty Kingdom of China 
and the Situation thebeof. 

Compiled by the Padre Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza. And now Reprinted 
from the Early Translation of R. l'arke. Edited by Sir George T. Staunton, 
Bart. With an Introduction by R. H. Major, Esq. 2 vols. 

Issued for 1855. 

16. — The Wobld Encompassed by Sib Fbancis Dbake. 

Being his next Voyage to that to Nombre de Dios. Collated, with an 
unpublished Manuscript of Francis Fletcher, Chaplain to the Expedition. 
With Appendices illustrative of the same Voyage, and Introduction by 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., m.a. Issued for 1856. 

17. — The Histoby of the Tabtab Conquebobs who subdued China. 

From the French of the Pere D'Orleans, 1688. Translated and Edited by 
the Earl of Ellesmere. With an Introduction by R. H. Major, Esq. 

Issued fur 1856. 

18. — A Collection of Eably Documents on Spitzbebgen and 

Consisting of: a Translation from the German of F. Martin's important work 
on Spitzbergen, now very rare; a Translation from Isaac de la Peyrere's 
Relation de Greenland ; and a rare piece eutitled " God's Power and Pro- 
vidence showed in the miraculous preservation and deliverance of eight 
Englishmen left by mischance in Greenland, anno 1630, nine months and 
twelve days, faithfully reported by Edward Pelham." Edited, with Notes, 
by Adam White, Esq., of the British Museum. Issued for 1857. 

19. — The Voyage of Sib Henby Middleton to Bantam and the 
Maldco Islands. 

From the rare Edition of 1606. Edited by Bolton Corney, Esq. 

Issued for 1857. 

20. — Russia at the Close of the Sixteenth Centuby. 

Comprising "The Rii6se Commonwealth'' by Dr. Giles Fletcher, and Sir 
Jerome Hoisey's Travels, now first printed entire from his manuscript in the 
British Museum. Edited by E. A. Bond, Esq., of the British Museum. 

Issued for 1858. 

250 Volumes of the 

21. — The Travels of Girolamo Benzoni in America, in 1542-56. 

Translated and Edited by Admiral W. H. Smyth, F.R.8., f.s.a. 

Issued/or 1858. 

22. — India in the Fifteenth Century. 

Being a Collection of Narratives of Voyages to India in the century pre- 
ceding the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope ; from Latin, 
Persian, Russian, and Italian Sources, now first translated into English. 
Edited, with an Introduction, by R. H. Major, Esq., f.s.a. 

Issued for 1859. 

23. — Narrative of a Voyage to the "West Indies and Mexico, 

In the years 1599-1602, with Maps and Illustrations. By Samuel Champlain. 
Translated from the original and unpublished Manuscript, with a Bio- 
graphical Notice and Notes by Alice Wilmere. Issued for 1859. 

24. — Expeditions into the Valley of the Amazons 

During the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries : containing the Journey of 
Gonzalo Pizarro, from the Royal Commentaries of Garcilasso lnca de la 
Ve«a ; the Voyage of Francisco de Orellana, from the General History of 
Herrera ; and the Voyage of Cristoval de Acufia, from an exceedingly scarce 
narrative written by himself in 1641. Edited and Translated by Clements R. 
Markham, Esq. Issued for 1860. 

25. — Early Indications of Australia. 

A Collection of Documents shewing the Early Discoveries of Australia to 
the time of Captain Cook. Edited by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British 
Museum, f.s.a. Issued for 1860. 

26. — The Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court 
of Timour, 1403-6. 

Translated, for the first time, with Notes, a Preface, and an Introductory Life 
of Timour Beg. By Clements R. Markham, Esq. Issued for 1861. 

27.— Henry Hudson the Navigator. 

The Original Documents in which his career is recorded. Collected, partly 
Translated, and Annotated, with an Introduction by George Asher, ll.d. 

Issued for 1861. 

28. — The Expedition of Ursua and Aguirre, 

In search of El Dorado and Omagua, a.d. 1560-61. Translated from the 
" Sexta Noticia Historiale " of Fray Pedro Simon, by W. Bollaert, Esq. ; 
with an introduction by Clements R. Markham, Esq. Issued for 1862. 

29. — The Life and Acts of Don Alonzo Enriqoez de Guzman. 

Translated from a Manuscript in the National Library at Madrid, and edited, 
with Notes and an Introduction, by Clements R. Markham, Esq. 

Issued for 1862. 

Hakluyt Society. 251 

30. — Discoveries of the World by Galvano, 

From their first original unto the year of our Lord 1555. Keprinted, with 
the original Portuguese text, and edited by Vice- Admiral Bethune, c.b. 

Issued for 1863. 

31. — Marvels described by Friar Jordanus, 

Of the Order of Preachers, native of Severac, and Bishop of Columbum; 
from a parchment manuscript of the Fourteenth Century, in Latin, the text 
of which has recently been Translated and Edited by Colonel H. Yule, c.b., 
F.R.G.S., late of H.M. Bengal Engineers. Issued for 1863. 

32. — The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema 

In Syria, Arabia, Persia, India, &c, during the Sixteenth Century. Trans- 
lated by J. Winter Jones, Esq., f.s.a., and edited, with Notes and an 
Introduction, by the Kev. George Percy Badger. Issued for 1864. 

33. — The Travels of Cieza de Leon in 1532-50 

From the Gulf of Darien to the City of La Plata, contained in the first part 
of his Chronicle of Peru (Antwerp 1554). Translated and edited, with Notes 
and an Introduction, by Clements R. Markham, Esq. Issued for 1864. 

34. — The Narrative of Paschal de Andagoya. 

Containing the earliest notice of Peru. Translated and edited, with Notes 
and an Introduction, by Clements It. Markham, Esq. Issued for 1865. 

35. — The Coasts of East Africa and Malabar 

In the beginning of the Sixteenth Century, by Duarte Barbosa. Translated 
from an early Spanish manuscript by the Hon. Henry Stanley. 

Issued for 1865. 

36. — Cathay and the Way Thither. Vol. 2. 

A Collection of all minor notices of China, previous to the Sixteenth Century. 
Translated and edited by Colonel H. Yule, c.b. Vol 1. Issued for 1866. 

37. — Cathay and the Way Thither. Vol. 2. 

Issued for 1866. 

38. — The Three Voyages of Sir Martin Frobisher. 

With a Selection from Letters now in the State Paper Office. Edited by 
Rear-Admiral Collinsou, cb. Issued for 1867. 

39. — The Philippine Islands. 

Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan, and China, at the close of the 16th cen- 
tury. By Antonia de Morga. Translated from the Spanish, with Notes, by 
Lord Stanley of Alderley. Issued for 1868. 

40. — The Fifth Letter of Hernan Cortes. 

To the Emperor Charles V., containing an Account of his Expedition to 
Honduras in 1525-26. Translated from the Spanish by Don Pascual de 
Gayangos. Issued for 1868. 

252 Volumes of the 

41. — The Royal Commentaries of the Yncas. 

By the Ynca Garcilasso de la Vega. Translated and Edited, with Notes and 
an Introduction, by Clements K. Markham, Esq. Vol. 1. 

Issued for 1869. 

42. — The Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama 

And his Viceroyalty, from the Lendas da India of Caspar Correa ; accom- 
panied by original documents. Translated and Edited by the Lord Stanley 
ofAlderley. Issued for 1869. 

43. — Select Letters of Christopher Columbus, 

With other Original Documents, relating to his Four Voyages to the New 
World. Translated and edited by R. H. Major, f.s.a., &c. 2nd Edit. 

Issued for 1870. 

44. — History of the Imams and Seyyids of 'Oman, 

By Salil-lbn-Razik, from a.d. 661-1856. Translated from the original 
Arabic, and edited, with Notes, Appendices, and an Introduction, continuing 
the History down to 1870, by George Percy Badger, f.r.g.s. 

Issued for 1870. 

45. — The Royal Commentaries of the Yncas. Vol. 2. 

Issued for 1871. 

46. — The Canarian, 

Or Book of the Conquest and Conversion of the Canarians in the year 1402, 
by Messire Jean de Bethencourt, Kt. Composed by Pierre Bontier and Jean 
le Verrier. Translated and Edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by 
R. H. Major, f.s.a. Issued for 1871. 

47. — Reports on the Discovery of Peru; 

Translated and Edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by Clements R. 
Markham, c.b. Issued for 1872. 

48. — Narratives of the Rites and Laws of the Yncas; 

Translated from the original Spanish Manuscripts, and Edited, with Notes 
and an Introduction, by Clements R. Markham, c.b., f.r.s. 

Issued for 1872. 

49. — Travels to Tana and Persia, 

By Josasa Barbaro and Ambrogio Contarini; Edited by Lord Stanley of 
Alderley ; and Narratives of other Italian Travels in Persia, Translated and 
Edited by Charles Grey, Esq. Issued for 1873. 

50. — Voyages of the Zeni 

To the Northern Seas in the Fourteenth Century. Translated and Edited by 
R. H. Major, f.s.a. Issued for 1873. 

51. — The Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse in 1547-55 

Among the Wild Tribes of Eastern Brazil ; translated by Albert Tootal, 
Esq., and annotated by Richard F. Burton. Issued for 1874. 

Hakluyt Society. 253 

52.— The First Voyage Round the World by Magellan, 

Translated from the Accounts of Pigasetta and other contemporary writers. 
With Notes and an Introduction by Lord Stanley of Alderley. 

Issued for 1874. 

53. — The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalboquerque, 

Second Viceroy of India. Translated from the Portuguese Edition of 1774 ; 
with Notes and Introduction by Walter de Gray Birch, Esq., f.r.s.l. Vol. 1. 

Issued for 1875! 

54. — Three Voyages by the North-East. 

Second Edition of Gerrit de Veer's Three Voyages to the North East by 
Barents. Edited, with an Introduction, by Lieut. Koolemans Beynen, of the 
Royal Dutch Navy. Issued for 1876. 

55. — The Commentaries of the Great Alfonso Dalboquerque. 

Vol. 2. Issued for 1875. 

56. — The Voyages of Sir James Lancaster. 

With Abstracts of Journal of Voyages preserved in the India Office, and the 
Voyage of Captain John Knight to seek the N.W. Passage. Edited by 
Clements R. Markham, c.B., F.R.S. Issued for 1877. 

57. — Second Edition of the Observations of Sir Richard 
Hawkins, Kt., 

In his Voyage into the South Sea in 1593, with the Voyages of his grand- 
father William, his father Sir John, and his cousin William Hawkins. 
Edited by Clements R. Markham, c.b., f.r.s. Issued for 1877. 

58. — The Bondage and Travels of Johann Schiltberger, 

From his capture at the battle of Nicopolis in 1396 to his escape and return 
to Europe in 1427 : translated, from the Heidelberg MS. edited in 1859 by 
Professor Karl Freidrich Neumann, by Commander J. Buchan Telfer, r.n. ; 
with Notes by Professor B. Bruun, and a Preface, Introduction, and Notes by 
the Translator and Editor. Issued for 1878. 

59. — The Voyages and Works of John Davis the Navigator. 

Edited, with an Introduction and Notes, by Captain Albert H. Markham, 
R.N., f.r.g.8. Issued for 1878. 

60. — The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalboquerque. 
Vol. 3. Issued for 1879. 

61. — The Natural and Moral History of the Indies, 

By Father Joseph de Acosta: edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by 
Clements R. Markham, c.b., f.r.s. Vol. 1. Issued for 1879. 

62. — History of the Indies by Acosta. Vol. 2. 

Issued for 1880. 

254 Hakluyt Society. 


Voyages of William Baffin. Edited by Clements K. Markham, c.b., f.r.s. 
(Nearly ready.') 

Father Francisco Alvarez. Narrative of the Portuguese Embassy to Abys- 
sinia. 1520. Translated and Edited by Lord Stanley of Alderley. 
(Nearly ready.) 

A Manuscript History of Bermuda, in the British Museum (Sloane, 750). 
Edited by Lieut-General Sir J. Henry Lefroy, k.c.m.g., c.b. 

(In the Press.) 

RosmitaPs Embassy to England, Spain, &c, in 1466. Edited by R. C. 
Graves, Esq. 

The Journal of the Pilot Gallego, and other Documents relating to the 
Voyages of Mendana. Translated and edited by W. A. Tyssen 
Amherst, Esq. 

Voyages of John Huigen von Linschoten to the East Indies. Edited by 
Arthur Burnell, Esq., ll.d. 

Voyages and Travels of Anthony Jenkinson. Edited by E. Delmar 
Morgan, Esq. 


Journal of the Jesuit Desideri in Tibet. 

Inedited Letters, &c, of Sir Thomas Roe during his Embassy to India. 

The Topographia Christiana of Cosmas Indicopleustes. 

Bernhard de Breydenbach, 1483-84, a.d. Travels in the Holy Land. 

Felix Fabri, 1483. Wanderings in the Holy Land, Egypt, &c. 

El Edrisi's Geography. 

Voyage made by Captain Jaques Cartier in 1535 and 1536 to the isles of 
Canada, Hochlega, and Saguenay. 

Ca da Mosto. Voyages along the Western Coast of Africa in 1454 : trans- 
lated from the Italian text of 1507. 

Leo Africanus. 

J. dos Santos. The History of Eastern Ethiopia. 1607. 

Joam de Castrb. Account of a Voyage made by the Portuguese in 1541, 
from the city of Goa to Suez. 

John and Sebastian Cabot. Their Voyages to America. 

Hakluyt Society. 255 

Willoughby and Chancellor. Their Voyages to the North-east, with the 

Voyages of Burroughs, Pett, and Jackman ; and the Embassy of Sir 

Dudley Digges to Russia. 
Icelandic Sagas narrating the Discovery of America. 
The Voyages of the Earl of Cumberland, from the Records prepared by order 

of the Countess of Pembroke. 
La Argentina. An account of the Discovery of the Provinces of Rio de la 

Plata from 1512 to the time of Domingo Martinez de Irala; by Ruiz 

Diaz de Guzman. 





Markham, (Sir) Clements 

The fifty years 1 work of the 
Royal geographical society